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factors of formation and development of conceptual bases soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation in Russia of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginnings

Throughout XIX - the beginnings of the XX-th centuries the Russian system gimnazicheyoskogo formations was in a condition of continuous transformation. proyoishodivshie modernisations formed new educational ideals, soyovershenstvovali conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija.

As a rule, these modernisations had strongly pronounced socially significant character, drew attention of the educated society and stanoviyolis a subject of fruitful discussions.

The formed system of gymnasia formation in Russia in the beginning of XIX century possessed significant humanistic pedagogical potential. During the period to the middle of XIX century the Russian grammar school was at a stage svoeyogo formation under influence and a management of universities and gradually preyovratilas in the academic grammar school of the humanitarian type preparing junoyoshestvo to development of university sciences and oposredovanno not connected with practical life. I.A.Aleshintsev noticed, that in the first years XIX stoyoletija in the educational legislation we see some truly liberal lines because at this time the government wished to be liberal [3, s.57-60].

After Great reforms of 1860th years connected with consequences of cancellation of the serfdom, and prior to the beginning of the XX-th century the developing economy formirovayola the social order for overcoming of gymnasia classicism and obektivyono demanded its cancellation.

Became obvious, that educational level of graduates gimyonazii could not satisfy any more growing requirements Russian promyshyolennosti.

For definition of leading tendencies of development of the maintenance gimnazicheyoskogo formations of the second іюловиныXIX - the XX-th century beginnings considerable impact on the maintenance gimnazicheyoskogo formations in Russia the considered period is system proanaliyoziruem the factors, made.

- the beginnings of the XX-th century and essentially affected on formirovayonie bases of the maintenance of gymnasia formation, it is possible to divide the factors which have caused strengthening of attention of the state and a society to modernisation of the maintenance of formation in the Russian grammar school second poloviyony XIX conditionally on socially - political, socially - economic, sotsialnoyokulturologicheskie and scientifically - pedagogical.

І.sotsialno - the political factor throughout second half XIX century rendered difficult and inconsistent influence on development soderyozhanija formations in the Russian grammar schools. Influence sotsialnoyopoliticheskogo the factor during the considered period generated not only poziyotivnye changes in development of the maintenance of gymnasia formation, but also has caused negative consequences of such influence. In this connection oharakteyorizuem a role of the state concept of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija which is understood as state policy evolution in sphere of the maintenance of the gymnasia formation, carrying out administrative management both state, and private gymnasia formation.

The state concept of the maintenance of gymnasia formation substantially defined development Russian gymnasia obrayozovanija through:

• financing;

• selection of pedagogical shots;

• control of world outlook priorities to a soya

derzhanija gymnasia formation.

Heightened interest to the state concept of the maintenance of gymnasia formation is caused by a number of circumstances:

• in the lead, and at certain stages of historical development by an overwhelming role of the state concept in maintenance development gimyonazicheskogo formations;

• strengthening of conservative tendencies in a state policy in sphere of development of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in 70 - 90th years of XIX century;

• levelling of the socially-cultural urological factor in razviyotii formations;

• increase in gymnasia formation of the archaic tendencies complicating successful adaptation to inquiries of the Russian society in an education sphere in second half XIX centuries.

Let's define following criteria of realisation of the state concept of the maintenance of gymnasia formation:

• adaptation of gymnasia formation to inquiries it is dynamical meyonjajushchegosja society;

• finding by grammar schools of the status and comprehension of educational mission in conditions of increase of pragmatic tendencies, characteristic for razyovitija the Russian system of the general education during the period which has followed after Great reform of 1861, cancelled the serfdom.

Second half XIX centuries was marked by increase obshchestvennoyopoliticheskoj activity in questions of definition of strategy of development soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation. It has found the reflexion in razrayobotke of some author's concepts, active discussion of problems of development soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation on pages of the pedagogical press. However the decision of questions of definition of strategy of development of the maintenance gimnayozicheskogo formations on - former was completely supervised gosudaryostvennoj by the power. It is necessary to recognise, what even at high level pedagoyogicheskoj activity the public including it is professional - pedagoyo
gicheskaja, objectively could not incur completely responsibility for definition of development of the maintenance of gymnasia formation. It, in chastnoyosti, has been caused by accruing politicisation and radikalizatsiej societies and not quite proved tendency expressed in aspiration gosudaryostva to solve questions of the educational policy as purely political voyoprosy at which the pedagogics departed on the peripheral plan.

2. Under socially - the business factor means vozdejyostvie certain economic interests and a way of life of the educated social classes defining inquiries to valuable priorities and obrazoyovatelnoj of activity of the state and private grammar schools.

