<<
>>

theoretical bases of formation of pedagogical culture of the teacher of military chair

the Paramount place in any high school belongs to teachers. It is caused by that in many respects depends on their educational and educational work, in what measure the future reserve officers can connect knowledge at level of the higher achievements of a modern science, professional competence to ideological conviction, a political maturity, high morals, social activity.

The circle of functional duties of officers of-teachers of military chair of high school is wide and various.
According to the governmental orders of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defence each teacher is obliged:

- To conduct at high ideological, scientific and methodical level study on the speciality;

- To carry out ideological and political and military education of students;

- The nobility individual qualities and abilities to show high insistence in teaching material development to each student;

- To carry out scientific researches and to participate in introduction of results of these researches in educational process;

- Regularly to raise the ideological and political level, to improve military and special knowledge, practical experience and pedagogical skill;

- To study and make use in educational and scientific work of experience of operative, fighting and political preparation of armies;

- To serve for students as the sample of faultless performance of an office debt.

In modern conditions of the requirement to teachers of military chairs of high schools have sharply increased. The teacher of new type today is required: the highly cultured, theoretically prepared military expert, capable to learn students in a new fashion to think and operate. It should be the skilful tutor and the thin psychologist, the exacting chief and the wise instructor, capable to involve in itself(himself) of belief trained by force, creative searches, an example of all life. The modern teacher of high school possesses feeling new, correctly estimates created on employment and doctrines an unusual situation, effectively forms at students the qualities necessary for them for active struggle for constant alertness, strong military discipline, performance of requirements of the military oath and the army regulations. Nowadays the importance of such quality of the teacher as ability operatively to be reconstructed according to quickly changing conditions of a life has sharply increased and is continuous samosovershenstvovatsja.

Allocation of pedagogical culture as special phenomenon is caused by specificity of pedagogical activity and continuous increase of requirements to the person of the teacher. Its main appointment - to promote perfection of teaching and educational process, growth of its efficiency and for this reason workers of high schools show to it vsevozrastajushchy interest. Their aspiration to learn and history of this phenomenon, and its modern condition, and possible perspective directions of development is marked.

As collective and mobilizujushchee the beginning the pedagogical culture has got the special importance last years. There was a number of publications on the given subjects. Its separate aspects become a subject of dissertational researches.

Some officers-teachers of military chairs identify pedagogical culture with knowledge of pedagogics and psychology.
But it not absolutely so. Pedagogical culture - difficult formation in structure of the person of the teacher. It represents certain degree of mastering by the teacher pedagogical experience of mankind, its perfection in this activity, the level of development reached by it as the professional-teacher. Having stimulating influence, the pedagogical culture simultaneously expresses also degree of professional development of the teacher, and the basic requirements to its behaviour and activity. The pedagogical culture of the teacher in many respects promotes realisation of requirements of the lichnostno-social approach to studying of the pedagogical phenomena and perfection of teaching and educational process of high school on the basis of an effective utilisation of internal reserves. As professionalnolichnostnoe the phenomenon the pedagogical culture comprises world outlook, ideological, moral, intellectual, emotional, aesthetic, physical and practically effective aspects. Its cores composed are:

- Pedagogical orientation (system of specific is professional-pedagogical relations, sights and belief); psihologo-pedagogical erudition;

- Intelligence, harmony of the developed intellectual and moral qualities;

- Pedagogical skill and organisation in daily activity;

- Ability is productive for combining teaching and educational and scientifically - research work;

- Set professionally important in pedagogical activity of personal qualities of the teacher (spirituality, ability to work purposefully, with prospect and full return, optimism, an openness, friendliness, readiness for teamwork, etc.);

- pedagogicheski the directed dialogue and daily behaviour;

- Constant tendency to self-improvement.

In practical activities on training and education of students, in dialogue with them the pedagogical culture of the teacher is shown in the uniform complex consisting from closely connected and vzaimoobuslovlennyh of components. The level of development of pedagogical culture as a whole, and also its separate components can be various: high, average, low. Separate components of this culture can receive special colouring, showing to that individual shape of each teacher. And it means, that the pedagogical culture along with the general for each teacher lines bears in itself the original, individually-unique features caused by structure and the maintenance of its person.

The base, the internal maintenance of pedagogical culture of any teacher are its outlook, moral substance and adherence to principles. And it is quite clear. After all outlook of the person - not only set of the general data on the world. It simultaneously both the realised interests and ideals, legal and ethical standards, social priorities and humanistic values - all that defines a choice of a line of conduct of the person in a life, its responsible relation to a society and to itself.

The outlook of the teacher defines its thoughts and feelings, moral qualities and a civic stand. The outlook of the teacher penetrates all components of its pedagogical culture and gives them an ideological orientation.

