development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in second half XIX centuries

Large-scale reform of an education sphere acted as the major and an integral part of Great reforms 1860 - 70th years. As a matter of fact, education system reform during Alexander's epoch II set as the purpose achievement gosuyodarstvom political, is administrative-organizational and duhovnoyonravstvennogo leaderships in society consolidation on country transformation, for overcoming of socially economic backwardness of Russia, its accelerated development as leading country of the world.

The state policy analysis in an education sphere in the second poloyovine convincingly testifies XIX centuries to scale of the state plan in an education sphere and, in particular, modernisation of grammar schools on a basis liberally-democratic principles in an education sphere. In quality usloyovy, defined an active role of the state in development Russian gimnayozicheskogo formations and, in particular, maintenance modernisations gimnazicheyoskogo formations, we will allocate the following:

• aspiration of the government to realise idea «prosveshchenyonoj monarchy» and to assign to the state a role in the lead and dominirujuyoshchej forces in progressive development of a society and system modernisation obrayozovanija;

• requirement of the state for the formed officials;

• conviction that the country, developing on the European way, in the long term should carry out education of all social classes.

That fact testified to gravity of reformatory transformations of Alexander II in an education sphere, that at the head of the Ministry of national education A.V.Golovnin who was convinced storonyonikom of liberal freedom has been put. In second half 1860 - h years all system of a Russian education as a whole and the system of gymnasia formation, in particular, has received a powerful impulse to the development.

The statement new «the Charter of grammar schools and programmar schools» (1864) became the most relief expression of a progressive course. Grammar schools appeared besyososlovnymi, and in them all persons without distinction of ranks and creed of parents used the receipt right. It was established two kinds of grammar schools: classical and real.

In classical grammar schools humanitarian subjects and languages, including Latin and Greek were priority taught. This kind of grammar schools dolyozhen was to prepare grammar-school boys for receipt in university, that is sposobyostvovat for formation of intellectual elite of a society.

In real grammar schools the preference was given natural-science znayonijam. They prepared grammar-school boys for receipt in the higher technical uchebyonye institutions.

As N.A.Konstantinov marked, «introduction during a life of the Charter of 1864 and the subsequent circulars promoted perfection of the methodical party of training. Some has been presented faculty meetings svoyoboda in elections of forms of training and textbooks. In this connection methodical activity of many grammar schools» [117, с.42] at once has quickened.

Basic value had that at the initiative of the minister narodyonogo educations And. V.Golovnina has been defined qualitatively new peryospektiva for development of gymnasia formation. The minister has achieved granting of the right to opening of independent educational institutions (including grammar schools) which could be financed not only the state, but public associations and private persons.

A consequence of it was occurrence of some the advanced private grammar schools with boldly expressed avyotorskoj the concept, original character of educational activity, bright creative individuality of pedagogical collective and it rukoyovoditelej.

These phenomena were especially positive, as since kontsepyotsy visible domestic scientists and public figures So-called Granovsky, N.I.Pirogova and up to reform of formation of the beginning of the XX-th century of the minister
P.N.Ignatyev's national education it was traced accruing tendenyotsija to mutual understanding of a society and the state in definition of bases of development of the maintenance of the Russian gymnasia formation. N.I.pie utveryozhdal, that «the grammar school should generate the person capable by a deep internal life and ready to resist to internal spiritual corruption of a society. It is necessary to create within the precincts of a grammar school conditions for formation of spiritually strong and freely conceiving person» [186, c.29-51].

Second half XIX centuries represents considerable and plodoyotvornyj the period in development of the maintenance of gymnasia formation. Its most typical line was lifting socially - the state movement directed in aspect of the considered problem on development of gymnasia formation on a humanistic and democratic basis. It has found the reflexion in working out of author's concepts of development kontseptuyoalnyh bases of gymnasia formation, in discussion of its problems soderyozhanija on pages of the pedagogical press.

In the state and a society during this period there was a proof belief, that the Russian grammar school actually does not prepare the graduates to sovreyomennoj for practical activities as in sphere material, and spiritual as mainly carries out historically intended to it iznayochalno office function of preparation of grammar-school boys for further obrazoyovanija at universities. These grammar schools, I.A.Aleshintsev marked, «are so closely connected with a higher educational institution at which consisted, that hardly probable it is possible to consider their independent, they were a special extension to University, than average independent school» [3, с.8] more.

Internal problems and contradictions in maintenance development gimnazicheyoskogo formations of Russia have put a society and the state before neobhodiyomostju to updating of its theoretical bases. Development of a philosophical science and pedagogical concepts throughout all investigated period porozhyodali changes of an educational ideal of the person of the graduate of a grammar school.

It is characteristic, that each of ideals, possibly, equally possessed svoiyomi merits and demerits.

In second half XIX centuries following productive concepts of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija were produced and realised: encyclopaedic, humanitarian, classical, estestvennonayouchnaja and developing. Each of these concepts contained specific possibilities and prospects of realisation of educational, developing and educational character of the maintenance of gymnasia formation. We will characterise more in detail the specified concepts.

1. In the middle of XIX century the most debatable was the substantiation of ways of realisation of a principle entsiklopedizma in the maintenance gimnazicheyoskogo formations. It is characteristic, that the encyclopaedic orientation in training assumed multiconcreteness of the maintenance of the formation, setting as the purpose formation of widely erudite person. It is characteristic, that JA.A.Komensky, being the supporter of an encyclopaedic principle of training, vyyostupaja for compulsion of studying of grammar, physics, mathematics, ethics, dialectics and rhetoric, noticed, that «the material principle of didactics is an encyclopaedic knowledge and only it is line of true formation» [33, с.443]. M.V.Lomonosov noticed, that «the grammar school is the first basis of all free arts and sciences. From it, it is necessary to expect, there is an educated youth: young men should be accustomed there to a correct mentality and kind customs» [154, Т.9]

By JU.M.Lotman's definition, "term" entsiklopedist »at all poyokryvalsja concept about comprehensively formed person. Entsiklopedist is, first of all, the person, covering the knowledge all areas of a science in their unity. Simultaneously entsiklopedist connects a science not only to practice, but also with sociology and a policy. For it is not present distracted zna - ny» [156, с.259].

