essence and features of pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in the conditions of educational institution

Today in the conditions of a difficult stage of social development, disintegration of family education the importance of pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age increases.

Pedagogical maintenance consists in joint definition with the child of its own interests, possibilities and ways of overcoming of obstacles who prevent to keep to it human advantage, and also to reach desirable results in training independently.

Last years the problem of pedagogical maintenance of children of average school age, is enough actual not only in special, but also in the general pedagogics, and also in a number of other branches of scientific knowledge.

Psihologo-pedagogical bases of formation and development of the person are developed in B.G.Ananeva, O.A.Ahverdovoj, I.V.Boeva, L.I.Bozhovich, I.A.winter, I.A.Malashihinoj, S.L.Rubinshtejna's works, etc. the General questions of formation and development of socially-pedagogical service in educational institutions are opened in A.I.Akulovoj, N.E.Beketovoj, T.A.cornflower-blue, JU.V.cornflower-blue, M.A.Galaguzovoj, V.N.Gurov, I.N.Zakatovoj, P.A.Sheptenko's works, etc. Problems of socially-pedagogical maintenance are considered in L.M.Bochkovoj, I.A.Gusevoj, A.F.Dranichnikoav, O.L.Ereminoj, A.I.Kivilevich's works, i.e. Korovkinoj, A.I.Timonina, etc. Problems psihologoyopedagogicheskogo maintenance in the course of education and formation of the person of the child, is opened in researches of O.S.Gazmana, A.V.Gordeevoj,
V.V. Morozova, L.J.Olifireeko, L.K.Sidorovoj, etc.

In an explanatory dictionary "maintenance" the protection, ohranenie »is treated as«. "Maintenance" means: having supported not to allow to fall; to assist, assistance; to express the consent, having approved to support; not to allow to stop, be broken to something [134]. The given concept has also modern interpretation of the given problem.

In V.V. Izmaylov's article to ascertain, that «process of pedagogical maintenance is understood as the specific kind of professional work assuming activization

Personal and institutsionalnyh the resources necessary for realisation of efficiency of this or that process »[64, with. 13].

Studying of the given question has allowed V.V. Izmajlovoj to draw conclusions, that «maintenance is a certain influence on process, in this case - pedagogical, hence, in it are inherent: many-sided nature (resursnost, capacity, expediency, the cost price, expressiveness degree), dynamism, mnogourovnevost.

On the basis of the theoretical analysis of psihologo-pedagogical researches pedagogical maintenance can be considered as management and development sistenoj sets of following elements: tselepolaganija; definitions of the maintenance and ways of its realisation at different stages, the organisations of the conditions optimising formation of a sociality as integrativnogo of quality of the person, a substantiation of concrete ways of interrelation, interconditionality and vzaimoaktualizatsii available resources through structurization definitely time, space, quantitative and qualitative structure of participants and them vzaimodgjstvija »[64, with. 14].

Outstanding teachers (F.Disterverg, J. Dewey, I.Kant, JA.A.Komensky, J.Korchak, M.Montessori, D.I.Pisarev, ZH. Russo, L.N.Tolstoy, F.Frebel, S.Frene, S.T.Shatsky, etc.) and the principles of the help developed by them to the child - here on the basis of what there was a concept
Pedagogical maintenance.

The analysis of scientific works allows to ascertain, that questions on essence of a category of pedagogical maintenance of process for the purpose of its increase effeektivnosti were in sight of many authors.

Conceptual approaches in a direction of pedagogical maintenance of the child began to be formed in social pedagogics. Originally pedagogical maintenance was understood as support of the child, not capable to operate independently owing to any restrictions in this or that area. Further the given concept was considered as the purposeful help to the child by the teacher.

Now the term «pedagogical maintenance» is used widely enough in modern pedagogics. The given term in a society not only is connected with activity of the various services interested in protection and protection of the social rights of children, but also includes system of the versatile actions spent with a view of differentiation on interests, propensities, vital directions and aspirations.