These factors were formed from the period of domination agrarian otnoyosheny (first half XIX centuries) till the period of intensive industrialisation of the country and occurrence of the monopolistically capital in the XX-th century beginning. In osyonove realisations of socio-economic factors were tendencies of development of capitalist relations in Russia and dynamics of inquiries razlichyonyh social classes to the purposes and the maintenance of gymnasia formation. V.J.Stojunin specified, that the Russian grammar schools, since the moment vozyoniknovenija, were not independent educational institutions their primary goal there was a preparation of university listeners [221].

Socio-economic factors proved in peryovoj half XIX centuries insufficiently. However after reforms 1860 - h years and especially in nachayole the XX-th centuries the developing economy pressed for modernisations of a conceptual substantiation and updating of the maintenance gymnasia obrayozovanija. Accruing development of economic potential of Russia demanded creation of such type of average and the higher school which graduates would have high enough level both gymnasia, and special obrazovayonija for effective practical activities on the further development of economy, technics, the industry and culture of Russia.

Among socially-business factors influencing on soderyozhanie of formation in grammar schools, it is necessary to allocate:

1. Progressiveness of capitalism in comparison with the previous period of social development: capitalism development in the countries of Europe became the factor, making powerful impact on a policy and economy of Russia where there was a reorganisation of economic relations on a market basis.

2. The economic reform has caused changes obshchestvennoyoekonomicheskie and political. Serfdom cancellation, zemskaja and gorodyoskaja, judicial and military reforms have been directed on progressive preobyorazovanija in the field of the right, culture, national education and as a whole on deyomokratizatsiju social relations in a society.

Thus, gradual escalating of economic potential of Russia objectively demanded creation of such type of average and the higher school which graduates would have high enough level as an average, and vocational training for effective activity on dalnejsheyomu to development of economy, technics, the industry and culture of Russia.

3. Under socially - the cultural urological factor means soyostojanie cultural and, in particular, mental development of a society, influence of the public and political organisations, those political moods or other social strata which were capable owing to the outlook and an orientation of interests to affect conceptual bases of the maintenance of educational activity of grammar schools.

However thus it is necessary to recognise existence of the strongly pronounced public inquiries assuming preservation classical soderzhayonija of gymnasia formation as a condition of reproduction of traditions, svjayozannyh with formation of domestic intelligency, characteristic osobenyonostju which high level of philological culture acted.

In the Russian state and a society there was a constant struggle protivoyostojashchih political forces and interests, that in some cases was ambiguously reflected in objectivity of public estimations of prospects of development to dew
sijskih grammar schools. Development of the Russian society and, first of all, it proyosveshchennyh layers involved change of the inquiries shown to konyotseptualnym to bases, the theoretical maintenance and valuable prioriteyotam gymnasia formation.

Socially - the cultural urological factor which has rendered considerable vlijayonie on definition of tendencies of development Russian gymnasia obrazovayonija, caused evolution of cultural requirements of a society and its separate layers in relation to the maintenance of gymnasia formation and kontseptuyoalnym to bases of its development, generated alternative inquiry to the maintenance of the gymnasia formation, especially brightly designated in the XX-th century beginning.

He assumed profound studying of that is maximum priblizheyono to conditions of a cultural life of the modern person.

From the beginning of the establishment the Russian grammar schools created at uniyoversitetah, have been urged to provide development of national culture and scientific thought. In this connection A.J.Butov notices, that preservation of common cultural values and high level of philological culture of grammar-school boys [32, с.252] was the purpose otechestvennoyogo a classical education. Developing this thesis, A.A. Sagittariuses has underlined, that the classical grammar school did not give the finished formation. In it forms with which predstoyojalo to fill with the maintenance at the top step of training though the pure form without the maintenance - nonsense, and it is abstractly-general education useless for a life [219, c.98-105] prepared only.

It has been caused by that actually, being in full podchineyonii universities, grammar schools have been urged to promote creation neobhoyodimyh conditions for preparation of the future students for training in university and for their familiarising with research work. This mission later has been extended to all formed system gymnasia obrazoyovanija. Besides, in society of Russia of second half XIX century accrued konyoflikt between those social groups which owing to the mentality and cultural-educational traditions were criticised by gymnasia classicism

As an original symbol of archaism, and those who defended its potential as a condition of preservation of the general and in particular humanitarian culture of a society.

Thus negative for the Russian gymnasia formation javljayolos that among its supporters enough influential force were the convinced conservatives who did not suppose the possibility modifiyokatsii conceptual bases of the maintenance of formation and to it is inevitable obreyokali it on arhaizatsiju. Threat of it was especially boldly showed in the beginning of XX century. Absence of harmony in influence is state - political and socially-cultural urological factors has caused relyoefno expressed in 70 - 80th years of XIX century deformation signs gimnaziyocheskogo formations: restriction of independence and freedom of scientific and civil thinking of teachers and grammar-school boys, deduction of grammar-school boys, koyotorye mismatched strict requirements of grammar schools.