In such context the encyclopaedic ideal of the person assumed trudyonorealizuemyj, but as a whole corresponding to humanistic values obyoraz the grammar-school boy independently defining educational prioriyotety, not requiring a regulation of educational activity, imponirujushcheyogo to the teacher capable to scientific popularisation prepodavaemyh by it distsiyoplin. Formation of the person of the grammar-school boy of the given type assumed also stimulation of deep and original interest to antiquity, achievement of an optimum parity between reasonable regular pedagogical insistence and freedom of creative thought of teachers and gimnaziyostov. To realise this ideal in the conditions of mass practice of system rossijyoskogo gymnasia formation of second half XIX century, certainly, it was not represented possible.

Let's underline, that the concept of an encyclopaedic orientation soderyozhanija gymnasia formation was resisted by conservative character siyostemy formations 1870 - 90th years. It was shown in the following:

• in counteraction to attempts of creation of system gymnasia obyorazovanija an encyclopaedic orientation with strongly pronounced tendentsiyojami pedagogical liberalism of development of grammar schools;

• in the course of transition to rigid classicism from it orientirovanyonostju on classic languages and an ancient art, spiritually conformable to culture of the educated social classes of noble family and simultaneously mistrust to poyosledstvijam spiritual influence of antique history and culture on public consciousness of gymnasia youth;

• in original "omertvenii" maintenances gymnasia obrazoyovanija under the influence of its superfluous archaism;

• in deliberate state cultivation of extreme measures filo - logizma, superfluous orientirovannosti on performance of problems of development of is formal-logic thinking by it in a damage of stimulation of interest gimnaziyostov to pressing questions social, political, economic and, first of all, spiritual development of modern Russia.

2. In a scientific discourse to the encyclopaedic approach opposed guyomanitarnyj the approach of designing of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija, providing formation of the person with high level of erudition (in particular philological), developed is formal-logic myshleniyoem, requirement to regular intellectual work. Modern culturologist A.J.Butov notices, that as the purpose Russian humanitarian obrayozovanija in second half XIX centuries the adaptation of the person to existing system of relations and simultaneously preservation obshchekulturyonyh the values which have been saved up by mankind [32, с.252] acted. At the same time gumaniyotarnyj the approach assumed:

• accurately defined invariant the knowledge which is subject to mastering;

• the strict control over productivity of educational activity gimyonazistov;

• performance of selection functions with compulsion of deduction of those who mismatched obrazovatelno-educational process in gimnayozii.

It is necessary to recognise, that the positive spiritual perception archaic komyoponenta arts education ascended roots to traditions dvorjanyoskoj cultures of a Pushkin time which have already been lost bolshej chayostju youth of second half XIX century. Preservation arhaichnoyogumanitarnogo a component during this period was possible only in classical grammar schools. The given grammar schools have been focused on that part of a society, kotoyoraja it appeared is capable to apprehend organically self-value of cultural and pedagogical mission in gymnasia formation and expressed readiness to continue the best humanitarian traditions of the Russian society of the period of blossoming of culture of second half of noble family XVIII - the first quarter of XIX century.

Therefore in the tideway of the humanitarian approach in 1860-70th the question on timeliness of realisation of the concept classical was most sharply discussed
Orientations of the maintenance of gymnasia formation, which okazalyosja in epicentre of the intense and basic discussions.

In Brockhaus and Efron's encyclopaedic dictionary (1895) classicism rassmatyorivalsja as «system in formation in which the main subjects of training are classic languages: Latin and Greek - which the realism, instead of the classic languages, putting forward on the first place modern languages and natural sciences» [33 is opposed, with. 302]. The definition given in Russian pedagogiyocheskoj to the encyclopaedia (1993), any more only marks a role of classic languages in familiarising with the ancient literature, but also spends thought on some affinity of a classical education to modern conceptually-methodological principles of developing training. The accent became on that, as «sovremenyonaja the classical education theory is based on typological spoyosobnosti carrying over of knowledge and the skills received in one area, in any other sphere of human activity» [202, c. 443].

Visible conservative figures of education - the known publicist and public figure M.N.Katkov and the professor of the Moscow university P.M.Leontev, whose activity in student teaching sphere it has been connected with Imperial lycée in memory of Cesarevitch Nikolay (known as Skating rinks - sky lycée), have generated in 1870 gg complete and original kontsepyotsiju the classical maintenance of gymnasia formation.

They even by preparation «the Charter of grammar schools and programmar schools» defended necessity of preservation of a high-grade classical education. M.N.Katkov asserted, that «in ours vreyomja we are obliged by all successes of sciences and successes of all sciences mainly to people of this school as only these people are at the head of all specialities. Knowledge there where they reach the highest level as there these people make, teaches and rasproyostranjajut a science so the school in which these people ripened since the childhood, reaches the appointment and executes the business, means, to the higher trebovayoniem a science and intellectual development in the modern world there corresponds this type of educational school» [103, с.94].

On M.N.Katkova's belief, «the gymnasia educational system represented a difficult, accurately working organism».

One of grammar school overall objectives was not the message the pupil of weight of knowledge, and development in them of abilities to go deep into essence of studied subjects and to process a teaching material informed it in serious knowledge »[103, с.94]. In this connection M.N.Katkov and P.M.Leontev posledovayotelno opposed encyclopaedic multiconcreteness of the curriculum, stood up for reduction of volume of subjects"nonbasic"and kontsentrayotsiju maintenances of formation round Latin and Greek languages, i.e. they insisted on classicism strengthening in grammar schools. M.N.Katkov underlined, that« it is impossible and to imagine, that natural sciences could become a serious general educational element of equal force with classic languages ». It also objected to studying in a grammar school of Russian, literature and history, asserting, that studying of classic languages simultaneously and is studying istoyorii, and real schools -« brothels of the superficial doctrine »[103, с.99].