Perfection of teaching and educational process in the high schools, the become complicated problems of formation of spiritual foundations of the person of the modern military expert demand strengthening of a world outlook, ideological and political orientation of pedagogical process, increase of all means of ideological influence on students. The same is demanded by interests of struggle against all negative and developments of stagnation in a life of our society. All it testifies that value of world outlook, ideological and political and methodological preparation of teachers has sharply increased. Only those from them achieve success in training and education of students which it is persevering, improve the world outlook preparation, profoundly study special questions of methodology of the military theory and practice, skilfully realise theoretical knowledge of daily activity.

The high pedagogical culture of the teacher is based also on a profound knowledge of military science which finds the concentrated expression in the military doctrine and a military science. Substantive provisions of the military doctrine and a military science are expressed in the theory and practice of building of Armed forces, charters and other supervising documents. The knowledge of these materials allows the teacher to form successfully at students and a military-professional orientation, qualities of the professional military expert, to create on employment and doctrines a picture of real fight and on this background competently to solve pedagogical problems.

Higher requirements to the teacher are shown in the field of its direct military-vocational training, that subject which to it is entrusted for conducting in high school. High competence of the teacher in this case defines quality and efficiency of teaching and educational process and research work. Personal knowledge and army experience represent base for creativity of the teacher in its daily activity.

The knowledge the teacher of a subject is always specific. It not simply acquires those or other positions of a military science, the requirement of the army regulations and manuals, the device and combat material operation, but also comprehends, as these or those scientific positions, recommendations of army experience are understood and acquired by students, that for them it is difficult, and that is easy and interesting, that is boring and why. In a word, studied positions of military science are processed in consciousness of the teacher in interests of pedagogical process. Army experience is exposed to the same processing. And between the theory and practice internal connection which defines a practical orientation of training and education of students is established.

As life-giving source of pedagogical culture of the teacher of high school the general culture acts. It reflects level of its formation, the relation to work, the general good breeding, a circle of interests and inquiries, norms of behaviour. A kernel of the general culture of the person of the teacher is its political culture, that is degree of understanding it of policy of the state and participation in its realisation during a life.

The teachers of high school possessing the general culture, are the ideologically convinced, widely erudite people freely understanding a science, art and the technician, well knowing the fiction, able freely to be guided in the scientific and political information. They are distinguished by width and a variety of inquiries and hobbies, thorough knowledge of the business and the responsible relation to performance of the duties, ability freely to keep with associates, to be tactful and self-respect. Such teachers, as a rule, rather quickly reveal spiritual interests of students, without special work learn, that those read, what their mood, that them excites.

As we see, communications between the general and pedagogical culture of the teacher are so difficult and direct, that with good reason it is possible to confirm: the pedagogical culture of the teacher is specific display of its general culture in the conditions of teaching and educational process. But at the same time it would be wrong to think, that each teacher possessing high general culture, possesses also pedagogical culture. The pedagogical culture has the features and characteristics. In it the relation of the teacher to pedagogical activity, understanding of its essence, the role and the place in it, style of dialogue and behaviour, the relation to self-improvement are expressed.

The person of the teacher of military chair of high pedagogical culture is characterised, first of all, by a pedagogical orientation: propensity to pedagogical activity, interest to it, love to a teaching profession, the responsible relation to the functional duties. The pedagogical orientation assumes deep respect of students, their personal advantage, daily care of their general and special development. A core of a pedagogical orientation of the teacher - its psihologo-pedagogical belief which are formed on the basis of achievements of a psihologo-pedagogical science and pedagogical experience.

Studying of the maintenance of pedagogical belief of the big number of teachers shows, that, basically, these belief can be reduced to the following:

- The authority of the teacher is based on high professionalism, culture, personal qualities;

- Skill of the teacher and quality of its work are defined by preparation level, experience of its service and a life;

- Quality of employment depends on readiness of students of group and from the selected method;

- The material is perceived by listeners with the greatest interest if it is stated freely, without the abstract, short and precisely if the basic idea is illustrated by substantial examples and demonstration of combat material, devices, drawings and posters;

- Rate of employment should be various, depending on time of day, structure of trainees, it should be regulated according to quality and speed of mastering;

- It is rational to reduce time for explanations and interrogation, and saved time to allocate for practical work;

- Regularly to analyze own behaviour, the practical activities on training of students.

It is possible to name all these components and collective pedagogical belief as they are inherent in many advanced teachers of high schools. Components about which there is a speech, make that basis which unites all participants of uniform teaching and educational process. It, certainly, the important basic layer of pedagogical belief. But not unique as in it individuality is not found out yet, an originality of style and "handwriting" of each teacher. It is necessary to see therefore and the second layer of the pedagogical belief which basis is made already especially by individual lines inherent in these or those teacher. It is important as to care of their development, as well as about collective belief, for they - a vast field for creativity, courageous experiments in a technique, for searches itself in pedagogics, self-expression and self-affirmation of each searching teacher.

