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1.1. Factors of formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian subject matters of classical gymnasia formation as a condition of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys

Formation and evolution of the maintenance of general and domestic history substantially leave for chronological frameworks of the considered period and cover approximately XVII - the beginning of XX centuries Owing to this circumstance of the logician of research assumes some exit for its rigidly outlined chronological borders.

It gives the chance to address to sources of formation of a historical component of the maintenance of school education and to avoid unreasonable intermittence in judgement of formation and development of the maintenance of history as subject matter of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries

The special attention according to logic of carried out research is taken away to interpretation and specification of concepts of historical consciousness of the person and the historical consciousness cultivated by a classical grammar school.

The requirement for its judgement, readiness and ability is meant historical consciousness of the person in a context of carried out research to put the lichnostno-significant spiritual and world outlook problems connected with sformirovannost steady interest to history,
Multidimensional development of a society. The historical consciousness also includes some sformirovannost complete representation about the maintenance and an orientation of development of historical process according to level of historical knowledge, age and specific features of attitude of the person; its vital impressions and originality of private world. Attempt of complete perception of history can carry not complete, inconsistent and a little inconsistent character and to vary in process of a growing and the further individual development of the person.

The historical consciousness cultivated by classical gymnasia formation, has been urged to combine a Christian sight at the history, based on aspiration to its interpretation from positions of ideals of mercy and love to the God and the person as to the carrier of the higher Divine; readiness for an estimation of events of history of all epoch from the point of view of moral criteria of good and the harm, defined by spiritual influence of orthodox church; moderately positivistic approach to history as to a subject matter assuming possibility and necessity of the analysis prichinnoyosledstvennyh of communications between historical events, the phenomena and processes; the statement of conviction that all standards of moral acts of people and achievements of spiritual culture are already given by antiquity for all subsequent epoch in development of the countries belonging to the European culture. Propensity to the proved historical conclusions and the judgements predetermined by accuracy of transfer of fragments of texts from classic languages, language of Russian annals and the modern foreign languages which are historical sources, should be a necessary condition of formation in the future diligent, erudite and exacting to itself as to the researcher of the student of the Russian university.

Formation of historical consciousness in the conditions of a domestic classical grammar school is represented impossible without the reference not only to
To scientifically-intellectual and spiritually-cultural potential of history as subject matter, but also to all humanitarian component of gymnasia classicism. The concept «the maintenance of general and domestic history» demands specification.

In a context of carried out research it is obviously possible to specify maintenances of general and domestic history as subject matter.

The maintenance of general and domestic history as subject matter of the investigated period us is understood as system of historical knowledge and generalisations and the ways of intellectual and social activity connected with them and the emotionally-valuable relation to the events of history subject to mastering by grammar-school boys and forming their historical consciousness.

The analysis of chronologically considerable historical period, approximately from the middle XVII prior to the beginning of the XX-th centuries, shows, that formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian classical gymnasia formation as conditions of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys were carried out under the influence of steady invarianta factors. Some of them dominated throughout all considered period, others strengthened the value and reached domination at certain stages of evolution of the maintenance of a humanitarian component in system of domestic gymnasia formation.

With some share of convention these factors can be designated as state, social, cultural urological, philosophical, pedagogical, scientific and economic. The structure of these factors does not include the factor political, that on our belief, is connected by that it is objectively inevitably reflected in the maintenance of each of the specified factors.

Probably, a little nonconventionally the business factor is not considered in research as dominating as the maintenance of historical formation, substantially, is defined by development
Historical science, spiritual life of a society and pedagogical thought. Nevertheless, it is not obviously possible to ignore influence of a business factor on inquiries of a society and the states shown to the maintenance of historical formation in a domestic classical grammar school.

In the maintenance of the offered paragraph the special place is given the analysis of the state and pedagogical factors. Heightened interest to the state factor is defined by its dominating role remaining on an extent read all investigated period. The special place, taken away to the pedagogical factor, is dictated by its extreme importance caused by the general istoriko-pedagogical orientation of carried out research.

The characteristic of defining factors of development of historical formation gives the following picture.

