the Role and problems of the historical analysis of military-psychological researches

Necessity of possession of means of the methodological analysis which some problems are reflected in the previous chapter, becomes obvious. The given thesis gets the big urgency because in consciousness of some military psychologists there is a belief about full mastering by them methodological bases of military psychology that conducts in a reality to stagnation of ideas and stagnation of military-psychological thought, ignoring of a world and domestic theoretical heritage, oblivion of effective psychological methods and optimum techniques of work with people.

The mentioned circumstance is staticized by real low level of knowledge modern researchers of results in the field of theoretical them theoretical and applied problems of military psychology, and also the interdisciplinary researches connected with them. According to the interrogation spent by one of authors, the overwhelming number of competitors of a scientific degree of the candidate of the sciences protected on a problem of the conflict, owns no more than 10 % from already available information on problems developed by them. It is possible to make the assumption of lower level of use of the resulted example istochnikovoj bases of various branches of a psychological science military researchers and psychologists-experts in armies.

The similar negative tendency at times developing into pseudo-scientific stereotypes and traditions, has historical roots and, unfortunately, the ideological bases. Those were showed in due time in oblivion of experience of the previous generations of domestic and foreign scientists rejected from ideological reasons, thinkers on which results of activity the modern Russian military psychological science and practice, nevertheless, is based. Realisation of so superficial approach to the past will lead to that modern military psychologists "will lose" the history without which (as one of laws of development of mankind says) the future is impossible.

Thus, the reference to scientific experience of the past and the present, its effective and optimum use in interests of army and fleet – odnf from the basic and most urgent purposes of military psychology as today, and in the future. Achievement of this purpose is possible, in our opinion, under condition of the decision history of military-psychological researches of the whole complex of problems among which the most significant are:

Gathering, processing, ordering and periodization of military-psychological knowledge, establishment of its sources and efficiency of introduction;

Carrying out naukovedcheskih researches – creation of information base of teoretiko-methodological maintenance of the modern decision of problems of military psychology;

Revealing of laws, tendencies and directions of development of military-psychological knowledge, forecasting on their basis of possible ways of its evolution;

Allocation of key problems of military psychology, the description of their decision, establishment of significant results in process of its branches;

Definition of criteria of the theoretical and practical importance of military-psychological concepts and sights during the various periods of domestic history;

The analysis of working out of concrete questions of military-psychological knowledge in the past and the present, including researches:

Ways of disclosing of dynamics of mental qualities of military men in extreme – a fighting situation, the periods of preparation for conducting operations;

Directions of studying of productivity of application of diagnosing and correcting psychological means in last both modern wars and confrontations, their perfection and organizational-methodical maintenance;

Ways of studying of mental conditions of military men, various level of groups of army and fleet, the peace population during the periods of wars and conflicts, the formation and display reasons massovidnyh the mental phenomena in forms of a mass militaristic psychosis, extreme pacifism, etc.;

Maintenances of psychological maintenance of display in peace and a wartime in the army and naval environment of patriotism, fidelity to the oath, civil and to a soldier's duty before the Native land;

Features of formation of psychology of the soldier and the commander, its filling by the concrete maintenance based on fighting experience; experience of use of domestic and foreign psychological experience in practice of military building, at planning and the organisation of operations, watches, peace fighting study and service;

Results of generalisation of experience of the organisation of actually psychological maintenance of operations of the past and the present, its statement in various sources etc.

Proceeding from the designated problems and directions, it is possible to note a high role of knowledge military psychologists of theoretical and empirical results and operating time in the field of domestic military-psychological researches.
This role is reflected in several levels:

First, world outlook: the understanding and knowledge of the maintenance, features of process of formation in military psychology of its base concepts and categories, scientific ideas, tendencies and laws, methods of analytical and empirical researches and their results has fundamental value for professional competence of the military psychologist-researcher, causes an arsenal of its teoretiko-methodological, informative and practical means;

Secondly, personal: comprehension and perception of as researcher through retrospective reproduction of the basic theoretical, gnoseological and applied problems of military-psychological researches, knowledge of optimum ways of their decision in the past and the present – the factor of a maturity of the person of the military psychologist, a condition of formation of its ability to productive military-psychological knowledge;