Force of psihologo-pedagogical belief in their concretenesses, an active-nosti, aimings at search. They induce the teacher to be in the work firm, consecutive, logical and purposeful, to show persistence in object in view achievement, high feeling of responsibility for training and education of students, self-critically to estimate the reached.

The officers-teachers possessing high pedagogical culture, as a rule, widely erudite people. They well are guided in the special literature, by right have a reputation for experts on the military-pedagogical theory and practice.

As shows research, teachers about whom there is a conversation, first of all, should know about essence of mentality of the person and laws of its development in the conditions of military service. Many of them first of all aspire to seize knowledge of the person of the student, of its orientation, temperament, character, abilities, of informative processes, feelings and an ox, of mental conditions. Are extremely important to the teacher of knowledge of psychology of student's collective, about psychological preparation of trainees for performance of office and fighting problems.

Nowadays knowledge of reorganisation of pedagogical process, of development in students of creative thinking, military-professional qualities, about a management of self-education and self-education of trainees have paramount value. Needless to say, that knowledge of methodical character in which the psihologo-pedagogical theory and student teaching are embodied are necessary to the teacher.

Psihologo-pedagogical and methodical knowledge in their unity and interdependence is an original compass in activity of the teacher. They help it deeply, purposefully to study trainees, to reveal specific features of each of them, to define influence effectual measures, both on separate students, and on collectives as a whole. Psihologo-pedagogical and methodical knowledge of the teacher acts as the important precondition of creativity.

The deep, proved knowledge - the basis of intelligence of the person, that is its ability to think widely to study and understand the phenomena in their interrelation, to combine creative search with concrete business, validly, to show consideration for people. Intelligence is the dynamical is intellectual-moral quality of the person capable not only to develop on the basis of mastering by knowledge and experience, but also demanding such development. It the success of intelligent people in pedagogical activity often speaks.

The intelligent teacher - the person possessing the big spiritual riches and high culture of feelings. In its behaviour and activity are integrally combined rational and emotional, ethical and aesthetic. It, as a rule, bright, in an original way clever person, the person of a wide emotional range, an accurate civic stand. The honest work it learns students correctly to understand and estimate fine and, on the contrary, to reject ugly, obscene, forms at pupils the aesthetic relation to the validity. Its personal aesthetic development has the big psihologo-pedagogical sense.

At the teacher of high pedagogical culture intelligence inseparably linked with high morals in which basis norms of morals lay, requirements of the military oath, the army regulations. For it the unity of a word and business, deep understanding of original moral values, active struggle for the statement of principles of morals during a daily life of students are characteristic. A kernel of moral principles of the person of the teacher is the moral ideal. He allows the teacher to estimate critically the personal qualities and successfully to be engaged in self-improvement.

Morals principles are concretised in norms of pedagogical ethics. In the set these norms are shown, operate in a pedagogical step, representing difficult professional quality. The pedagogical step is characterised by special expediency of all of that the teacher does, validity and flexibility of various methods, means and influence receptions on an audience. The step is a display of the person of the teacher, its mind, will and feelings. At the heart of a step the proved measure of educational influence lays pedagogicheski.

Ability of the teacher of military chair to be guided by a measure of pedagogical expediency in the course of training and education is the basic condition of observance of a professional step in practical work. Thus depending on conditions the step is shown in different "tonality": on employment and doctrines - in hardness, clearness, restraint; during consultation - in attentiveness, readiness to come to the aid; during individual conversation - in warm sincerity. The teacher of high pedagogical culture never forgets, that the same tone gets various sense depending on circumstances. At errors doveritelnost suddenly turns around familiarity, the severity turns to an administrative hail, attempt to explain - in nazidatelnost.

Spirituality, intelligence, moral cleanliness, enthusiasm for pedagogical work take the central place in the person of the true teacher. And not casually many compare activity of the teacher to art of the actor, the artist, underlining thereby the big role in work of the teacher of inspiration, intuition and improvisation. Such teachers differ ability to involve in themselves of people, to form round themselves the microclimate painted by optimism, to operate inquiries, feelings, moods of students.

The pedagogical culture of the teacher in many respects characterises its activity, work with students. That is why as a rod component of this culture of the teacher of high school its pedagogical skill representing synthesis of developed psihologo-pedagogical thinking, is professional-pedagogical knowledge, skills, abilities and emotionally-strong-willed means of expressiveness which in interrelation with qualities of the person of the teacher allow it to solve teaching and educational problems successfully acts. The problem of pedagogical skill is, first of all a problem of the person and activity of the teacher, its creativity in training and education of people. K.Marx spoke in this occasion «... The tutor himself should be brought up».1

As the basic generator of pedagogical skill the developed psihologo-pedagogical thinking assuming acts

The non-standard, search approach to any problems of teaching and educational process, the thoughtful reference to the newest scientific workings out and the best practices and on this basis definition of strategy and tactics of own pedagogical activity. Told means also resolute turn from reproductive pedagogics to pedagogics creative, integrally connecting training and self-education, education and self-education. The modern pedagogical thinking assumes refusal of training on nakatannyh, smooth situations, when and so all is clear, in favour of the courageous reference to the extreme situations so often arising in a real life. Such approach demands from the teacher to seize all riches of pedagogical ideas, effective methods and rules, to see real contradictions and problems of the activity, abilities to solve them dialectically, with prospect. It is thus important to recognise that pedagogics of extensive forms and methods has practically settled itself, as

Marx K, Engels F.Soch. 2-izd. - Т.3. - С.2.