The state factor in development of a humanitarian component of domestic classical gymnasia formation throughout all investigated period assumed necessity of purposeful formation by means of history and other humanitarian disciplines of the person as much as possible corresponding to ideals and the purposes of an internal state policy. To number of lines of the historical consciousness which cultivation is caused by influence of the state factor, it is obviously necessary to carry installation on service to the state interests in internal and foreign policy; orientirovannost on execution of a patriotic debt; readiness, in case of emergency to sacrifice the life and personal interests for the sake of interests of the state. According to a state policy the maintenance of domestic classical gymnasia formation has been urged to form in the person such lines, as: zakonoposlushanie, absolute office sense of duty, responsibility for execution of civil and daily professional duties. Throughout XIX century the state paradigm in the course of formation of historical consciousness appeared inseparable from
Cultivations of an ideal of the autocratic government as unique for Russia not only in the present, but also the remote historical future; adherences of orthodox church (for persons of orthodox creed); inadmissibility of any forms of the political activity anyhow connected with radical opponirovaniem of the government.

One of the first displays of influence of the state factor on definition of the maintenance of historical formation was growth of interest of the government to history as to just arising domestic science which is traced already in second half XV centuries when «annals get more and more publicistic character». Attempts to consider event in their relationship of cause and effect when they start to speak not only the Divine Foresight, but also activity of people are observed. The most considerable monuments of historical thought of this time - the general Russian annalistic arches made in Moscow in 1472 and 1479-1480 at a grand-ducal court yard. They had official character, their composers used the governmental archives. At this time and the system of government agencies develops, being more and more centralised. In Moscow materials any more only the Moscow origin, but also arrived of other regions »[85, 29] concentrate.

The tendency to an establishment of relationships of cause and effect and easing of a religious-mystical explanation of events testify to creation of conditions for history origin as sciences. However objective inevitability of an establishment of the state control over selection and interpretation of the historic facts which are subject to annalistic reflexion is thus traced, most likely.

This tendency to easing of author's annalistic activity is traced up to the Petrovsky epoch. As historian M.O.Kojalovich marks: «... Times, as John IV and Boris Godunov, giving the wide
And shpionstvu, a lot of influence on easing of annalistic activity had open space of suspiciousness. But the biggest blow of annalistic activity was put, undoubtedly, by Peter I when has forbidden simple monks to hold in Spiritual regulations in cells a paper and ink »[115, 54].

It is characteristic, that already in second half XVII centuries attempt of studying of history under the first textbook focused on children of tsar Alexey Mihajlovicha and seigniorial youth from the nearest imperial environment is undertaken. Under the decree of the tsar in 1668 the textbook «History about tsars and grand dukes of the earth Russian», under authorship of clerk F.A.Griboedov who had significant personal experience of the state activity and diplomatic service is written. The most typical lines of the given textbook connected with the first experience of influence of the government on realisation of world outlook and pedagogical potential of domestic history were:

• purposeful orientation of the textbook to formation of "the Moscow majestic youth», that is the future representatives of the state political elite [82, XIII];

• cultivation of heightened interest to family traditions, the statement of thought on inseparability of history of sovereigns and seigniorial families from history of Russia [In the same place, XI];

• thought on exclusiveness of an origin of a dynasty of Romanovs from August - the Caesar Roman; a substantiation of special spiritual mission of Moscow as «third Rome» [In the same place, 6-8];

• to the tendency to obvious simplification of interpretation of a historical material so, in particular, the originator of Vague time declares Boris Godunov, and the greatest attention is given ascent on Michael Fedorovicha's Russian throne [In the same place, 26-28].

Thus, already in the first textbook of history tendencies to vozvelichivaniju a spiritual role of Russia, formation of respect for leading representatives of ruling circles and, first of all, to a sovereign as to a symbol were defined
The government. At the same time, most likely, according to conceptual representations about history of the given epoch in the centre of all events the will of separate people lays, but into question the Divine will defining their destinies thus is not called. Thus, the tendency to anthropocentrism is traced at preservation of the Bogotsentrichesky concept in interpretation of history which as though outwardly fades into the background.