Among M.N.Katkova and P.M.Leonteva's conceptual ideas in sphere of classical gymnasia formation by the most significant predyostavljajutsja:

• an exception of possibility of political freethinking in soderzhayonii formations in grammar schools, the statement in consciousness of grammar-school boys nezyblemoyosti monarchic belief and loyalty cultivation to existing gosyoudarstvenno - political system of Russia;

• preparation of graduates of classical educational institutions to obucheyoniju at university, to attraction to teaching activity predstayovitelej scientific university circles;

• purposeful formation by means classical obrayozovanija representatives of the upper class capable in the future to become by leaders in a socially-civil life of Russia;

• orientirovannost on familiarising with a classical education of children from the provided, highly educated social classes and simultaneously
Familiarising of the most presented representatives of the national environment to gimnazicheyoskomu to classicism, creation of conditions for use classical obrayozovanija as original «the social lift»;

• aspiration to reflexion of harmony of an ancient art, but thus avoiding premature judgement grammar-school boys of problems of social, political and cultural character who can appear is superfluous difficult for children's perception;

• installation on «noble conservatism», prevention proyoniknovenija in the maintenance of gymnasia formation of all false and done not pass check by time, casual and socially negative, that moyozhet to cause painful personal contradictions in consciousness of grammar-school boys and to appear an obstacle for their formation complete and harmonious vosyoprijatija the world on the basis of hristiansko-orthodox system of values;

• a recognition of a special role of Ancient Greek and Latin languages, tseyolenapravlennyj filologizm the formation maintenances, assuming svoyobodnoe reading and a translation from Latin, Ancient Greek, German, frantsuzyoskogo, English of languages, and also strong signs Church Slavonic and soyovremennogo Russian of languages;

• special accent on studying of the best samples domestic sloyovesnosti: from Old Russian annals - to classics of the Russian literature - A.S.Pushkina, M.J.Lermontov, N.V.Gogol;

• assignment of the leading part of history which should unite all subject matters of not language orientation and simultaneously unite and connect the data received from teaching of the Law Divine, of Russian, classic languages and geography;

• the regular control over efficiency of result obrazovayotelnoj activity of each teacher, the regular account of educational indicators of each grammar-school boy on all extent of training, active and tseyolenapravlennoe pedagogical interaction with parents at objazatelyonosti an in the lead role of teachers of a grammar school;

• creation of special atmosphere of appeal of a grammar school for uchayoshchihsja, thanks to their active participation in work of circles, studios, choruses, scientific associations, literary communities, employment by admired views of sports »[103, s.179-180].

Most positive sides of the given concept are:

• activity under the prevention of pupils from premature participation in a political life (considering radicalism of political strike in Russia of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginnings);

• formation of complete outlook of pupils of grammar schools;

• an orientation on an establishment of scientific communications of grammar schools with uniyoversitetami, creation of scientific communities of pupils.

As the historian of formation M.V.Boguslavsky marks in this connection, «M.N.Katkov was deeply and is sincerely convinced, that serious, regular (not less than 50 % of the curriculum) studying of Latin and Greek languages spoyosobno not only to prepare new generation of scientists, but also moreover - to rescue Russia from radicalism, from revolutionary shocks» [19, с.18].

Cultural urological basis of the concept of classical gymnasia formation was the developed historical tradition of noble family kultuyory, focusing spiritually - intellectual elite of Russia on judgement of the present through a prism of philosophy, the literature and art. It isyotoricheski was defensible. The historian of pedagogics A.N.Shevelev considers, that «in ljuyobom a society, at any stage of its development in it in this or that kind there will be a social stratum which will be elite. First, it is necessary as consolidating force of a society, secondly, the elite priyozvana to carry out reguljativnye functions, and, thirdly, the elite is, as prayovilo, the compiler of values which are adopted and reproduced broad masses» [263, с.198]. Century of M. Lobzarov noticed, that «elite obrazoyovanie it is treated as formation of the highest level, as criterion polucheyonija which abilities and talents of children, their high level duyohovnogo self-development and creative self-expression» [150, с.255] act.

In this connection for supporters of classicism was available convincing arguyomentatsija on preservation for elite of a society of the classical maintenance gimyonazicheskogo formations. It was expressed in aggregate the following polozheyony:

• the maintenance of gymnasia formation cannot and should not be mass: it is focused on satisfaction educational zaproyosov rather small part of the presented youth;

• the classical maintenance of gymnasia formation is based on its ability to preservation and reproduction of social strata, oblayodajushchih high level of the general and, in particular, humanitarian culture;

• the maintenance of gymnasia formation is addressed, the main thing obyorazom, to natives of intelligency which has steady historical traditions of transfer of cultural values throughout several pokoleyony fathers and children;

• refusal of the classical maintenance of gymnasia formation is capable to break process of realisation of spiritual continuity pokoleyony the Russian intelligency, especially in its humanitarian component.

Such position of principle of "classics" had long istoriyocheskuju a retrospective show. Inherent in antique history and culture brightness, glubiyona and the tragedy, capable to excite minds of youth, it is traditional otrazhayolis in the maintenance of gymnasia formation since XVI century. As marked V.A.Gringmut in work «Our classicism» that with advantage pristuyopit subsequently to employment by a university science, it is necessary to temper in a grammar school mind in the concentrated, thorough, deep studying of those neyomnogih subjects which have educational value for mind (classic languages) [57].

Still V.G.Belinsky in the letter to V.P.Botkin marked: «the antiquity world Is charming. In his life grain of all great, noble, valorous, poyotomu that his life basis - pride of the person, inviolability of personal advantage.