As an extensive way of development to manufacture.

Studying of activity of masters of pedagogical work has shown, that their thinking is characterised by independence, clearness, clearness, logicality, sequence, flexibility.

It leans against the developed pedagogical observation and creative imagination.

Researches show, that in teachers with a creative warehouse of thinking are inherent regular search of not solved actual problems; revealing of new ways of the decision of arising problems; continuous perfection of style, methods and receptions of the activity; ability to see in weight of the facts the most essential and to find a basis of their interrelation; ability to refuse the developed stereotype in thinking and activity, quickly to pass from reproductive activity to creative and on the contrary; transformation of available experience and formation on its basis of new combinations; ability and ability to refuse from made if it is not the optimum decision of a problem.

Creativity - the major and necessary component of effective pedagogical activity. Work of the teacher demands ability deeply to realise the purpose and problems of preparation of reserve officers on military chair, leaning against knowledge of a science and army practice to find and design a corresponding teaching material; logically harmonously and expressively to state it, using if necessary various grants and means; to organise practical mastering by a program material, to establish correct mutual relations with students, to cause in them desire independently to acquire knowledge and skills, to render on students ideological and moral influence, to direct their daily educational and office activity. The success in such work is impossible without constant concentration, continuous searches of the new information, training and education effective remedies. It is the creative, emotionally sated work demanding purposefulness, the big strong-willed efforts, highly moral behaviour, feeling of deep personal responsibility for quality of preparation of defenders of the Native land. In such work activity of the scientist and the propagandist, the director and the actor, the instructor and the military expert integrally merges.

The ordinary, serost is counter-indicative to pedagogical work. The life shows, that there where the thought does not develop, steps to new are not undertaken, there is a recession in study, teaching turns to boring monotony, pedagogical activity loses appeal, novelty and freshness. Is sad-monotonous work in which there is no creativity, leads to premature professional withering and even ageing of the teacher, the termination of its intellectual growth, decrease in the general activity. Where there is no creativity, the nest uproshchenchestvo, straightforwardness and a formalism is frequent enough svivaet to itself. In these conditions people, perhaps and strongly acquired certain data, but not received neither a due moral charge, nor development of the intellectual qualities underlying creative activity are formed.

Pedagogical creativity, as well as any other, begins with occurrence of a problem situation when there were requirements for the decision of a practical problem. It is expressed in creation of new ideas, ways of activity, in ability independently to solve atypical problems, to bring novelty in everything whatever did, to see a problem there where all seems habitual and clear. Pedagogical creativity is not thought without a prediction. This important line was well noticed by V.A.Suhomlinsky, saying to that original creativity consists in ability to see not only the present, but also how it will change in the future.

The major indicator of a susceptibility of the teacher to new is its relation to the best practices. It is known, that mass pedagogical experience reflects that is in daily practice whereas the best practices show those high boundaries which can be reached in training and education under corresponding conditions and efforts. The essence new in the best practices, as well as in pedagogical researches, consists in that its maintenance most full answered tendencies of social development and provided to work the highest efficiency and quality.

Introduction in best practices practice - business not idle time. Live experience always generates requirement for its judgement and the analysis at the searching teacher. From the best samples of the best practices the teacher of high pedagogical culture takes not a compounding, and idea and transforms it to concrete conditions, and not only own practice, but also all pedagogical collective.

In best practices studying organisation and purposefulness are important. It is impossible to limit this big business to frameworks of one chair or even high school. The weight of interesting and original ideas is given by interuniversity communications, mutual trips of teachers, the publication and studying of special collections, express information.

Unlimited possibilities for display of pedagogical creativity give training means. As nowadays already many becomes for wide development of modern COMPUTERS, a computerisation of educational process.

The majority of teachers of high pedagogical culture are firmly convinced that creativity is an objective necessity of our days that it is accessible to any teacher and that without such approach to activity any teacher cannot successfully carry out the duties. The first step on this way is acquisition of knowledge of essence and means of self-education of ability to creativity.