The judgement and even narration about difficult and ambiguous events of domestic history (the tataro-Mongolian yoke, the description of battles, cruelty of an epoch of Ivan Groznogo) are absent, that, probably, can be explained unwillingness of their negative influence on children's perception and aspiration to give absolutely clear and monolithic paradigm of interpretation of the history, sustained in interests of ruling circles. [In the same place, 2-3].

Represents the special importance that traditions of deep studying of general and domestic history is traced by potential successors of a throne in history of a dynasty of Romanovs up to board of last Russian emperor.

Special jump in perfection of historical formation and, as consequence of it, formation of historical consciousness of rising generation was Peter I decision on obligatory teaching of history and introduction «studying of domestic history along with data from general» [214, 387].

Thus, the history not only continued to play one of defining roles in education of the future monarchs and children from ruling dynasties, but also was a component of formation of all educated social classes.

Value of this decision of Peter I up to the beginning of XX century gave the chance to the state to solve following political and educational problems:

• to form in the educated social classes the state-political thinking necessary for acceptance of administrative and managerial decisions;

• to stimulate interest to destiny of Russia and readiness to serve its interests;

• to spend through the maintenance of history of idea and the representations reflecting the state understanding of the purposes of formation and education of the Russian youth.

Defining influence of the state factor on development of the maintenance of historical formation is especially boldly traced in the state system of classical gymnasia formation throughout all investigated period.

The social factor is meant as moods, positions and belief of various social strata and those representatives or other social and political forces of Russia assuming realisation of one of possible variants of development of the maintenance of historical formation in domestic classical grammar schools. According to conditions of social development of Russia of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries the social factor reflected such diverse tendencies of development of public pedagogical thought, as is conservative-guarding, liberal and democratic. The is conservative-guarding direction appeared conformable to an orthodox state policy in sphere of formation of historical consciousness of pupils in classical gymnasia formation more often and in some cases it appeared capable to influence formation of radical conservative positions of the government in sphere of classical gymnasia formation. Strategic target of representatives of an is conservative-guarding direction among which, in particular, it is necessary to name such outstanding and bright public figures of Russia belonging by the various historical periods of its development, as historian N.M.Karamzin, teachers and publicists P.N.Leontev and M.N.Katkov and others, preservation steady the orthodox acted
Monarchic consciousness of domestic youth and formation of preconditions for stable development of the state and a society, protected from civil wars, revolutions and violent sociopolitical revolutions throughout foreseeable historical prospect. As the most significant negative influences on development of historical consciousness of pupils of classical grammar schools of the investigated period connected with influence of is conservative-guarding ideas, acted:

• ignoring of world outlook interests of grammar-school boys at history studying;

• leaving from discussion at lessons of history and other subject matters from purposeful pedagogical illumination of problems, the most significant and actual for an estimation of interrelation of the past and the present.

The liberal direction in definition of the maintenance of history as subject matter of classical gymnasia formation also assumed preservation of adherence to the state paradigm and, in particular, to purposeful cultivation of firmness of orthodox and monarchic consciousness. But thus the prospect for more free reflexion in the course of educational activity civil and istorikoyomirovozzrencheskih positions of the teacher opened; recognitions of the right to personal interpretation of historical events; fuller reflexion in the maintenance of a humanitarian component of achievements of a modern historical science; recognitions for grammar-school boys of the moral right to put and find answers to the most significant for them problems scientifically-world outlook, sotsialnoyopoliticheskogo and moral-ethical character history means.

Among ideas and the concepts focused on liberal development of formation of historical consciousness in classical gymnasia formation, it is obviously necessary to name what have found reflexion in works and scientific publications of the outstanding teacher and public figure N.I.Pirogova, visible domestic historians So-called Granovsky, P.G.Vinogradova, V.I.Gere, I.V.Luchitsky [189; 87, 192-201].