Yes, the Greek and Latin languages should be a corner stone of any formation, the school base »[13, т.9, с.468]. The maintenance essence klassicheyoskogo formations was boldly expressed by JA.K.grotto underlining, that« obshcheyoobrazovatelnymi it is possible to consider as knowledge only what a subject - duyohovnaja the party of the person in extensive sense »[58, с.12].

As a whole the most positive cultural urological aspects of the concept of the classical maintenance of gymnasia formation in defining degree were:

• the developed historical tradition of culture of noble family, orienyotirujushchaja spiritually - intellectual elite of Russia on judgement sovreyomennosti through a prism of philosophy, the literature and antiquity art;

• transfer to grammar-school boys of special feeling direct sopriyokosnovenija with the ancient culture considered as a basis of the further development of culture of the leading European people;

• the reference to foreign languages which not only possessed the big didactic possibilities, but carried out mission «kulturoyologicheskogo a key».

It is characteristic, that in definition of the classical education given by the academician of the Russian Open Society, the outstanding historian of formation E.D.Dneprovym, akyotsent has been made not only on classic languages as the major invariant osyonovu a humanitarian classical education. The special role, otyovodimaja in curricula of a classical grammar school to studying of products anyotichnyh authors was noticed also, that objectively testifies to a recognition istorikoyopedagogicheskoj a science of considerable cultural urological mission of classicism [69, with. 113-124].

However the concept of the classical maintenance gymnasia obrazovayonija did not open M.N.Katkova and P.M.Leonteva essentially new peryospektiv for development of domestic gymnasia formation.

Such position was aggravated with that the classicism borrowed rossijyoskoj by a grammar school from Prussian educational system, eventually on accruing more and more contradicted the mental inquiries shown by a considerable part of the Russian society poreforyomennoj of an epoch to valuable priorities and the maintenance of gymnasia formation. Since second half XIX century classic languages under the maintenance any more did not reflect inquiries of gymnasia youth, stremivshejyosja to more thorough studying of natural-science disciplines, polucheyoniju humanitarian and, in particular, the philological knowledge approached to inquiries modern it of society.

It substantially, spoke that the reference to antichnoyosti in the conditions of the Russian grammar school 1860 - h - differed 70th following lines:

• possessed superfluous pedagogical pedantry, assumed a reduction of spiritual and world outlook potential of antiquity to uproshchenyonoj nazidatelnosti;

• held down intellectual development of grammar-school boys;

• paid in studying of languages exclusive attention on grammayoticheskie knowledge in a damage of understanding of spiritual potential of the best samples of an ancient art.

Analyzing these processes, the historian of pedagogics of M.A.Kondratyev (Zaha - rishcheva) marks: «crisis of classical bases of the maintenance of the general secondary education as one of consequences social and economic razviyotija Russia in the middle of XIX century» [113, с.14] was One of the factors which have caused strengthening of attention to real formation.

In this connection prospects of the Russian gymnasia formation depended on the decision of some conceptual questions to which it is necessary to carry:

• an establishment of a demand of gymnasia classicism in the conditions of intensive capitalist development of a society and familiarising to
Economic, scientific and cultural life of the social strata alien menyotalnosti, reflecting self-value classical gymnasia obrazovayonija;

• the proof of what the classical education is originally scientific and the optimal for preparation of pupils to obuyocheniju at university;

• a substantiation of expediency of existence in Russia uniform under the theoretical maintenance and valuable priorities of system gimnazicheyoskogo formations or a recognition polyvariant gymnasia prostranyostva which, in particular, supposed also existence of classical grammar schools;

• definition of a role natural and mathematical educational distsiyoplin in the maintenance of gymnasia formation for which it is traditional hayorakternym is domination of humanitarian knowledge.

3. In a context of this problem field socially - educational zayoprosa with 1860 - h years it has started to be formed natural-science and razvivayojushchaja (in terminology of that time formal) the concept of the maintenance of gymnasia formation.

Begun in Russia in second half XIX centuries transition to rasshirenyonomu to gymnasia formation created objective conditions for konkreyotizatsii maintenances of formation and stimulation of achievement of high level of is formal-logic thinking of grammar-school boys.

Scientific revolution has made the mediated impact on system gimnayozicheskogo formations in aspect of formation complete and, as then predyostavljalos, not contradicting galileevo-njutonianskoj to a world picture. A consequence of it was formation of demand for studying of laws of natural sciences and on organic occurrence of knowledge of the nature in the maintenance obyorazovanija the Russian grammar schools.

Powerful development of natural sciences throughout second half XIX century more and more objectively called into question validity doyo
Minings of a humanitarian component in the maintenance of gymnasia formation.

Symptomatically, that D.I.Pisarev marked: «the temper of minds will become more firmly when natural sciences will be taken as a principle the general obrazovayonija» [188, with. 143].

Thus we will notice, that a number of domestic and foreign scientists and pedayogogicheskih thinkers (N.I.Pirogov, K.D.Ushinsky, V.Humboldt, K.Schmidt) asserted, that «the humanism and development of personal forces of pupils do not depend on a formation kind». V.V. Rozanov underlined, that «as on real knowledge, strictly maintaining their method, it is possible to develop mental faculties of the pupil till a deep maturity, and on integral live studying klassicheyoskogo the world it is possible comprehensively and to clear deeply all forces of the boy and is young - shi» [201, с.240].

In this connection P.F.Kapterev asserted, that «formal development moyozhet to be improved by means of mastering of knowledge, performance mysliyotelnyh exercises, that is material forms a basis of the formal. VmeYOste with that, each science, each subject matter, the maintenance, meyotodami, receptions, properties of the subject, methodology more or less considerably influences mind development in a conventional attitude» [95, с.98­115].

As the basic lines of the new cultural-educational concept esteyostvennonauchnogo and the developing maintenance gymnasia obrazovayonija acted:

• aspiration to full refusal from arhaiki in the maintenance obrazovayonija, formation of the relation to history and spiritual culture of antiquity as to that it is necessary to know to the formed person but not to consider, how spoyosobnoe to influence present resolution of problems;

• conviction that an overload of the maintenance of classical gymnasia formation by elements antique arhaiki interfere soyotsializatsii grammar-school boys.

