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2.2. Experience of use of pedagogical ideas of Howard Gardner in school education of China

Developed within the limits of the western pedagogical and psychological thought the theory of plural intelligence of Howard Gardner with interest has been apprehended and has received practical application in various corners of globe.

So fast and the wide circulation of this theory is in many respects connected with formation of a global education system, with the general information field, uniform standards, requirements to the maintenance of formation and level of readiness of graduates.

Formation of world educational space occurs today as by prisposo blenija national education systems to each other in the course of integration, and is connected with development nadnatsionalnogo the formation directed, first of all, on search of comfortable conditions of satisfaction of educational requirements of the separate person in the conditions of globalisation.

Among the countries which are today most actively involved in process of general integration and globalisation of educational space and where G.Gardner's ideas have gained the big distribution, China - the state most dynamically developing in last years in the world is allocated, first of all.

The theory of plural intelligence became well-known and is popular in China in the late nineties when Howard Gardner's book of "reason Border» has been translated into the Chinese language. Hundred thousand teachers, representatives of school administration, researchers of formation across all China were visited by employment under the theory of plural intelligence through international conferences, seminars of professional development and through courses of improvement of qualification. Though today there are no official data about that, how many schools in China use
The theory of plural intelligence as a substantive provision for drawing up of curricula, a considerable quantity of schools of a various profile apply this theory: public and private, the general and the vocational education, initial, average and the higher schools. Many schools have created associations on studying of the theory of the plural intelligence, including directors of schools, teachers, co-ordinators of curricula and parents who support and develop effective application of the theory of plural intelligence.

The theory of plural intelligence became today the most important educational theory in pedagogical colleges of China and is applied practically on all country from a kindergarten to the senior classes of schools. On the Chinese language the considerable quantity of books on plural intelligence has been translated. Printing and information materials under the theory of plural intelligence can be found today in bookshops and libraries of the big cities and on websites.

With what interest to this theory and why it has received a wide circulation in the Chinese formation has been connected? The most important here is that the theory of plural intelligence embodies in practice of idea of traditional Chinese thinking and inspires educational reforms in China.

Popularity of the theory of plural intelligence in China mentions two questions, concerning a role of traditional Chinese culture in its distribution. The first concerns the reasons of popularity and an urgency of the theory of plural intelligence among the Chinese teachers, and the second how it has been adapted by the Chinese teachers for its use in China.

It is necessary to underline, that application of the theory of plural intelligence in China was not direct carrying over of this theory on educational practice of the country, and considered features of political, social and economic and educational development of China. With most
There has begun the theory of plural intelligence began to get the specificity taking into account features of the Chinese society. It is possible to allocate two basic distinctive aspects in application of the theory of plural intelligence in the American and Chinese educational and cultural practice.

First, it is various concepts of intelligence. The central place in the western educational theories occupies individual reason. From the moment of a birth and till the moment of a maturity the individual is considered as the basic carrier and the spokesman of intelligence. It is connected by that the western educational model is individually-focused. Its substantial and organizational components correspond to specificity of the western society, it structurally-institutsionnym to features - to absence of prevalence of vertical interrelations and development of horizontal interrelations of the basic participants of educational process at level of all education system [115, с.92].

The Chinese concept of intelligence absolutely another. The origin of this concept concerns to fundamental in the Chinese culture konfutsianskoj traditions. The intelligence here is attribute more likely a family, than the individual. Especially, when children small, the family is considered as the collective representative of intelligence. In the Chinese cultural tradition there is no accurate border between parents and children, ekzistentsionalno, either emotionally, nor is intellectual. Relations between a family and members of a family have the same communication, as a body with the parts [142, the river 36].

From the point of view konfutsianskoj traditions while the child small, the family is fundamental unit of intelligence. Any attempts to transform a family in a set of the isolated individuals are broken by integrity and value of the Chinese family. Therefore, Chineses have applied the theory of plural intelligence in that kind in which it will be co-ordinated with their concept of intelligence. As an example, here can serve that the distinctive
The intellectual profile of the child in China is studied in a family context. At the Chinese schools working on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence, parents often ask to describe an intellectual profile of a family, designating propensities, interests and skills of parents and the child, and also skills which they develop. «The family profile, - writes Tsze-Tsi CHen, - is not considered as the separate diagramme, and is faster as dynamic intellectual system in which its each member supplements, supports or promotes development each other. Studying a family profile, the teachers working within the limits of the theory of plural intelligence, considered intellectual propensities of the child to what degree reflect interests of parents and as house atmosphere can help development of intelligence of the child» [142, the river 36]. For the Chinese teachers of plural intelligence, intelligence, it, most likely, joint resources, attributes of a family, instead of the individual property.