The democratic direction playing a role of a social factor in definition of prospects of development of historical consciousness in a classical grammar school, in particular, assumed:

• refusal of cultivation of monarchic belief as obligatory for graduates of domestic classical grammar schools, granting to teachers of history and grammar-school boys of freedom of religious-world outlook self-determination and realisation of a principle of a freedom of worship up to adherence to atheistic positions (including in definition of sights at the maintenance and inner meaning of historical process);

• a recognition for the teacher of the right to independence and freedom of interpretation of historical events under condition of observance of a principle of scientific character and historical reliability;

• stimulation of freedom and pedagogicheski the proved criticality of thinking of grammar-school boys in judgement of history;

• refusal of domination in the maintenance of history of questions of military both political character and development of interest to private world of the persons living during this or that historical epoch, to objective laws of historical process and spiritual culture of society.

Among those who has most full affected formation of the democratic approach to conceptual definition of a historical component of classical gymnasia formation, it is obviously necessary to name visible public figures A.I.Herzen, N.A.Dobrolyubov, D.I.Pisarev, N.G.Chernyshevsky [47; 48; 49; 190; 279].

However thus it is necessary to recognise, that resistance of the orthodox state factor was an obstacle for development of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school up to working out of the project of reform of P.N.Ignatyev (1915-1916).

The cultural urological factor assumes influence on the maintenance of a humanitarian component of classical gymnasia formation of the general developments spiritual and, in particular, historical culture of a society;
Features of valuable priorities and mentality of the separate educated social strata of a society of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries, capable to make the demands and inquiries to the maintenance of classical gymnasia formation.

One of the major components of development of spiritual culture in its influence on the maintenance of a humanitarian component of classical gymnasia formation and formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys was development of historical culture of the educated social classes. Level of historical culture of a society was defined by interest of the educated part of a society to scientifically-historical and the fiction reflecting historical subjects, and also popularity degree, spiritual and scientifically-world outlook influence of historians-researchers on formation of public consciousness and world outlook priorities of a society.

Development of domestic and West European philosophical thought is meant the philosophical factor XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries, the made defining impact on formation and realisation of an educational ideal of the person of the graduate of a classical grammar school and, in particular, on definition of educational problems of history as subject matter and all subject matters of a humanitarian component of the maintenance of the classical gymnasia formation, reflecting in itself historical knowledge and ways of their interpretation.

Complexity in definition of a role of the philosophical factor in development of the maintenance of history and all humanitarian subject matters forming historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school is caused:

• aspiration of the government (and, in particular, the Ministries of national education) to protect curriculums and textbooks of history from superfluous influence "filosofichnosti", threatening success of realisation of the state representations about the purposes of education and
Formations by history means, and also conviction of representatives of the government in inaccessibility of philosophical ideas to perception of the grammar-school boys, caused by features of their age and an erudition and life experience lack;

• radicalism and alternative neshozhestju of some philosophical ideas and the concepts, capable to lead to realisation of disputable and ambiguous interpretations of historical events and historical process as a whole.

At the same time it is necessary to recognise, that the public life of intellectual levels of the Russian society of the investigated period is penetrated by sociopolitical and filosofsko-world outlook concepts literally, that, most likely, does pedagogicheski unreasonable leaving from their popular statement in a course of history and other subject matters forming historical consciousness of grammar-school boys. Philosophical concepts and the historical generalisations leaving on level philosophical kontseptualnosti, appeared significant for interpretation of historical process and formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys. Their ignoring impoverished the maintenance of a training course of history and held down development of independence of historical thinking of grammar-school boys.

Evolution of the domestic and western pedagogics is meant the pedagogical factor, making conceptual impact on understanding of a role and a history place in the maintenance of the general average and, in particular, classical gymnasia formation and in formation of historical consciousness of pupils.

At judgement of a role of the pedagogical factor it is obviously possible to stop on the analysis of some problems. One of them the problem of influence of antiquity and, in particular, its educational ideal of harmoniously developed person who are an ideal of the European culture from an epoch of the West European Revival till XX century, most likely, should be.