Thus, the gymnasia education system has been called reyoshat a number of the scientifically-educational and cultural urological problems substantially close to similar problems of a university education. It is necessary to carry to number of such problems of cultural urological character:

• achievement by graduates of a grammar school rather high urovyonja knowledge and cultural - educational development, that in the future should be the base basis for their familiarising to domestic intelyoligentsii;

• development in grammar-school boys formally - logic thinking, otyokryvavshego prospect for formation of the person capable to samostojayotelnoj to an estimation of a public life, including the phenomena connected with feyonomenom of interface of cultural development domestic and world sotsiuyomov;

• achievement of high level gumanitarno-philological podgoyotovki grammar-school boys thanks to studying by them classical and modern inoyostrannyh languages, to constant practice of transfer and formation to the literature
nogo the taste based on understanding of all nuances of an oral and written word.

4. By the scientific and pedagogical factor, first of all, are meant the general development exact, natural and the humanities. The Nauchnoyopedagogichesky factor made defining impact on the maintenance gimnayozicheskogo formations throughout XIX - the XX-th century beginnings. Russian gimyonazija as European focused education system, throughout the formation and development has appeared under the influence of consequences of two nauchyonyh revolutions.

Scientific revolution of the end XVIII - first half XIX centuries, led to the disciplinary organisation of a science and its further differentiation, not poyovlijala on domination of a humanitarian component in the maintenance gimnaziyocheskogo formations. A consequence of this revolution was the statement in public consciousness of thought on necessity of application entsiklopedicheyoskogo the approach to development of the Russian gymnasia formation. In sootvetyostvii with a principle entsiklopedizma, the grammar-school boy should receive predyostavlenie about all most significant aspects scientific, cultural and obshcheyostvennoj lives of modern society. This principle has appeared most trudyonym for realisation and demanded, first of all, to a versatility of knowledge pedayogoga and abilities of each of teachers to transfer to pupils the inteyores to a science and love to knowledge.

Scientific revolution of the beginning of the XX-th century was marked by opening of the theory of a relativity, the quantum mechanics, cybernetics and development of others oblayostej the knowledge capable qualitatively to change public consciousness, and also has generated conviction in necessity of strengthening of relative density estestvenyononauchnogo a component of knowledge in the maintenance of gymnasia formation. In this connection science development has put before domestic pedagogics a number of the problems connected with working out of qualitatively new concept of development, okazyyovalo leading influence on the maintenance of gymnasia formation.

Pedagogical science with conceptual thinking inherent in it razviyovalas in a context and near to other humanities. In this connection it is necessary to underline especially scientifically-conceptual value pedagogicheyoskogo knowledge for development of the theory of the maintenance Russian gymnasia obyorazovanija. The Scientific and pedagogical factor was boldly shown in development natural, engineering science, and also a pedagogical science that has created a basis for modernisation of the maintenance of gymnasia formation. From the beginning of XIX century this component was included into the maintenance of formation of all system rosyosijskih grammar schools. Owing to a high level of development of the humanities and trayoditsy language formation the humanitarian component remained dominiruyojushchim in the Russian grammar school up to the XX-th century end.

However development of engineering science last decades XIX and in osoyobennosti in the XX-th century beginning has convinced, that society progress is connected not only with development of humanitarian thought, but also with development of technics and technologies. It meant, that gymnasia formation as formation of a humanitarian orientation lost the superiority before other variants obyorazovatelnyh establishments. Increase of a role of physical and mathematical sciences in second half XIX centuries and inseparable from them chemistry, has proved to biology, that the scientific outlook cannot be generated without the reference to miyorovozzrencheskomu to potential of natural sciences. In this connection there was postavyoleno under doubt a statement, that is formal-logic spoyosobnostej at pupils classic languages it is much more useful to development, than sciences, in osnoyove which the mathematics as in fundamental, and applied asyopektah lays. It is necessary to recognise, that on the status of gymnasia formation okayozyvala influence and the changed mission of universities. They prepared now not so much officials, how many scientists and the intellectuals who have connected the life with sciences not only humanitarian, but also a natural-science orientation.

Ideas of development of a pedagogical science found the reflexion in soderyozhanii educational concepts of the Russian grammar schools.

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A source: Markov NIKOLAY STEPANOVICH. Development of conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija in Russia of second half XIX - the XXI-st century beginnings. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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  1. THE CHAPTER I. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE MAINTENANCE OF GYMNASIA FORMATION IN RUSSIA OF SECOND HALF XIX - THE XX-TH CENTURY BEGINNINGS.
  2. MARKOV Nikolay Stepanovich. DEVELOPMENT of CONCEPTUAL BASES of the MAINTENANCE of GYMNASIA FORMATION In Russia of SECOND HALF XIX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
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