Secondly, the American and Chinese educational experts differ values by which teachers in educational process are guided. For Chineses formation of the child is one of key family values, which in sprinimaetsja as expansion of family intelligence. Instead of concentrating exclusively on, how to use individual intellectual propensities of the child, the Chinese teachers of plural intelligence constantly searched for ways to family mobilisation, as educational resource and active participant which helps with development of intellectual features of the child.

From all aforesaid it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the family takes an especial place at application of the theory of plural intelligence in China. For the Chinese teachers of plural intelligence formation of parents is a component of formation of children as children and parents exist together in a family. Being based on belief, that
Development of intelligence of the child is responsibility of three parties - parents, children and the teachers, many schools using the theory of plural intelligence, conducted lessons in the evenings, when parents came back from work to help them to understand an essence of the theory of plural intelligence and its application. «Active involving of parents, - marks Tsze-Tsi CHen, - helps to be convinced that they accurately understand that expect from the child of the teacher, and that houses they will provide corresponding educational possibilities» [142, the river 37].

It is necessary to notice, that the concentration of the Chinese formation on a family has found the reflexion in curricula. Many Chinese teachers of the theory of plural intelligence consider, that training to their understanding of feelings of parents, their values, requirements, interests and efforts which they put in education and training of children should be the priority purpose of curricula for development of interpersonal intelligence in children. «As intelligence are divided between members of a family, understanding children of the parents, - underlines Tsze-Tsi CHen, - as it is important, as knowledge parents of children. Understanding of that, how much they are similar or differ from the parents, also promotes occurrence of consciousness of the child and formation of its person. Thus, parents, unequivocally, the river 37] promotes development in the child of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence» [142.

The understanding of the central role of a family in intellectual development and formation of the child induces the Chinese teachers to frequent use at training of a group method. Leaning against the experience in a family, members of group carry out roles of brothers and sisters. They behave as brothers and sisters, working together, both in school, and behind its limits. Within the limits of group pupils supplement and support strengths and knowledge each other in the educational activity based on projects. As marks Tsze-Tsi CHen, «carrying out roles of brothers and sisters, both senior, and younger pupils feel much bigger desire to share the
Ideas, materials and to help, each other to carry out of the task. Teachers notice, that when pupils work in group «brothers and sisters», quality of their work much above, than for other groups »[142, the river 37].

It is necessary to notice, that use of children's understanding of a family for formation of groups of training concerns in China, basically, one-age groups. Practice of formation of the uneven-age groups, widely applied at the American schools of plural intelligence, in China, has not received a wide circulation. As writes Tsze-Tsi CHen, «most likely it« grows »from mutual support experience, as key value of the Chinese family» [142, the river 37].

Unlike the approach of the American schools for which value of the theory of plural intelligence consists that it concentrates the attention to independence and equality of pupils, for the Chinese formation more valuable is their mutual relations and mutual support. It is connected by that they serve as keys to harmony, and it is the most important value of the Chinese society.

Proceeding from a cultural value and practical value of harmony, the Chinese teachers have applied the theory of plural intelligence so that to keep harmony. As an example of preservation of harmony at an effective utilisation of the theory of plural intelligence the help to pupils in comprehension of their weak places and work on their overcoming can serve. To generate the harmonious person, just and it is necessary for teachers to know a full intellectual profile kazhd about go the pupil.

Other example of preservation of harmony the Chinese teachers at application of the theory of plural intelligence is balance preservation between "more" and "less" in the curriculum and teaching. Today the principle «is more» is one of the important pedagogical principles among the Chinese schools less. It is directed on disclosing of potential of pupils by balancing of quantity with quality
For harmony achievement in teaching and training. «The attention to key skills and kontseptam which provide development in disciplinary areas, - writes Tsze-Tsi CHen, - as it is important, as well as the big variety of subject matters in curricula» [142, the river 39]. Teachers at these schools understand value and value of teaching "less", using a technique of plural intelligence. Teaching means "less", that teachers and their pupils develop a profound knowledge of those kontseptov which can be applicable in daily kinds of activity. « Perfection of this knowledge in the form of key concepts and skills, - marks Tsze-Tsi CHen, - leads to their wider application. As they expand scopes, pupils meet new key concepts and skills in various areas which can become the purposes for following educational cycles. Through these cycles teachers keep balance of a profound knowledge and understanding with a variety of educational possibilities »[142, the river 39].

So, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that development of individual training through the collective is an example the unique approach to the theory of the plural intelligence based on the Chinese value of harmony. Unlike representatives of the West for whom concepts individual and collective were mutually exclusive, for Chineses two these concepts are complementary. Harmony is reached, when individuals supplement each other and thus form the individuality. Collective training in China is the important condition for development of individual intellectual features. At the same time a variety of individualities promotes collective enrichment.

It is necessary to notice, that applying the theory of plural intelligence, the Chinese teachers have worked hard to develop individualizirovanno e collective training - training which takes into consideration individual distinctions in a context
Group activity. Working with the big groups of pupils, teachers satisfy their individual distinctions by means of their involving in definition of the maintenance and selection of educational methods. The purpose is improvement of productivity of all pupils, and it is reached by definition of requirements and strengths of each pupil.

Thus, instead of competing to other members of group (on what does an emphasis the western educational practice), each pupil adds the strengths to group, and it works as a unit. «The deep recognition of harmony and balance which are such fundamental in culture of China, naturally, - marks Tsze - TSi CHen, - leads to interrelation between individual and collective. At practical realisation of educational activity on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence this communication becomes more

Balanced »[142, the river 40].

It is important to underline, that success and a wide circulation of the theory of plural intelligence in China "quality education" has been in many respects connected by that this theory will very well be co-ordinated with a new educational policy of China, called. This educational policy focuses the attention on various ways of training and development. According to it, excellent successes in study should not be unique measurement of achievements of pupils. It is necessary for teachers and parents to pay equal attention and to other abilities of pupils, such as art, sports, music and moral formation.

Pays attention, that necessity of a new educational policy for China has been dictated by that uneasy situation for parents and pupils which has developed in the Chinese formation by this time. The matter is that last decades entrance examinations in the college, known as (GaoKao) became the most important in the course of training and teaching in China. Pupils who showed excellent results at examinations, were considered as "good pupils», and those who
Typed small quantity of points - «bad pupils». From-for this emotional pressure, both upon parents, and upon pupils, in China the quantity of children's suicides has increased. This destructive situation in a combination to a lack of educational resources has drawn attention of the Chinese teachers and the government. On the agenda there was a question how to find more effective ways of preparation of pupils for their successful realisation in such quickly varying world. The governmental concept of a quality education accepted in 1999 became the answer to it a question also. «In attempt to find theoretical support for this concept, the theory of plural intelligence, - writes Hoi Pin CHzhan, - has served as practically magic elixir for the Chinese formation» [143, the river 44].

The decision on deepening of reforms of formation and advancement so-called «characteristic formation» was well co-ordinated with the theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner. «Its theory, Whether-marks the former first vice-premier of China Lantsin, - offers a wide picture of individual abilities of the person. It comprises some important references concerning our attempts to enter characteristic formation» [165, the river 316].

Like the theory of plural intelligence, characteristic training extends on all pupils. It means, that «any pupil should not be forgotten». The formation purpose is assistance to development of pupils morally, is information, physically and aesthetically. The main task of characteristic formation is maintenance by means of various methods of training of possibility for children to reveal best of their individual abilities and propensities during realisation of uniform formation within the limits of the basic curricula [174, the river 59].

It was reform of the maintenance of formation and methods of teaching, methods otsenivanija. It urged to realise the new pedagogical paradigm which kernel is transition to new in practice
To reference point - "formation for the sake of improvement of quality of development of the person of the pupil". It means, that all work is under construction round idea of creation of the favorable educational environment in which each pupil has an opportunity to open the potential abilities and freely and harmoniously to develop as the person [126, с.96]. Introduction of characteristic formation one of the major reforms in China for last years.

After several years of studying and application of the theory of plural intelligence in China, some teachers, heads of schools and politicians have decided to analyse the experience of application of this theory. The analysis and the carried out researches have shown, that only rather a small amount of teachers really understand the theory of plural intelligence. On the basis of inquiry from teachers and heads of schools and at support The Sino Capital Education Foundation in April, 2003 the Chinese educational community of plural intelligence (MIESC) has been created. It is the noncommercial organisation which consists of schools, teachers and parents who have studied ideas of the theory of plural intelligence and its practical application. They aspire to present this theory as it is possible bolshemu for quantity of teachers and to train them that they could understand is better the theory of plural intelligence and its practical application. Within the limits of this community teachers can share the experience and answer the questions connected with the theory of plural intelligence and its practical application.

Within last several years MIESC has organised working meetings, seminars and conferences for teachers, school managers and politicians. The majority of these actions was spent in cooperation with the local commission by training. MIESC also helps the schools practising the theory of plural intelligence, shares the experience with others national and international
Schools, helps to estimate the curriculums, means, programs of preparation of teachers and the program for parents, represents results of researches within the limits of plural intelligence and the information to the Chinese schools. Working with the personnel, MIESC helps schools to define the own purposes for children as a whole and for each child separately. Thus the plural intelligence is only the tool for realisation of these purposes.