Influence of development of domestic and western pedagogical thought on formation and understanding of a role and history place as subject matter in the maintenance of classical gymnasia formation, and also definition of historical consciousness of pupils of a classical grammar school, from our point of view, cannot be tracked with absolute degree of completeness and receive unequivocal and rectilinear estimations. It is caused by the following:

• inability of the general pedagogical ideas and theories in all their complexity, mnogoaspektnosti and discrepancy to find the full reflexion in definition of the maintenance of a classical education and, in particular, its gymnasia variant;

• comprehension of internal autonomy of the maintenance of history as subject matter from diverse and quite often alternative influences of domestic and western pedagogical thought;

• conservatism of the general conceptual constructions of domestic classical gymnasia formation and, in particular, its historical making and poorly expressed readiness for perception of ideas of a modification orientation.

One of those who stood at sources of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys, the outstanding domestic teacher and scientist M.V.Lomonosov (1711-1765) was. Its ideas have been stated in XVIII century and have in many respects reflected prospects of formation of historical consciousness of gymnasia youth in the Russian classical grammar schools of XIX century. To number of the most significant historical ideas of M.V.Lomonosova possessing istorikoyonauchnym and pedagogical potential, it is necessary to carry:

• aspiration to consider one of the main signs of development of history progress of development of the science, accruing with each new historical epoch, not having national borders and predetermining development of an economic and spiritual life of a society;

• the relation to development of the Russian history as to a condition of awakening of national consciousness of a society and, first of all, youth, and as to
To the factor of stimulation of civil activity and aspiration strengthening to positive dejatelnostnym to the beginnings in the person. «Affairs of the possessors who were in Russia... Show widespread limits... The states but as this increased, and multiplication of its power and glory if has been subject to heavy difficulties, and as these are overcome, about that rather the few have knowledge, losing the authentic description of acts Russian, chrez that a praise of sovereigns, the merits Russia borrowed, no less than the ancient Russian people the nice name is eclipsed, and kind examples of courageous acts and wise povedeny remain in closing» [136, 15].

Value of history as science and a subject matter for formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys has been especially sharply experienced by the minister of national education of an epoch of Nikolay I S.S.Uvarovym who has was one of founders of system of classical gymnasia formation, existed up to 1917 the Analysis of its orientation and the general character of belief of this statesman reflect its sights, left traces work on formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys of all historical period investigated by us, S.S.Uvarov has been convinced that:

• antiquity was the centre of spiritual culture of mankind and its original historical cradle. Familiarising with the knowledge connected with its history, and spiritual comprehension of an ancient art are a condition of familiarising of the person to original culture and acceptances by the Russian society of cultural wealth of the European culture adapted for inquiries of development of Russia. «Extending between fellow citizens a beam of sciences and education, should raise and keep, how many it is possible, national spirit and that graceful character on which nowadays Europe looks, how iznemozhennyj the aged man at vivacity and force of the blossoming young man» [250, 24-25].

• comprehension of necessity of preservation of an openness for Europe and a recognition of a part of the European world which is not excluding conscious aspiration
To avoiding of bloody experience of revolutions and social shocks through which there have passed the leading European countries and societies in the course of the political development.

Among concepts of the historical development, made the deepest impact on formation of a historical component of the Russian gymnasia formation XIX - the beginnings of the XX-th centuries, first of all, are concepts of two outstanding persons, representatives of German philosophical and pedagogical thought - I.G.Gerdera and I.F.Gerbarta.

I.G.Gerdera's ideas (1744-1803), most likely, have appeared are close to outlook of spiritually-intellectual elite of the Russian society. The certificate of it is that circumstance, that its readers during various historical time were N.M.Karamzin, A.N.Radishchev, N.G.Derzhavin, V.A.Zhukovsky, N.V.Gogol, L.N.Tolstoy. In the concept of development of history Gerdera the significant amount of ideas which were given by argument in support of classical development of system of gymnasia formation contained. It is necessary to carry to number of such ideas:

• installation on cultivation of a great interest in antique mythology which is considered Gerderom as expression of "a children's century of human soul». «In mythology of each people the way inherent in it to see the nature, especially depending from was embodied, whether found the people in the nature more than good or harm as prompted to it a climate and the genius, and depending how the people explained one phenomena - others. Mythology. It is philosophical experience of human soul: before to wake up, the soul has dreams and dreams of times of the childhood» [45, 203-204];

• the understanding of a special role of the Greek erudition and has been convinced of historical destiny of the European world which the researcher treated as «a fruit of a happy century of a youth of mankind», that in it the unity of erudition and reason, sensuality and feeling is combined; «Time on what the Greek culture has had, that step of development on which stood then not only the surrounding people, but there was and in general all human spirit, -
All promoted that Greeks became those people to what they had what they have ceased to be and what they already never will be again »[In the same place, 350].