As a whole the period second half 70 - 90th years of XIX century oznamenoyovalsja the strongest ideological and world outlook influence of ruling circles on the maintenance of gymnasia formation. The basic lines of an educational policy of this period was the aspiration gosuyodarstva to rally elite layers of the Russian society with a view of predotvrashcheyonija penetrations of radical political ideas into Wednesday studying molodeyozhi, elimination from the maintenance of formation of any displays filosofsko - world outlook free-thinking.

According to the Charter of grammar schools of 1871 «it has been finished division gimyonazy on classical and real and one type of average uchebnoyogo institutions — a classical grammar school, or simply grammar school in which 42,2 % of school hours were taken away to classic languages was established. Besides, increased chayosy by mathematics with physics and mathematical geography without increase proyogramm, that gave the chance not to overload pupils house zadanijayomi on the mathematician and to increase class time for exercises for consolidation of knowledge. Thus, now classic languages and mathematics, and natural sciences and chemistry at all prepodavayolis became the basic subjects in a grammar school, hours have been reduced by drawing, plotting, calligraphy and history» [139, s.46-54].

In Charter representation in 1871 the minister of national education D.A.Tolstoy specified to the State council: «the Question between ancient jazyyokami as a basis of all further scientific formation and everyone in another way training is a question not only between the serious and superficial doctrine, but also a question between moral and materialistic napravleniyoem training and education, and consequently, and all society...» [228, s.23-30]. As the historian of a Russian education of the beginning of the XX-th centuries I.A.Aleshintsev marked in this connection, «is tendentious-political mission has been again assigned to school» [3, с.281].

On N.F.Nikoltsevoj's conclusion, «all subsequent period after acceptance of the Charter of 1871 till February, 1917 a question about radical reformiyo
rovanii national education it was repeatedly discussed in pravitelstvenyonyh circles, in a press and all was limited to separate actions »[172, с.171].

As a whole the government, contrary to the objective historical logic, put problems on preparation of the gymnasia youth possessing vysoyokim I.Q., by the general and, in particular, gumanitarno-philological culture, the strongly pronounced aspiration remaining throughout all life to serve Russia according to social roles vernopodyodannogo the monarchist, the convinced patriot, the legislative citizen and the virtuous father of family.

It is in this connection characteristic, that all elite educational institutions in usloviyojah a politized society and accruing influence radical poliyoticheskih ideas of a destructive orientation put before themselves most vyyosokie problems in the field of common cultural and gumanitarno-philological razyovitija the pupils.

As leading factors of formation of the maintenance of gymnasia formation of the period 70 - 90th years of XIX century it is possible to allocate the following:

• levelling in classical education system kulturologiyocheskogo aspect of studying of classic languages, their treatment only as means of is formal-logic development of mind and refusal of the reference to kulturologicheyoskomu to antiquity potential;

• the politized understanding of sense of studying of classic languages isyokljuchitelno as means of prevention of growth of interest of pupils to sobytiyojam a modern life, that quite definitely has been expressed by the minister of national education D.A.Tolstoy convinced, that «as early as six years latyyoni, and you will see, how our youth» [228 will calm down, with. 112-114];

• refusal of possibility of spiritually-intellectual dialogue between the teacher and the pupil, based on mutual understanding and emotional bliyozosti;

• counteraction to independent generalisations and conclusions, osuyoshchestvljaemym both the pupil, and the teacher, and also produtsirovaniju ideas, thoughts and the facts used on employment in the event that they were beyond the maintenance of official textbooks.

Thus, stereotypes of conservative attitude and mirovosyoprijatija have especially brightly proved in the relation to the classic languages officially considered as tools of development of memory and logicians of thinking without the deep reference to comprehension not only the internal maintenance pereyovodimyh of texts, but also as a whole to the spiritual beginnings of an ancient art.

The outstanding historian of pedagogics P.F.Kapterev in this connection noticed, that the gymnasia pseudoclassicism of 70-80th years of XIX century has won «contrary to history of our school and practically the truth. How he could win, if pedayogogicheskaja the true was not on its party? The role as it is frequent at us, a policy, aspiration to strengthen in a society safe political moods» [98 here has played, with. 98-115.]

Ascertaining this lawful strategic position, at the same time, we will underline, that in the advanced student teaching it was possible sushcheyostvenno to compensate a political component and to use objectively powerful cultural urological potential classical soyoderzhanija formations.

The reasons of this phenomenon consisted in the following:

• in existence in the Russian society of the richest spiritual culture and, first of all, fiction which was the most interesting to a considerable part of pupils of grammar schools as kompenyosatsija studying of the teaching material which was not exciting their minds and hearts;

• available a special cultural house microhabitat which foryomirovala the base of spiritual culture of pupils of grammar schools also resisted to deformation of their person under the influence of the state educational policy.

Such high educational results were reached including thanks to self-education of teachers of a grammar school which traditionally assumed development of their pedagogical skill, studying professioyonalnoj literatures as in the field of pedagogics and a technique, and reflecting development of those areas of scientific knowledge which were to some extent embodied in the maintenance prepodavaemyh by the teacher of subject matters.

As objective obstacles for development of professional self-improvement of the teacher such factors, as acted

• the moral weariness of teachers accruing in connection with constant danger not to reach of high achievements of training at check rezulyotativnosti of work of a grammar school;

• necessity during a professional life to participate in performance of the "selection" functions connected with necessity otchisleyonija of grammar-school boys, on those or other circumstances not keeping within in prokrustovo a bed of educational and disciplinary requirements of grammar schools;

• intuitively realised throughout all years of work danger to mismatch state-administrative (dogmatic) and izbyyotochno to the formalized requirements shown to the teacher and the director of a grammar school.