Among set of preconditions of creative activity it is obviously important to stop for initiative roles. Without the initiative creative carrying out during a life of positions of charters, programs and instructions on the organisation of teaching and educational process, uchebno-material resources development, etc. is impossible. Creative work becomes in the event that the person introduces in it not only the initiative, something new, individual, but also a particle of the soul. Ampere-second. Makarenko marked: «Creative activity is possible only when the person concerns work with love when he meaningly sees in it pleasure, understands advantage and necessity of work when work becomes for it the basic form of display of the person and talent».1 Nowadays more and more wide attention involve scientific searches of outstanding Soviet teachers N.K.Krupsky, A.S.Makarenko, V.A.Suhomlinskogo and others. Such is quality of scientific trues: they do not grow old, and develop.

Development of creativity of teachers is served also by development of a rich pedagogical heritage of military pedagogics, innovators-methodologists of the past. Thoughts and statements And. V.Suvorov, M.I.Kutuzov, M.I.Drago-mirova and other Russian commanders, military figures about combat training of armies and until now stimulate fruitful activity of teachers and commanders. The same purpose is served also by materials on history of the Soviet military pedagogics and psychology. The inexhaustible source of creativity represents Great Patriotic War experience, in particular activity of military schools during this period.

The teacher spiritualised by search sees the problem not only in perfection of personal activity, but also in arms the same obsession of the students. Teachers from the first employment warn trainees, that they should not count on simple acquisition of ready recipes, suitable for all occasions. In the subsequent, skilfully selecting a teaching material, induce trainees to creative reflexions, develop at them interest and the initiative, stimulate search of the most rational decisions of various questions, aspiration to independent profound studying of suggested sources and experience of armies

Makarenko A.S.Soch. - Т.4. - С.396.

Development among students of the creative approach to business demands constant care of creation on employment favorable for this microclimate. The most dangerous, that can be in educational process, is a complacent calmness of trainees. For creatively adjusted teachers the most interesting students are not meek creatures, let even honours pupils, and witty and uneasy ringleaders, nothing accepting on a word, all time the setting questions, torn to argue, podiskutirovat. They also are very often excellent generators of ideas, innovations of educational group, raise collective thought, helping the teacher in creation of the live and creatively sated atmosphere on employment. Thereby these people induce the teacher to more intensive and inquisitive searches.

On students the teacher renders direct pedagogical influence by means of numerous skills and abilities which in aggregate make the pedagogical technics. Being a skill component, the pedagogical technics penetrates all actions and steps of the teacher. It includes: a technique of the organisation of studies, doctrines and trainings, a technique of the organisation of office activity, display by the teacher of the relation to those or other actions of trainees, ability to use a word (voice training, tone, style and a standard of speech, intonation, gestures, a mimicry). The given group of elements of pedagogical technics concern also: ability of the teacher to listen to trainees to communicate with them, to show insistence, to observe norms of a professional etiquette; possession of a technique of studying and the account of an educational material (personal qualities of students, features of their collectives); receptions of a management by self-education and self-education of students; Skilful use of means of training; receptions of the pedagogical account and the control povedeni, level of their good breeding.

Among the abilities entering into structure of pedagogical skill of the teacher, a special place occupy skills precisely, clearly, shortly and interestingly to state the thoughts, to transfer the scientific, political and office information.

Ability not only is exact, logical and interesting to state the thoughts, but also to transfer thus to listeners own relation and mood demands the present art. The big master of pedagogical work professor V.O.Kljuchevsky underlined, that harmony of thought and a word-it very important and even quite often fatal question for the teacher. We sometimes spoil the business, he wrote, unwillingness to think as it is necessary to tell in this case, and a root of many heavy our failures - in inability to state the thought to dress her as follows. Sometimes poor and thin thought, we read further, we dress in such magnificent form, that it is confused and lost in unnecessary folds of own cover and it is difficult to reach it, and sometimes healthy, fresh thought we will express so, that it fades and fades in our expression, as the flower which has got under a heavy rigid sole.

As well as in any high school, the teacher of military chair of high school is not only the teacher and the tutor. It also the researcher, the science officer. Teaching and educational and research activity for the teacher of military chair of high school are two interconnected and vzaimoobuslovlennye spheres of application of forces. To combine teaching and educational and research activity - direct official duties and a moral debt of the teacher of military chair, and ability effectively to solve this problem - the major indicator of its general and pedagogical culture.

Fruitful influence of scientific creativity on the pedagogical is confirmed by many researches. They show, that the greatest educational and educational effect those employment in which the teacher, leaning against results of the researches, opens a new problem, a technique of its research, searches render, failures and finds in its decision. Such training demands from the teacher of ability to think widely, to cover the phenomena in interrelation, objectively to correlate prospective results of the research by that is already made in this area by others. Research work enriches private world of the teacher, develops its creative potential.

The range of research searches for teachers of high schools is wide and various. At a choice of a direction of search it is important to start with the primary goals put before military chairs in the field of scientific work.