Thirdly, general scientific: has basic value for adjacent sciences with military psychology and its branches: without the reference to results and experience of military-psychological researches they are poor and pointless, for for today there is no area of the military theory and practice where the attention to the psychological maintenance and maintenance of any kind of activity of military men would not be paid. Such "reference" to results of military-psychological researches in all spheres of ability to live of army and fleet more and more shows lines of steady law;

Fourthly, actually military-psychological: for military psychology the reference to research operating time of the past and the present is its memory, a scientific reflexion without which errors and errors are inevitable. For formation of the military psychologist-researcher is its scientific culture, a professional outlook, initial teoretiko-methodological base. Without knowledge of the maintenance and features of development and results of military-psychological researches the understanding and the decision of modern problems of military psychology is impossible.

Opening the given aspects, we will allocate some the theoretical positions focusing the researcher on constructive, in our opinion, the approach to the organisation of military-psychological research:

Specificity of military-psychological knowledge of the past and the present assumes the account of a condition of scientific and moral progress or the crisis caused flowing and previous situations in our country for what accurate orientation in conditions which research was carried out is necessary for the psychologist. Without the given kind of knowledge errors in interpretation of its results, mechanical extrapolation of conclusions of last operating time on modern problems of military-psychological researches are inevitable;

In the analysis and an estimation of military-psychological researches of the past and the present it is represented expedient to use the system of co-ordinates including scientific (is formal-logic and gnoseological), sotsiokulturnyj and personal components of their studying. Only at the account of the given aspects the picture of the maintenance of military-psychological researches can be received full enough and adequate realities. Without knowledge of features of the person of the scientist or the researcher, conditions of their work and results of scientific activity the understanding of psychological sights and concepts of their authors is impossible;

Only on the basis of last and modern experience – on the basis of knowledge of the maintenance, achievements and errors, scientific and practical productivity of military-psychological researches, definition of the psychologist in its own scientific positions and its formation as professional-expert is possible. Other form of a choice and self-determination in initial scientifically-world outlook principles and transfers of a scientific heritage at mankind is not present and in the foreseeable future is not expected. Successful V.Gejzenberga's statement that the professional is a person to whom the roughest errors usually made in its trade and which therefore is able to avoid them are known thereupon is represented.

As generalisation it is necessary to underline, that the historical aspects of methodological knowledge of military-psychological researches designated above are its initial (istochnikovoj) a basis, and the methodological analysis of military-psychological researches is possible only in historical – a retrospective context.

The statement and the methodological analysis of some questions of history of military-psychological researches leads to a conclusion about objective necessity of formation of new branch of military-psychological knowledge – military-historical psychology. If the military-psychological knowledge reflects set of results of knowledge of the mental phenomena and processes of the person and social groups in the conditions of wars and military conflicts the military-historical psychology can represent the scientific form of reflexion of the phenomena of consciousness and mental processes of the person, psychology of various social groups in the conditions of preparation, conducting and end of wars and confrontations, and also overcoming of their consequences during the various historical periods and epoch.

Problems of military-historical psychology, proceeding from the designated subject, are obvious. It:

Accumulation of military-psychological knowledge;

Disclosing of the maintenance of the mental phenomena and processes, features of consciousness on personal, group, national and other levels during the wartime periods;

The psychological analysis of wars and military conflicts;

Creation of models of military-psychological knowledge of various epoch and the people;

Working out of historical problems of military psychology;

Studying of problems of evolution of military-psychological knowledge, establishment of its periodization, laws and a development orientation;

Research of psychological levers on soldiers of the various periods and the states, etc.

Thus, absence in modern military-psychological knowledge of the branch accumulating and generalising its results, on the one hand, and also experience of the psychological analysis of last wars and military conflicts, braking working out of modern problems of military psychology, with another, put a problem of the status of military-historical psychology in a reality plane.
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A source: Antsupov A.J., Pomogajbin V. N.. Methodological problems of military-psychological researches. 1999

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