All it constrained process of self-education of the teacher and substantially a trajectory of its professional growth though, certainly, could not prevent completely neither to self-education process, nor formation of creative teacher's collectives of some grammar schools. As one of significant fakyotorov, promoting self-education of the teacher of a grammar school XIX - the XX-th century beginnings, development of the Russian and world science acted, and also is bright vyrazhenyonye processes of civil self-development of a society.

Especially significantly, that in second half XIX centuries occurred posleyodovatelnoe increase of public activity in questions opredeleyonija maintenances of gymnasia formation. In 1857 Emperor Alexander II had been signed the Decision granting the right to persons, «chuvyo
stvujushchim the calling »to create private educational institutions. Thanks to it reskriptu in a domestic education of second half XIX century poyojavilsja a number of grammar schools (in bolshej degrees private) which possessed znachiyotelnym pedagogical potential and, as a matter of fact, steady author's konyotseptsiej developments. Most brightly and consistently positive value vozyodejstvija the public on gymnasia formation is traced in dejayotelnosti the best private grammar schools of Russia of last third XIX - the XX-th century beginnings. They were based on traditional values gymnasia obrazovayonija, but, at the same time, brought in conceptual bases of the maintenance gimnaziyocheskogo formations innovative author's originality, obuslovlenyonuju pedagogical belief and mentality of their heads and pedayogogicheskih collectives.

On the given ideologically-world outlook basis there was a formation of the author's concepts connected with variativnym by development of the maintenance gimnayozicheskogo of formation in Russia. Before administration and pedagogical collectives of new private grammar schools there was a basic problem opredeyolenija ways of the further development: considering present requirements, vyyostraivat innovative teaching and educational process and to enter new soyoderzhanie formations or to develop further, using saved up potenyotsial the traditional maintenance of gymnasia formation. As a whole these private educational institutions provided a high educational level for natives of all social classes focused on socially-personal, career and cultural-intellectual growth.

As has shown the analysis of activity of the advanced grammar schools, they not only have successfully avoided crisis, characteristic for a Russian education of this period, but also have shown the pedagogical individuality and nepovtoriyomost, used a deserved authority at pupils and their parents.

Let's present some most productive variants successful modiyofikatsii maintenances of the Russian gymnasia formation.

Charles Ivanovicha Maja's grammar school has been based in 1855 in Sankt - Petersburg. Educational activity of this grammar school proceeded till 1917. Feature of educational process was academism soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation which was expressed in it fundamenyotalnosti, to depth, validity and caused high quality of knowledge of grammar-school boys. It is characteristic, that after delivery of graduation examinations in gimnayozii K.I.May graduates had possibility on the basis of a presentation attestayotov to arrive in all universities not only Russia, but also Germany, that svideyotelstvovalo about the maximum trust in university educational soyoobshchestve to results of pedagogical activity of collective of a grammar school.

The analysis of the pedagogical ideas taken as a principle of development of a grammar school, characterises the given educational institution as very productive, thanks to resolution of conflicts between

• academism of the maintenance of gymnasia formation, vyrayozhajushchejsja in its depth, durability and fundamental nature - and interest to educational activity peculiar to grammar-school boys, their pleasure and udovletvoyoreniem from participation in fascinating educational process;

• presence of the strict and regular control over discipline and success of educational activity of each grammar-school boy - and sincere simyopatiej between grammar-school boys and the teachers, quite often expressed in stremleyonii pupils to avoid offences not to afflict «favourite Charles IvaYonovicha»;

• high level of the intellectual pressure necessary for successful educational activity - and expression of love and respect for the grammar school, its graduates remaining at the majority throughout all life.

The reasons of the successful permission of these contradictions consisted in osoyobom author's character of development of a grammar school and rooted in pedagogical installations of teachers of a grammar school on creativity of pupils in obrazovatelyono-educational activity.

It found the expression in the following:

• in realisation of an equivalence of a humanitarian and real direction in gymnasia formation, conviction that only parents have the right to define, on what of branches (real or humanitarian) it is necessary to be trained in their children;

• in well thought over organisation of educational process, predpolagajuyoshchej the regular control over each of grammar-school boys, reasonable severity, hardness, sequence, logicality and validity of uniform requirements of teachers in relation to any infringements disyotsipliny;

• in ability of teachers to a combination of high level of discipline taking into account specific features of grammar-school boys which, on opredeleyoniju K.I.May, «open only at gentle contact is an aspiration to all fair, kind, gentle and fine. To clear and support this aspiration and made a problem of our educational institution»;

• basically the "domesticity", taken as a principle activity gimyonazii, expressed in spiritual affinity of teachers and grammar-school boys which, in particular, was shown in goodwill, absence authoritative diyostantsii in relations between teachers and grammar-school boys.

As concrete display of "domesticity" acted sincere udovolyostvie grammar-school boys from dialogue with each other, pleasure from joint campaigns on vicinities of St.-Petersburg, celebratings of birthdays of K.I.May in its apartment with the invitation of all teachers and grammar-school boys.

Positive line was also that in this grammar school keeping spirit of German pedagogical mentality, themselves the pupils representing various nationalities and religions organically and comfortably felt.

Moscow private man's grammar school Frantsa Ivanovicha Krejma - on based the maintenance of gymnasia formation on deep produmanyonyh conceptual positions. The director has been convinced, that «private gimnayozija more all is capable to give the chance to carry out to a society the obra - 57

zovatelnye ideals and on the internal organisation to become for the pupils a source of charitable future ». From the point of view of F.I.Krejmana,« well organised private educational institution possesses possibility for the deliberation most advanced stage in education business, isyokljuchenii all spontaneous, casual and irresponsible in inculcation of such qualities to pupils as aspirations to independent work, pravyodivosti, fidelity and love to instructors, respect for a place of their education, maintenance of their preparation for a life in a society ».