• from the point of view of concept Gerdera, the high level of philological culture confirmed by gymnasia classicism is quite defensible also. On its belief, value of achievement of high level of language culture consists that thanks to language there was possible «an Idea and Sign wedding» [46, 242];

• in features of a national language, its uniqueness and originality Gerder saw reflexion of originality and uniqueness of historical experience and feature of outlook of the people.

Concept Gerdera in many aspects appeared conformable to historical consciousness of grammar-school boys of the Russian classical grammar school. To number of the positive points of view of the known thinker of an epoch of Education, actual for development of the Russian classical grammar school, it is obviously necessary to carry: aspiration to love, mercy and kindness; confidence that in the history centre as a science and a subject matter the questions connected with development of spiritual culture should lay; the relation to religion as major making spiritual culture of the European world. At the same time realisation of concept Gerdera in its complete variant appeared impossible in the conditions of Russia owing to the extreme destructiveness caused by that its maintenance contradicted mental historical consciousness of the educated Russian society. It was expressed in negation Gerderom of necessity of existence of religious faiths, in development of the religious freethinking historically alien to spirit of Orthodoxy. It is obviously possible to confirm, what exactly alternativeness of some ideas Gerdera contradicted spirit of the Russian culture and interests of development of the Russian statehood and could not lay down completely in a basis of formation of historical consciousness of pupils of the Russian classical grammar school.

Owing to that circumstance, that the concept of the Russian classical gymnasia formation has affected the German gymnasia classicism, it is not obviously possible to ignore value of the concept of I.F.Gerbarta (1776-1841). It is necessary to recognise, that the technique and history methodology as subject matter were not the basic object of research of teacher this known and influential in Germany. Nevertheless, its ideas possessed certain potential to affect definition of the obrazovatelno-educational concept of history and formation of historical consciousness in the Russian classical gymnasia formation.

Concept Gerbarta has appeared substantially is adapted for historical experience and inquiries of the Russian classical gymnasia formation. It has appeared capable to affect formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys of the Russian classical grammar school.

The purpose of all maintenance of gymnasia formation and formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys, from the point of view of Gerbarta, formation of the person who have absorbed in is: the idea of perfection defining directions, area and force of aspirations of the person. «Not certain quantity of the various purposes is represented to us., but activity of the growing up person in general, all set of its internal direct revival and excitability, than more this set, than more full, more widely and the soglasovannee in itself, the is it and the more so our good will» [44 is provided, 171] more absolutely; the idea of the right warning increase of conflicts, resulting collisions of inconsistent aspirations and desires of separate people: « . Cares of moral development. Should not suppose the pupil to a habit to consider the personal right the basis defining its acts; as the strict law for it the right of others should serve only. Nobody should compose to itself(himself) of the original right, nobody should wilfully

To aspire to change the existing right more reasonable »[In the same place, 275­276];) idea of the internal freedom, allowing to co-ordinate will of the person with its desires and belief of internal freedom. Its source« is set of an intellectual outlook, hence, its development depends on every possible movements of spirit, both from animal promptings, and from intellectual interests »[In the same place, 269].

Ideal Gerbarta is formation by means of history strong-willed, spiritual, and the moral person perfectly adapted for inquiries of a modern society, being with it in absolute internal harmony. On its belief, «ideas of justice and good in all definiteness and cleanliness were the valid subject of will that depending on them the internal, real maintenance of character was defined, an internal kernel of the person with discharge of any arbitrariness, here it, instead of something smaller is the true purpose of moral education» [In the same place, 173].

Formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys of a domestic classical grammar school has tested on itself influence of ideas of some outstanding Russian teachers.

So, in particular, to number of ideas of the public figure and teacher N.I.Pirogova (1810-1881), actual for formation of historical consciousness of pupils, it is obviously necessary to carry:

• conviction that all maintenance of subject matters and consequently, and histories, possesses spiritually-world outlook and scientific potential for reception of universal formation and formation of a sight at the history which maintenance has the universal importance. «Considerable and hardly probable not the body of educational force consists in the science, and the teacher of this or that subject is together and the most active tutor» [188, 233];

• conviction that the reference to antiquity is a necessary condition of education of the dominating universal beginning in
Historical consciousness of the Russian grammar-school boys. «Known data isstari are called: humaniora, that is necessary for each person. These data, with destruction jazychestva, with improvement of sciences, with development of a civil life of the various nations, changed in their kind, remain for ever, however, the same fixtures on a course of life both ancient, and the new person» [In the same place, 40];

• installation on education of the person combining spiritual force and ability to resist to in many respects spiritually corrupting influence of the social environment on the basis of adherence to spiritually-orthodox system of values. «We will recollect once again, that we Christians, and, hence, as the main basis of our education serves and Revelation» [In the same place, 32] should serve.

Among K.D.Ushinsky's (1824-1870) possessing in necessary potential for development of the theoretical maintenance of classical gymnasia formation and formation of historical consciousness of pupils the ideas, it is possible to carry idea of the legend to educational process in the Russian grammar school of deeply national character. It could find the expression:

• in aspiration to the fullest perception of spiritual potential of history; and in circulation not only to thought, but also to heart of grammar-school boys. «As there is no person without vanity so there is no person without love to fatherland, and this love will give to the tutor a true key to heart of the person and a powerful support for struggle against its bad natural, personal, family and patrimonial bents. Addressing to a nationality, education will always find the answer and assistance in live and strong feeling of the person which operates much more strongly the belief accepted by one mind, or habits, vkorenennoj fear of punishments. Here the basis of that belief... That education if it does not wish to be powerless, should be national» [255, 160];

• in inculcation of special love to domestic history as one of the major components of world history;

• in increase of a role of history in formation active and «active citizens» Russia, capable to serve realisation of its richest spiritual, intellectual, social and economic potential [256, 450]. It is necessary to recognise, that at all persuasiveness of idea of N.I.Pirogova, K.D.Ushinsky and of some other known teachers-researchers have in certain respects conflicted to conceptual bases of domestic classical gymnasia formation, and, owing to this circumstance, the question on strengthening of national lines of the Russian grammar school has not been solved both on theoretical, and on practical levels.

One of the defining purposes of reform of the minister of national education of P.N.Igateva (1915-1916) who were carried out at active participation of the best historians and teachers of Russia, the aspiration to give to history studying as subject matter deeply national character was.

In a context of carried out research the maintenance of the scientific factor, capable to influence development of history and formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys, with some share of convention can be differentiated on general scientific and historical components. Under general scientific development natural, humanitarian and the engineering science, caused growth of interest to history of a science and necessity of partial reflexion of the major stages of its development for the maintenance of gymnasia historical formation is meant.

Influence of the scientific factor on development of the maintenance of a humanitarian component of gymnasia formation and formation of historical consciousness throughout XIX - the beginnings of the XX-th centuries is caused by the general development of a science and the scientific and technical revolutions connected with them: development of a domestic science and, including, sciences historical.

The general development of a world science connected with development of scientific revolutions of XVII century and the end XVIII - first half XIX centuries, with reference to history as to a subject matter have caused:

• increase of interest to antiquity as spiritual cradle of the European world;

• formation of an ideal of encyclopaedic formation in which concept the aspiration to achievement of the all-round knowledge covering all aspects of development of a science laid. Thus histories extremely significant role was taken away, and conclusions of historians, substantially, were under the influence of the general natural-science concept Galeleo - the Njutonovsky picture of the world;

• it is probable, owing to that the humanities during this period possessed deep and centuries-old operating time, and natural sciences yet could not to influence in the defining image a society life, the humanitarian component of knowledge dominated in the school education maintenance, and the history role in a context of humanitarian encyclopaedic formation substantially appeared dominating.