The training purpose as a way and a way of rendering assistance (pedagogical maintenance) to the person to become those whom it to become capable to considered A.Maslou [110]. A.Maslou describes the receptions, capable to help the person to reach self-realisation: to learn selflessly, vsepogloshchajushche to worry; to present all life as an infinite train of elections between movement and recourse; ability to feel internal signals (egoism); to choose fairly and to accept responsibility; to listen to the I during each moment of a life; every minute to staticize all felt possibilities; to help itself and people to feel an instant of true revelation; to understand protective mechanisms and to find in itself forces to refuse them [110].

As the basic hypothesis K.Rogers as the representative of humanistic psychology puts forward following position: «if I
I can create certain type otnosheeny with other person, he will find out in itself(himself) ability to use these relations for the development that will cause changes in its person »[152, with. 75]. Sincerity in expression of own feelings, acceptance of other person, liking, empathy - necessary conditions for such type of relations. It differs acceptance of other person as individual having value, and also empathy which gives the chance to include personal experience of the person. In that case the teacher who has created such relations, becomes the"companion"of the pupil accompanying it in free search. K.Rogers's this point of view imposes us, as providing relations assume support of the person at stages of a course of life.

«Under these words, - K.Rogers wrote, - I mean such relations in which, at least, one of the parties aspires to encouragement another, to personal growth, development, maturing, ability to live and cooperation improvement. Helping relations are such relations, in which one of participants streitsja to that one or at both parties had changes aside more thin understanding of, towards strengthening of expression and use of all potential internal resources. Special interest is represented by possibilities and conditions of formation of providing relations. For rendering of the effective help in a problem situation to the teacher it is necessary for child to create and observe following conditions:

• perception the child of as the person who is able and wishing to solve own problems;

• kongruentnost the person and behaviour of the teacher in interaction with the pupil;

• certainly positive relation of the teacher to the child;

• empatijnoe understanding of the child the tutor;

• sensation pupils kongruentnosti, acceptances and empathy of the teacher [152].

Sources the concept of pedagogical maintenance are:

• psychological ways of game, role forms of work, and also treningovyh;

• the theory of "zones of the nearest development» child of h.p. Vygotsky, noticing, that brings up pupils that they do, instead of that the teacher does; important not that we do, and that we receive; only through the amateur performance pupils change, brought up [40];

• the ideas, which steels are known as «cooperation pedagogics». S.A.Amonashvili considers, that pedagogical process is a cooperation of the teacher with the child in overcoming of difficulties [4];

• concept of the help to the schoolboy in the personal development, stated by A.V.Mudrikom who has fairly noticed, that «original education leans against internal forces of the person, awakes them, stimulates their disclosing and development», and underlined necessity and variety of the pedagogical help in development of a reflexion, skills of introspection for different groups of schoolboys [117].

Being the adherent of humanistic ideas, O.S.Gazman considered, that educational interaction between the teacher and the pupil should be built on the basis of humanistic principles. He advised to teachers to observe in pedagogical activity following rules:

• the child of average school age cannot be means in achievement of the pedagogical purposes;

• self-realisation of the teacher - in creative self-realisation of the child of average school age;

• it is important to accept the child of average school age such what it is, in its constant change;

• all difficulties of aversion are necessary for overcoming moral means;

• it is impossible to be humiliated and humiliate advantage of the person of the child
Average school age;

• children of average school age - carriers of the future culture. Commensurate the culture with culture of growing generation. Education - dialogue of cultures;

• do not compare anybody to anybody, to compare it is possible results of actions;

• trusting - do not check;

• recognise the right to an error and do not judge for it;

• be able to recognise the error;

• protecting the pupil, learn it to be protected [42].

Characterising the pedagogical maintenance, many scientists underline, that in it are inherent: many-sided nature (resursnost, capacity, etc.), dynamism, mnogourovnevost.

The resource approach gives the chance to present pedagogical maintenance as management and development of system of set of the resources involved for realisation of educational process. Here under we understand Means which can be involved for purpose achievement, we name resources, and the contradiction permission between presence of a resource and its actualisation of potential and real possibilities - providing deetelnostju.