As conceptual installations of formation of the maintenance obrazoyovanija a humanitarian orientation the following acted:

• deep studying of bases of Christianity, aspiration to bring up gimyonazistov as persons sincerely got hristiansko-orthodox miyoroponimaniem, that was reached not only deep studying Shabby and NoYOvogo precepts, history of Christianity and Russian orthodox church, but also aspiration to construct all spiritual life of grammar-school boys on the basis of a cult of Christian precepts;

• mastering by languages as a necessary condition for the further training at university;

• the high level of philological culture reached izucheniyoem of tserkovno-slavic language, the best samples Russian classical liyoteratury from annals before A.S.Pushkin and N.V.Gogol's products, and also obligatory studying of the Greek, German, French languages and at zheyolanii English language with compulsion of reading and transfer of fragments of products of the best authors on a source language.

Such very high level of arts education was provided with the fundamental vocational training of teachers assuming not only a university education, but also achievement high rezultayotivnosti in subject professional work. So, for example, gimyonastiku the former sportsmen taught, singing - professional muzykanyoty, drawing - artists, dances - choreographers. Unlike grammar school K.I.

May where classical and real branch were equivalent, in F.I.Krejmana's grammar school the real branch intended for having insufficient abilities gimyonazistov, not languages inclined to deep studying.

The such it is moral - an intellectual position of teachers of a grammar school podpityvalas beneficial influence of spiritual traditions of culture of Russia, assuming the reference not only to reason, but also to soul of the pupil; opredeyoljalis historical influence of hristiansko-orthodox consciousness, under vozyodejstviem which teacher of a grammar school aspired to address not only to the formal logic, but also feelings of grammar-school boys.

At the same time, in a grammar school osoznanno work was excluded uchebnoyoissledovatelskaja. Both to grammar-school boys, and teachers not rekomendovayolos to address to any scientific and educational literature except for texts of officially confirmed textbooks. All it substantially reduced level of educational potential of the given educational institution.

The grammar school of Lion Ivanovicha polivanova has been opened in Moscow in 1868. Inculcation to grammar-school boys of taste to intellectual work, values of spiritual culture, interest to history, foreign languages was feature of the maintenance of educational process. In a grammar school very strong teaching collective has been generated: in the senior classes of a grammar school the logic, history, Latin and physics were taught by professors of the Moscow university. Various after-hour activity was conducted - worked Shakespearean kruyozhok in which were engaged in studying of creativity of V.Shakespeare and statements of fragments from its tragedies forces of grammar-school boys. Participants of a circle left known actors: V.M.Lopatin, V.V. Luzhsky, P.M.Sadovsky and J.M.JurYoev.

Bright phenomenon of gymnasia formation of second half XIX veyoka was educational activity bright and original female gimyonazii Sofia Nikolaevny Fisher.

Estimating value of this grammar school, it is necessary to recognise, that it has opened kacheyostvenno new possibilities for development Russian gymnasia obrazoyovanija, and its educational experience has not lost value for the present.

At the heart of the concept of educational activity have been concluded sleyodujushchie postulates:

• gymnasia formation has a future, and its dominating humanitarian component is modern and answers development prospects duhovyonoj and material culture of society;

• the maintenance of classical gymnasia formation sootvetyostvuet not only man's, but also to female intellectual possibilities of mind;

• classical gymnasia formation is really capable to bring up vysokointellektualnyh and originally noble women.

Contemporaries noticed, that «this grammar school has answered for the first time serious inquiry about correct preparation of the woman. Here not the facts, and business, not predvzjayotye the purposes, and the true desire to put the woman so is high, as soon as it should stand in a modern society. Only then it is possible to speak about zhenyoskih universities or about the higher female courses subdivided on fakulyotety when the elementary female school» will be put on the correct beginnings.

In a grammar school the steady requirement was depth and professionayolizm music and dance teaching. Lessons of dances were given by the former ballet dancer of Imperial theatres and the teacher of professional dances in konservayotorii. Employment on music were conducted by L.A.Pastuhovoj and M.O.Ivanovoj, javljavshihyosja schoolgirls of the founder of Moscow conservatory N.G. Rubinshtejna. CHetyYOre once a year on tests on music necessarily there was also N.G.Rubinshtejn. The significant form of self-expression of grammar-school boys and teachers javljayolos their participation in theatrical performances of gymnasia theatre. Spetsificheyosky feature of repertoire was that in them traditionally were predstavyoleny the best products of antique authors.

Especially significantly, that in a grammar school it was possible to bring up in each of gimyonazistok aspiration to spiritual freedom, personal independence, conscious discipline and culture of thinking, requirement in constant intellektualyonom work and pride of the educational institution as the best educational institution of Russia.

In this connection feature of educational activity of a grammar school was installation not only on achievement of high level of knowledge, prisuyoshchego for the best man's grammar schools, but also aspiration it to surpass. As sviyodetelstvoval M.N.Katkov, characterising the maintenance of formation and rezultayoty training in S.N.Fisher's grammar school, «in the doctrine was not any indulgences against man's grammar schools to what tests annually testified, koyotorye were still more religiously and more exactingly, than in a man's grammar school. These ispyyotanija are entered by people with authority and knowledge. Course VII-VIII of classes was not only is not lowered, but also strengthened against man's grammar schools. Pupils gosyopozhi Fisher were widely-read in ancient authors more, than pupils muzhyoskih grammar schools, and in general teaching in two higher classes on depth and the sizes was exceeded by ordinary gymnasia level. So, a problem resheyona, business is justified, the success has surpassed the expectations. In view of these blistatelyonyh results council of the Moscow university has decided to petition for an assumption of the maidens, the ended course of madam Fisher to university zayonjatijam in faculties istoriko-philological and physical and mathematical ». Adherence to strict scientific academism in educational dejatelyonosti was marked by an appreciation of works of the best schoolgirls of a grammar school at the Payorizhsky exhibition which has taken place in the beginning of 1876. For the maintenance of these works Sofia Nikolaevna Fisher has been awarded thanks from the Minister narodyonogo education and a special rank from the government of France. mezhdunarodyonyj the success of a grammar school has been confirmed by reception of the diploma and a medal on VseYOmirnoj to an exhibition in Paris, taken place in 1900.