It is necessary to notice, that MIESC has elicited that fact, that the theory of plural intelligence most well works not in classical grammar schools where necessity prevails over teachers and pupils to pass total examinations, and at specialised schools, the centres on work with pupils with backlog in intellectual development and so-called «schools of possibilities».

As example of such schools can serve Xicheng Peichi - school in Beijing where children with backlog in development are trained. Before application of the theory of plural intelligence at this school of the teacher adhered to traditional ways otsenivanija and used the curricula based on linguistics and the mathematician. They classified pupils by results of testings of level IQ and formed classes, proceeding from these data, disregarding an age difference. Thus teachers have been absolutely exhausted, trying to learn to their account and the letter, and pupils got tired of attempts to do that they hardly could understand.

The most essential contribution of the theory of plural intelligence to training at this school consisted in helping to generate at pupils their own purpose of training: to prepare these pupils so that they could serve itself and were capable to social adaptation.

Thus, the concept of plural intelligence has given the chance to school and to its teachers on-new to look at unique abilities and weaknesses of each pupil and to develop for them
Certain kinds of activity. As the result, was pleasant to pupils the new curriculum, they became more self-assured as their talents have been revealed and recognised. Some of pupils have taken part in the specialised Olympic Games and have occupied there prize-winning places [143, the river 48].

Teachers of school are inspired by history Syzhuj TSzja. She is the schoolgirl of this school who well proved in corporally-kinesteticheskoj activity and began to be engaged seriously in sports gymnastics, specialising in performances on a log. As a result it managed to win a gold medal in specialised Olympic games. Now it works as the trainer in department of corporate relations in the leading world organisation of public health services - Chinese Bayer Group [143, the river 48].

It is important to notice, that MIESC has much made for preparation of experts on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence. In work with teachers the basic emphasis becomes on how to help them to estimate strong and weak intellectual profiles of pupils, how to use different ways of application of disciplinary approaches at training of various pupils. They invite skilled teachers for demonstration of receptions of the theory of plural intelligence at work in a class and their further discussion.

It is necessary to underline, that experts MIESC warn that simple copying of another's experience can cause problems and not give that effect which the teacher from application of the theory of plural intelligence expect. There is no uniform educational formula as each class and each pupil is unique, and each teacher should find an own way prepodnesenija knowledge. And if the offered experts try to copy the teacher blindly, and not having understood their essence and spirit of the theory it leads to problems, and they cannot reach objects in view and achieve the necessary results. In that case the theory of plural intelligence is perceived, not as the help, and as burden [143, the river 48, 50].

The theory of plural intelligence has changed sights of the Chinese teachers at pupils, the educational purposes and a policy, methods of teaching, training and otsenivanija at schools in three ways.

First, in educational philosophy the theory of plural intelligence has expanded prospects of China. She motivated teachers to revision of the relation to intelligence, abilities of pupils, the organisations of school and methods otsenivanija. If earlier the Chinese teachers turned the basic attention on pupils who showed high indicators in linguistic and logiko-mathematical intelligence, and measured them by means of written tests now the considerable quantity of teachers gives attention to that pupils who well own other kinds of intelligence.

It is necessary to notice, that such approach allows to find the strong intellectual parties even at those pupils who did not show good results on traditional tests.

So, for example, in high school of №3 districts Chanpin in Beijing there was a pupil who showed very bad results in linguistic intelligence. He could not read even the short poem consisting of 20 Chinese hieroglyphs. But the teacher has noticed its propensity to display of corporal intelligence and the role of the hero in classical statement has suggested it to play. It promoted increase of its self-trust therefore the pupil could master language problems facing to it and to progress in study. As a result he could read an essay in one thousand hieroglyphs [174, the river 57].

Secondly, the theory of plural intelligence has advanced reforms of methods of teaching and otsenivanija at school. For example, in an elementary school №4 Hepingli in Beijing teachers develop methods of training with application of design activity of pupils, being based on experience American Key School. In high school of the city of Chzhuchen, a province Shandong, a management and teachers develop intelligence of pupils through
Methods otsenivanija in various contexts within the limits of school and behind its limits. So one of estimated systems had seven categories with 42 points, including the various methods developed for an estimation of seven kinds of intelligence. Practically 90 % of pupils have received awards that has inspired them on achievement of the further progress. Many have entered into these percent of those who showed bad results at standard examinations [174, the river 57­58].