In the dissertation «Socially-pedagogical maintenance of professional formation of the future teacher at the training initial stage in high school» I.e. Korovkina [78] allocates four groups of resources: personal, institutsionalnye, subcultural and resources of the social environment. Personal resources include the social status, roles, a personal position, life experience. To institutsionalnym to resources I.e. Korovkina carries the maintenance and technologies of a certain educational level, structure of educational institution and the organisation of teaching and educational process in it, presence of teachers. Subcultural resources represent a specific set
Valuable orientations, norms of behaviour, interaction and mutual relations of its carriers, certain hobbies, tastes and ways of free pastime, etc. Last group it is presented by resources of the social environment and assumes interaction of participants of educational process with other social institutes of education [78].

Unlike I.e. Korovkinoj, I.A.Gusev defining resources, puts in them other maintenance. So it carries a state of health, economic possibilities, possibilities of reception of formation, the personal qualities connected with inclinations, abilities, hobbies of the person, individual properties and level of their development, the life experience, available knowledge, abilities, including a professional, cultural, spiritual component of a resource, the social status of the person, social roles, a personal position to personal resources, motivatsionno-potrebnostnuju sphere [51].

To institutsionalnym to resources carries: the formation maintenance, the characteristic of educational institution, feature of management of educational institution, features of pedagogical collective. The maintenance of a certain educational level assumes besides set of knowledge, skills of realisation of activity, world outlook and moral-aesthetic ideas which pupils should seize, development of experience of creative activity and experience of emotionally-valuable relations should be included in the formation maintenance. The educational institution structure reflects distribution of duties between pedagogical workers in different levels, defines a place of each subject in system. At the same time this structure, being the macroform of the organisation of activity, makes direct impact on a choice of educational technologies, regulates time characteristics of process, influences functioning of all resources of socially-pedagogical maintenance.

Management of educational institution assumes use in educational process not only personal and institutsionalnyh resources, but also resources of Wednesday [64].

The social environment, according to A.I.Timoninu [177], makes solving impact on formation and development of the person. In a context of the concept of pedagogical maintenance we understand an environment of the person as the social environment: public, material and spiritual conditions of its existence and activity.

Pedagogical maintenance in educational institution, according to N.J.Shepelevoj [194], urged to promote the successful decision of tasks in view of socialisation of pupils within the limits of age norm and taking into account specificity of the parental order, individual and personal resources of participants of educational process.

N.J.Shepeleva notices, that pedagogical maintenance gives the chance to carry out process of socialisation of children and molodeezhi within the limits of purposeful pedagogical management: according to diagnosing, on the basis of the special program, by means of the interaction organisation in different forms and different methods of participants of educational process with each other and with society [194].

In the research devoted to pedagogical maintenance of process of accumulation by pupils of social experience in conditions of school - of a grammar school, I.V.Protasov gives treatment of the given term. Pedagogical maintenance, according to the author, it is possible to consider as set in - the first resources: external (the financial, material and social capital) and internal (the lichnostno-focused both differentiated training and education, universality of formation, evristichnost the educational environment); secondly, conditions (presence kulturoyoformirujushchego spaces; stage-by-stage inclusion of parents and a family in educational institution and child ability to live; planning of ability to live of educational institution as criterion function
Managements) [64, with. 13].

Besides, pedagogical maintenance assumes presence of following components: the educational environment enriched

Variety of kinds of activity, their continuity and possibility for self-realisation of the person; interactions of participants of educational process on a basis: dialogichnosti dialogue, reflective activity, partner relations [149].

Thus, the specific kind of professional work which are making active personal and institutsionalnye of resources, necessary for realisation of efficiency of process, is process of pedagogical maintenance.

According to V.V. Izmajlovoj, pedagogical maintenance is a pedagogical influence on process in which are inherent: many-sided nature (resursnost, capacity, expediency, the cost price, expressiveness degree), dynamism, mnogourovnevost [6, with. 14].