Thus, to number of the perspective qualitative parties soderzhayonija formations in the characterised private grammar schools it is possible otneyosti:

• the statement of special mission of spiritual culture and history in soderyozhanii gymnasia formation;

• high productivity of educational activity and vospiyotyvajushchuju atmosphere in these grammar schools;

• academism of training;

• taste inculcation to intellectual work, values of spiritual culture, interest to history, foreign languages;

• a saturation of educational subjects aesthetic soderzhayoniem, that promoted formation of aesthetic feelings and tastes at gimyonazistov.

At the same time it is necessary to notice, that each of these educational institutions possessed the features and specific strong stoyoronami in sphere of the maintenance of gymnasia formation:

• in Charles Ivanovicha Maja's grammar school two equivalent directions of formation have been created: classical and real. In the maintenance gimnazicheyoskogo formations academism which was expressed in its depth, validity and fundamental nature dominated;

• in F.I.Krejmana's grammar school it was most full realised spiritually - humanistic potential of the maintenance of gymnasia formation;

• in L.I.polivanova's grammar school feature educational proyotsessa was its orientation on inculcation to grammar-school boys of taste to intellekyotualnomu to work, respect for values of spiritual culture, comprehension znachiyomosti studying of foreign languages, and also realisation system vneyourochnoj activity;

• in S.N.Fisher's female grammar school it was possible to reach high level of academism of gymnasia formation and as much as possible to realise it
Humanistic spiritual potential. As a result in a grammar school it is successful foryomirovalsja new spiritually-intellectual type of the women, capable to become pride of Russia.

In second half XIX centuries the system of gymnasia formation, blayogodarja to acceptance progressive «the Charter of grammar schools and programmar schools» (1864), has received a powerful impulse to the development. Basic value imeyolo that at the initiative of the minister of national education A.V.Golovnina byyola qualitatively new prospect for development gymnasia obrayozovanija is opened.

As a whole the analysis of the state educational policy in second half XIX centuries convincingly testifies to scale gosudaryostvennogo a plan in an education sphere and, in particular, modernisation dejatelyonosti grammar schools. As the conditions which have predetermined an active role gosuyodarstva in development of the Russian gymnasia formation and formation of the maintenance of gymnasia formation, it is necessary to name necessity for the educated and formed officials, conviction that the country, developing on the European way, in the nearest historical prospect should go on a way of education of all social classes. A special role as the factor of development of culture of Russia it was given to the maintenance gumaniyotarnogo gymnasia formation.

It is possible to ascertain, that is state - the political factor throughout development of gymnasia formation in second half XIX veyoka rendered difficult and inconsistent influence on development of the maintenance of formation in the Russian grammar schools.

On the one hand, to influence of this factor the Russian system gimnazicheyoskogo formations has been obliged by the fact of the existence. The states PolitiYoka predetermined preparation for grammar schools of teacher's shots, guaranteed maintenance of grammar schools with textbooks and finally obespeyochilo that gymnasia formation by the end of XIX century has been claimed by the educated layers of the Russian society. In this connection follows priyo
To know existence of strongly pronounced public inquiries, predpolagajuyoshchih classical education preservation as reproduction conditions trayoditsy, the best representatives connected with formation domestic inyotelligentsii.

Prominent feature of this tradition throughout all history rosyosijskoj the grammar school still had as much as possible high level of philological culture.

Change of the status of gymnasia formation was influenced also by evolution of mission of universities. They prepared now not so much officials, how many the people who have connected the life with sciences not only humanitarian, but also a natural-science orientation.

On the other hand, the government owing to complexity and protivoyorechivosti to a political situation in the country interfered free and tvoryocheskomu with development of grammar schools, imposed to gymnasia community izbytochyono - regulating model of management, complicated realisation duhovnoyonravstvennogo potential of gymnasia classicism.

To number of the qualitative parties of the maintenance of formation in the best rossijyoskih grammar schools it is necessary to carry high academism and productivity of training, unique spiritually-psychological atmosphere, inculcation inyoteresa to grammar-school boys to intellectual work and a saturation obrazovatelyonyh subjects the aesthetic maintenance. In this connection we will underline, that supporters of classicism of second half XIX century supported not real-life system of the state gymnasia formation, and zayoshchishchali the samples of gymnasia formation generated in the best pedagogical collectives, guided by author's concepts of gymnasia development.


<< | >>
A source: Markov NIKOLAY STEPANOVICH. Development of conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija in Russia of second half XIX - the XXI-st century beginnings. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in second half XIX centuries:

  2. factors of formation and development of conceptual bases soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation in Russia of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginnings
  3. MARKOV Nikolay Stepanovich. DEVELOPMENT of CONCEPTUAL BASES of the MAINTENANCE of GYMNASIA FORMATION In Russia of SECOND HALF XIX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  4. 2.2. Evolution of the maintenance of historical study of local lore as a condition of formation of historical consciousness in classical gymnasia formation of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  5. Chapter 1. Value of humanitarian subject matters in the maintenance of domestic classical gymnasia formation for formation of historical consciousness of pupils of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  6. MARKS NIKOLAY STEPANOVICH. Development of conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija in Russia of second half XIX - the XXI-st century beginnings. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  7. the basic directions of development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of the Russian gymnasia formation in the end XX - the XXI-st century beginning
  8. § 2. Conceptual bases of reforming of a notariate in Russia in the conditions of modernisation in second half XIX centuries
  10. orthodox culture in the maintenance of formation of various types of the Russian school in second half XIX - beginnings HH centuries
  11. evolution of conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija in the XX-th century beginning
  12. Chapter 1. Directions of development of theoretical bases of domestic formation of the end of noble family XVIII - first third XIX centuries and its role in formation of spiritually-intellectual elite of a society