Continuous increase of requirements to preparation of officer shots, reorganisation of system of the higher military education have caused strengthening of attention of teachers of military chairs of high schools to scientific researches in the field of pedagogics and psychology. Here it is important to define and solve essentially new problems caused by requirements of Armed forces and higher educational institutions.

Strengthening of research work on military chairs of high schools is impossible without a continuous communication with armies, without studying of their experience and its deep comprehension. The big advantage in it training of teachers in armies brings, target business trips in military units for studying of their experience and gathering of the materials, in common spent scientifically - practical conferences and other similar actions.

Experience of high schools convincingly testifies today that thanks to a skilful combination of teaching and educational and research work the teacher rises in the development on higher level, its general and special outlook extends, ideological and pedagogical belief become stronger.

The major component of pedagogical culture is pedagogicheski the directed dialogue and behaviour of the teacher. Acting as a professional work component, dialogue is carried out on employment, during educational actions, during free time from service. The most important thing in dialogue - ability to understand the interlocutor to put itself on its place and to look on surrounding with his eyes, to show ability to empathy. In dialogue it is exclusively convex the relation of the teacher to people is shown, its ability to come into with them the strong contacts, which basis is made by mutual affinity and mutual responsibility.

Dialogue of the teacher with students multipurposely. It achieves the object when the teacher is able to study and understand other people, to see behind acts of the person motives which supervise over it, to define spiritual potential, to predict the future behaviour. The skilled teacher even on separate acts in a condition to define, it concerns what type of the person. Communicating with students, the teacher that is called, from the primary source scoops impressions about employment, moods in educational group, responses about events occurring in high school.

Dialogue - the difficult process at times connected with high intellectual and an emotional pressure. Here are possible not only an exchange of opinions, but also their collision leading to debates, heated arguments. In this case from the teacher ability to keep and behave naturally is required, not to underline neither the knowledge, nor the experience, the position. Still bolshej flexibility and a step from the teacher is demanded by circumstance when he should deal with the person who considers itself offended or with which there were intense relations.

Dialogue, conversation with the person are not unilateral process where one expresses, and another only silently listens. According to K.S.Stanislavsky, in dialogue with other people «the counter current» is always necessary. Any conversation represents a live bilateral exchange of thoughts, opinions, impressions, and therefore it is important to prepare itself not only for that as how to tell, but also to be ready with full attention and empathy to listen to the interlocutors.

As shows experience, dialogue becomes harmonious, developing, spiritually enriching participants if it goes and regulated by norms of morals. Giving heat of the soul to other people, the true teacher finds in it and personal pleasure. In the actor's and director's practice K.S.Stanislavsky it is thin has noticed some psychological characteristics of dialogue. «At dialogue, - he marked, - you first of all search in the person for his soul, its private world». And further: «to communicate, it is necessary to have what it is possible to communicate, that is, first of all, own experiences, feelings and thoughts...».1

The humanism, goodwill, responsiveness is an internal basis of any, including pedagogicheski directed, dialogue. From ability of the teacher to use them, the success of the most various teaching and educational undertakings depends on individual confidential conversations before wide cultural-educational actions. «The person with stale heart, without soul cannot find a way to the listener», «If the person does not possess sufficient skill to communicate, it never becomes the good teacher» - such are statements of skilled workers, in practice learnt value of skill to communicate in educational and educational work. The culture of dialogue assumes ability to gain surrounding people.

Special place in dialogue occupy the critic and the self-criticism which is the major means of revealing and resolution of conflicts, the effective tool of struggle against the negative phenomena

The present criticism and self-criticism is always basic and directed on increase of prestige of fair work, maintenance of high morals in relations, on correction of the admitted errors, elimination of lacks, on mobilisation spiritual and physical strengths of people.

Stanislavsky K.S.work of the actor over itself. - M: 1957. - С.271,277.

The criticism will be effective in the event that after it constructive actions will follow. It is possible to express the given approach the formula: if you criticise, offer, if you offer, together with all and carry out accepted, approved. Thus, it is a question of culture of criticism, ability to use this weapon circumspectly, carefully considering the judgements, getting to the bottom to the original reasons of lacks and difficulties, stating in details and comprehensively thought over offers.

The culture of criticism also assumes the business relation to it, the relation without insults and ambitions, let alone attempts of a clip of criticism. As criterion of such culture ability to listen serves, aspiration to understand thought criticising and without delay to correct a state of affairs.

Teachers possessing by high pedagogical culture constantly care of creation among associates of a positive moral climate. The teacher, able to form round itself a cheerful and benevolent microclimate, is the original centre of gravity of associates, and from here the direct way to active influence on people, possibilities to operate their mood. For creation of good mood which causes vivifying inflow of sincere forces, lifts people over daily occurrence trifles, sometimes enough an affable word, a simple human smile. The present smile, whatever it was short-term, lives long: in mood, study, affairs, memoirs. It heats and invigorates, brings pleasure, causes reciprocal desire to make good another.