Assistance of the Chinese teachers to an effective international exchange in a sphere of education became the third area of changes. In May 2004 within the limits of an annual meeting of supporters of plural intelligence which passed in Beijing and where was present more than 700 scientists, teachers and employees from China, the USA, Canada, Australia, Japan and Singapore, Howard Gardner's invited to this meeting performance with the basic report on its vision of the theory of plural intelligence has taken place. As a result of this and similar meetings many intercultural contact with mutual benefit for Chinese and other educational systems has been adjusted.

For last decade the theory of plural intelligence has made huge impact on the Chinese educational reforms. It is paradoxical, but the fact, that it has appeared is more popular and has found bolshee application in China, than on the native land in the United States. Occurrence and distribution of the theory of plural intelligence in China was result of the acculturation, spent in the course of increasing frequency of an exchange between the East and the West.

Successful application of the theory of plural intelligence in China was not result of an exact copy of the theory of the plural intelligence applied in the USA. Approving values of the theory of plural intelligence, nevertheless, in China there was its assimilation according to cultural traditions and values. Key positions and values of the theory have been thus kept.

Thus, the inclusiveness of the theory of plural intelligence in the Chinese educational space is visible at all levels and in all geographical areas of the country. Introduced within the Chinese cultural zone of the nearest development, the theory of plural intelligence was based on force of the Chinese reform of formation and has extended on its achievements. Appreciating harmony, the Chinese teachers applying the theory of plural intelligence, tried to reach balance between the various purposes and the tutorials considering both individual interests, and the group purposes. Acculturation process in China assumes new application of the theory of plural intelligence and deepens understanding of the major role which is played by culture in distribution of the theory of plural intelligence worldwide. Under the guidance of this theory Chineses have changed the sight at pupils, the educational purposes and a policy, teaching and training methods, methods otsenivanija at many schools and at many educational levels.

It is necessary to notice, that now the Chinese teachers have reached stages of the reflex relation to practice of the theory of plural intelligence. After an initial stage of distribution of the theory of plural intelligence in China which its wide application in educational activity has followed, now the Chinese teachers have a desire to participate that they name «quiet thought process». The central question of this process of a reflexion is how further to integrate the theory in a context of modern educational practice of China. The purpose is use of the theory of plural intelligence for satisfaction of requirements of the Chinese educational reform and practical application of the theory of plural intelligence according to specificity of the Chinese society.

Conclusions

In the second chapter of the dissertation «Practical application of pedagogical views of Howard Gardner in modern formation» has been shown successful application of the theory of plural intelligence in student teaching of some schools of the USA and China.

Studying of experience of schools of the USA and China, world powers two most developed and influential today, shows, that introduction of the theory of plural intelligence in educational practice demands deep understanding of this theory and methods of its practical application. The operational experience American Key School, New City School and the Chinese educational community of plural intelligence MIESC has revealed, that process of realisation of the theory of plural intelligence demands from teachers of change of their student teaching, use of other methods otsenivanija, and also the big expenses of time for realisation of planning and preparation for lessons. The important condition is balance observance between methods and the receptions of training based on positions of the theory of plural intelligence and traditional educational experts. Creation of such curricula in which application of the given theory corresponds to the educational purposes and problems is necessary, being, thus, an effective remedy on a way to mastering by knowledge.

Practice of successful application of the theory of plural intelligence, both in the USA, and in China, allows to assert, that carrying over of ready educational programs on the basis of the theory of the plural intelligence, used in one schools, not only does not bring expected effect from realisation of the given theory in pedagogical activity of other educational institutions, but also causes problems during its practical application. In each concrete case the educational should be developed
The program which corresponds to the educational purposes and problems of the given educational institution.

It is underlined, that the important distinctive line of the theory of plural intelligence is possibility of its realisation taking into account cultural about sobennostej that country in which it takes root. The analysis of practical application of the given theory in the American and Chinese educational experts allows to draw a conclusion, that the theory of plural intelligence equally well satisfies to requirements both the individually-focused western approach to formation, and based on konfutsianskoj traditions of the Chinese educational approach. Within the limits of this tradition the intelligence is considered as attribute of the family which members represent uniform educational space.

Also it is underlined, that conclusive advantage of the theory of plural intelligence is possibility of its application not only in general educational, but also at specialised schools for children with backlog in intellectual development. Use of the concept of the given theory in the course of educational activity at such schools has allowed teachers to reconsider the purposes and training problems. As a result, the new curriculums providing effective social adaptation of pupils have been developed.

Thus, positive experience of schools of the USA and China at the heart of which educational activity the theory of plural intelligence lays, allows to draw a conclusion on efficiency of application of the given theory in school education, and also prospects of its further distribution and use in other countries.

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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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