The carried out Izmajlovoj V.V. the theoretical analysis psihologoyopedagogicheskih researches gives the chance to draw conclusions what to consider pedagogical maintenance it is possible as development and management of following elements: tselepolaganie; the maintenance and ways of realisation of pedagogical maintenance at various stages; the organisation of the conditions forming a sociality as integrativnoe quality of the person, a substantiation of concrete ways of interrelation, vzaimoaktualizatsija and interconditionality of available resources through structurization of time, space definitely, and also quantitative both qualitative structure of participants and their interaction.

Within the limits of research it would be desirable to add, that the pedagogical maintenance of children directed on development of their amateur performance, realisation of creative potential with a view of overcoming of problems, serves realisation of vital plans.

Pedagogical maintenance can be shown:

• through use of certain systems, technologies and training and education methods;

• reorganisation of structure of educational institution;

• expansion, enrichment and filling by the modern maintenance of after-hour and out-of-school activity;

• introduction of programs of the additional education, allowing to receive initial professional skills or a trade in the selected direction;

• formation of a favorable psychological climate for all participants of pedagogical process;

• comprehension of such value as a healthy way of life and practical realisation of its substantive provisions during a school life [113].

It is important to consider the difficulties arising at the growing person. To develop and provide it is necessary subektnost as ability of the person to transformations in own ability to live, and also individuality of the person (originality, feature) which allocates it, that will allow it to be oneself.

In a context lichnostno the focused approach to formation pedagogical maintenance is connected with the pedagogical activity providing processes of an individualization of the person, i.e. it is pedagogical activity which opens the personal potential of the person including the help to pupils, to teachers, parents for the purpose of overcoming of their social, pedagogical, psychological and personal difficulties.

It is possible to allocate two approaches to definition of pedagogical maintenance: wide and narrow. Interpreting widely pedagogical maintenance it is possible to speak about creation of favorable conditions, the safe environment which are necessary for development and self-development of children of average school age, and also disclosing and their realisation
Internal forces, formations of ability to a free choice and independent actions. The narrow understanding of sense associates with maintenance of the help of the teacher, i.e. its action in the problem permission.

Pedagogical maintenance can be presented following stages: 1) diagnostic (problem allocation, identification of potential possibilities of the child); 2) search (realisation joint with the child of search of occurrence of problems); 3) contractual (the teacher and the child project actions under the decision of problems), 4) dejatelnostnyj includes: support and approval from the teacher of activity of the child, activity of the teacher, on the basis of pedagogical support of its actions by teachers; 5) reflective (the teacher and the child in common discuss successes and failures, ascertain the facts of the permission of a problem and in case the problem is not solved, - search of new variants of the decision of a problem). Efficiency of pedagogical maintenance is connected with competence of the teacher and with ability of its schoolboy to accept and apply.

Pedagogical maintenance of children of average school age acts as the difficult, multiplane phenomenon in which two subjects co-operate. The child who is the subject of informative activity, the active subject of educational activity, acts as the main subject of this interaction.

The teacher is the second subject. Depending on its Objectivity, professional competence, lichnostnoyoorientirovannye positions do it possible to the pupil as to the subject of educational activity to pass to higher level of self-realisation.

Pedagogical maintenance is a creation of the pedagogical system aimed at regulation, functioning and the further development of special ways, means and measures which help with realisation of possibilities of children of average school age.


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A source: Abaeva Gulnar Barievna. Pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014. 2014

More on topic essence and features of pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in the conditions of educational institution:

  1. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution
  2. Chapter 2. Skilled-experimental work on pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution
  3. features of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution
  4. Abaeva Gulnar Barievna. Pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014
  5. ABAEVA GULNAR BARIEVNA. PEDAGOGICAL MAINTENANCE of AESTHETIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN of AVERAGE SCHOOL AGE IN NONLEARNING ACTIVITY of EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014
  6. 2.1. Is functional-substantial model of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution
  7. aesthetic education of children of average school age in structure of complete educational process
  8. pedagogical conditions of efficiency of pedagogical maintenance of children of average school age in nonlearning activity
  10. 2.1 Pedagogical model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity and pedagogical conditions of its realisation
  11. 2.1 Features of educational process in establishments of an additional education of children (on an example of English language)