Teachers of military chair - active advocates of a strict military order. All kind, a manner to talk, behave, address to associates they confirm authorised relations. They are sociable people who always are able to find correct tone with other people. Are simple and accessible, estimate itself self-critically, are able to pick up and estimate immediately thoughts of the student, to demand in time and qualitatively to carry out the task.

Naturalness, keenness and goodwill characterise dialogue and behaviour of teachers of high pedagogical culture. The quiet and attentive sight, an affable smile, benevolent tone, internal readiness for joint laborious work involve students, will mobilise their internal forces for active work. The sight that not rather brisk listener has settled into shape sometimes suffices. Another, on the contrary, does not have only an approving smile that it has revived any data in memory. Much here depends on sincerity and a spontaneity of the teacher, its ability to be oneself, instead of to play any not a role peculiar to it.

Dialogue problem as a whole and area of its pedagogical appendix in particular are considered nowadays as important and still maloizuchennogo the channel of education and the management factor by educational processes. Studying of the theory and dialogue practice in modern conditions opens the big prospects of increase of efficiency of its work before each teacher.

Whatever component of pedagogical culture we took, finally, when speech comes about ways of formation of those or other qualities of the teacher, any recommendations invariably address to self-improvement of its person, to self-education and self-education.

Ideas about a reformative role of self-education and its communication with problems of reorganisation of thinking and style of activity of people consistently develop in decisions and documents of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Defence. Independent work of the person on all-round perfection of the person and its concrete results are nowadays considered as one of indicators of the relation of the person to reorganisation. Thanks to self-education the sphere of development of the person extends. The person gets the big activity, purposefulness, stability to influence of negative factors.

Pedagogical activity as it was already marked, demands from the teacher of regular work on the all-around development. Studying features of influence of the person on associates, L.N.Tolstoy has come to conclusion: the person in that measure operates on others in what works over itself. The given conclusion can serve as the motto for any teacher. After all if teaching integrally is not combined with aspiration to knowledge, to self-improvement it turns for the teacher To a burden, in a heavy duty. Employment become similar one on another, that depressing operates not only on the teacher, but also on students, on their general, professional and cultural development. Not casually, therefore say, that the teacher lives until he studies, and as soon as ceases to study, in it the teacher dies.

Studying of practice of self-improvement of teachers of various high schools has shown, that in self-education regularly are engaged no more than 25 % of the interrogated teachers. The great bulk (60—65 %) works over perfection of the qualities incidentally, and 10-15 % not only are not engaged in self-education, but also in general deny its necessity for itself, believing, that self-education - destiny of young and not skilled people.

The overwhelming majority of those who regularly works over itself, are characterised as good methodologists, skilful tutors, teachers of high pedagogical culture. They are distinguished by high feeling of responsibility, an active civic stand, unity of a word and business. The example of purposefulness and responsibility in work they effectively influence education of students. As show the interrogations, many graduates of high schools under the influence of such teachers began to be engaged regularly in self-education.

Teachers of the second group try to develop or overcome at themselves one or several certain qualities - for example, «to get rid of haste», «to struggle with verbosity», «to overcome isolation and to develop skill to communicate». The similar concretised purposes also promote perfection of the person of the teacher, especially, if they are a chain of consistently becoming complicated problems representing, though and in the curtailed kind, the self-education program.

At teachers of high pedagogical culture the maintenance of problems of self-education is in many respects caused by character of pedagogical activity. In all cases important that the purposes for self-education for the person were socially significant and lichnostno are difficult. It is caused by that difficulties give rise to the abilities necessary for overcoming of these difficulties in the person, only the considerable purpose gives rise to great energy.

Data of target interrogation of teachers of high schools testify that they in the course of self-education resort to following methods: the self-obligation, life and activity self-organising, the self-report. As methodical receptions are used: self-belief, self-exercise, self-encouragement.

Along with traditional methods and means of self-education the part of teachers uses auto-training. The big help to teachers in self-education is rendered by working out and observance of rules of personal behaviour, diaries, auto-suggestion, regular self-trainings.

Self-education as the major form of self-improvement of the teacher inseparably linked with self-education, with purposeful work on expansion and deepening of the knowledge, perfection available and to acquisition of new skills and abilities. Thanks to self-education the mental potential of the teacher is updated, its ideologically-theoretical level, professional skill and culture raises.

In the first years of existence of Red Army of M.V.Frunze recommended to commanders and political workers «constantly to develop, enrich the knowledge... Therefore persistent regular work on the self-education is necessary, and it is a duty of all without an exception a komandi-ditch».1

All teachers of high schools are engaged in self-education practically. However the volume and its character not at all is identical. Much here depends on specific features of the teacher and concrete conditions of his life and activity. The teacher of high culture recognises that from it all-round knowledge in the field of the speciality, thorough theoretical preparation is required. To it not to do without serious knowledge of pedagogical and psychological bases of training and education, without all-round knowledge and competence of questions put forward by a life. For a considerable part of teachers familiarising with creative search, experiment, research and the most important thing - to connection of available achievements of a science with practice of teaching and educational process becomes an ultimate goal of pedagogical self-education even more often.

All told especially actually in relation to the "young" officers-teachers of military chair who are entering on the field after service in armies and not having besides a special pedagogical education.

In structure of independent work today exclusively the great value has got ability to be guided in an information stream. It develops of knowledge of sources of the information, their strong and weak

The parties, abilities to find the necessary information, quickly and correctly it to estimate, operatively to define ways and conditions of use of the received data in theoretical or practical activities.

For maintenance of purposefulness and a system of employment on self-education skilled teachers make the corresponding





1 Frunzes M.V.Izbr. proizv. - M: Voenizdat, 1965. - С.247.

The plan in which the volume and sequence of planned work, the terms which are taken away on its realisation, a purpose by each kind of independent activity are provided. The good plan saves time, rescues from vanity when all becomes in a hurry, and, hence, - longer and is worse.

The main tool of spiritual development of the person - reading. It multiplies riches of an intellectual life, develops mental faculties, develops taste, learns to comprehend the fine. Neatly the philosopher in due time has told: people cease to think, when cease to read.

In our century vsevozrastajushchego quantities of printing editions and necessity of their timely studying there was a question on the technician of reading. On the one hand, it should provide fast viewing of new receipts of the interesting literature, and with another - deep studying of necessary materials. Thereupon teachers of high pedagogical culture approach to books differentsirovanno and own, as a rule, two ways of reading: deepened and high-speed.

Now, time of quickly growing stream of the scientific information, attempts to introduce during a daily life methods of high-speed reading become. Speaking about importance of mastering by such methods, we at all do not call for similar mode of work over each book. Fast reading more often selective, for search of ideas necessary for the reader and the facts. When the necessary sections are found, rate of reading should be synchronised with a problem of study and the material maintenance. There are many books, style and which maintenance demand slow meditation. And it is especially important to it to study at outstanding scientists. It is known, as. P.Pavlov possessed huge knowledge and phenomenal memory. But till last days it did not stop to study, it is a lot of and regularly read.

Many outstanding teachers underline beneficial influence on them of ideas and knowledge, pocherpnutyh them from products of classics of the literature. Well-known, what influence was rendered by Maxim's products

Bitter on outlook and pedagogical activity of Ampere-second. Makarenko. We will result one of its such statements: «I could not find any« scientific »exits. I have been forced to address directly to the general representations about the person, and for me it meant to address to Bitter. I, as a matter of fact, did not need to re-read its books, I well knew them, but I have again re-read all from the beginning up to the end. And now I advise to the beginning tutor to read books Bitter. Certainly, they will not prompt a method, will not resolve separate« flowing »questions, but they will give the big knowledge of the person in a huge range of possibilities and thus will give the person not naturalistic, not written off with nature, and will give the person in magnificent generalisation and, that is especially important, in generalisation Marxist».1

As we see, self-improvement is the difficult, many-sided work demanding not short-term, but constant, throughout all life, pressure intellectual, moral and physical strengths of the person. Value of self-improvement increases especially in present period. Constant tendency to self-development, aiming at self-improvement - such is the social order of our society to the teacher. Only provided that it has the moral right to prepare change for the future.
<< | >>
A source: Dulin V.V.. Pedagogical management of process of preparation of reserve officers on military chairs. 2004

More on topic theoretical bases of formation of pedagogical culture of the teacher of military chair:

  1. a technique of preparation and the program of formation of the teacher of military chair
  2. Didactic principles of preparation of the officer-teacher of military chair
  3. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of pedagogical maintenance of formation of ethnopedagogical culture of logopedists
  4. 2.1 Pedagogical model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity and pedagogical conditions of its realisation
  5. THEORETICAL BASES of DESIGNING of the MAINTENANCE And the ORGANIZATION of PROCESS of PSIHOLOGO-PEDAGOGICAL PREPARATION of CADETS In MILITARY HIGH SCHOOL
  6. CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF BASIC UNIVERSITY
  7. 2.2 Pedagogical technology of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity
  8. Chapter 1. THEORETICAL BASES of PEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE to SPIRITUALLY-MORAL FORMATION of the PERSON of the YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY IN OUT-OF-CLASS ACTIVITY
  9. USOLTSEVA ELENA VIKTOROVNA. PEDAGOGICAL MAINTENANCE of FORMATION of ETHNOPEDAGOGICAL CULTURE of LOGOPEDISTS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2017, 2017
  10. KORPUSOVA JULIA ANATOLEVNA. Development of theoretical bases of man's and female formation of the end of noble family XVIII - first third XIX centuries as the factor of formation of spiritually-intellectual elite of Russia. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014