Maturing of conditions for scientific revolution of the end XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries has changed the history status in the formation maintenance a little. It was expressed that the public and scientific thought as the priority had been put forward a complex of the problems mentioning the maintenance of historical formation., In particular, it is obviously necessary to carry to number of typical problems:

• statement under doubt of exclusive self-value of history of antiquity and spiritual culture of the ancient world for development of a modern society;

• the doubt that history studying in a grammar school is justified in the conditions of an increasing role of natural sciences which have more concrete character and is more clear and more interesting to pupils (D.I.Pisarev's concept);

• aspiration to easing of the tendency to domination of history of wars and political history and increase of interest to history of domestic and world spiritual culture, a science, sociopolitical thought.

Throughout all development of history as science and a subject matter, and, as consequence of it, formation of historical consciousness of the grammar-school boys, defining influence on its maintenance render works of the western and domestic historians. Thus among those who has played a defining role in development of domestic history of the investigated period, first of all, it is obviously necessary to name N.M.Karamzin, V.O.Kljuchevskogo, S.M.Soloveva's names and others.

It is necessary to stop on the most generalised characteristic of value of their works for development of the maintenance of history as subject matter and formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys. So, N.M.Karamzin has brought in the maintenance of a course of history its high level obobshchennosti, conviction in spiritual and organizational mission of autocracy in country historical development, development of interest to historical destiny of the Russian monarchs and to development of the Russian statehood [94; 95; 96; 97].

Approach originality to formation of historical consciousness, characteristic for V.O.Kljuchevskogo, was heightened interest to spiritual history of the Russian society, integrity and consistency of perception of historical process [107].

Extremely significant contribution to formation of the historical consciousness which have been carried out by S.M.Solovevym, the conceptual judgement of development of domestic history throughout twenty three centuries, the wide reference to the historical materials connected with the analysis of the maintenance of Russian annals and other historical sources, an abundance istorikoyopedagogicheskih the facts resulted in its researches, widely presented information on evolution of the state and public life [235] was. As marks V.O.Kljuchevsky, «Nightingales were given to the listener surprisingly integral, a harmonous thread spent through a chain of the generalised facts by a sight at a course of Russian history, and what pleasure for the young mind beginning scientific studying is known, to feel in possession an integral sight at a scientific subject» [108, 520].

Among the historians, made especially significant impact on formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries and definition of a role and a history place in the maintenance of domestic secondary education and, in particular, its classical gymnasia variant, is necessary to name P.G.Vinogradova, R.J.Vippera, N.I.Kareeva, I.M.Kataeva, S.F.Platonova and others.

For P.G.Vinogradova the reference to problems medeevistiki and attraction of wide interest of the Russian public to judgement of this bright and inconsistent epoch which had unique influence on the subsequent historical destiny of the European people and at the same time have reflected in multidimensional influence of an ancient art [28] is characteristic.

Value of works of R.J.Vippera for formation of historical consciousness of the Russian society consisted in the research analysis of problems of general history and judgement of a role of Russia in world historical process [29; 30; 31; 32].

For N.I.Kareeva's works the reference to history, philosophy and sociology is peculiar at interpretation of historical process; development of heightened interest of youth to problems of general and domestic history; a substantiation of a role of history as sciences in definition of ideals of formation and self-education of the modern person [98; 102; 103; 104].

Among works, significant for definition of pedagogical approaches to formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in judgement of development of domestic history, had I.M.Kataeva's methodical and methodological workings out, and also their reflexion in the maintenance of textbooks [105; 106].

By consideration of problems of historical development of the country the preference was given by S.F.Platonovym bylevoj to history of Russia. That its textbook on domestic history has been most extended in grammar schools is of interest and at all depth of the maintenance has been written by accessible language. The textbook maintenance had the highest responses of teachers of a grammar school [190].

Thus, the history maintenance as subject matter in the Russian classical grammar school possessed the richest scientific and kulturnoyoobrazovatelnym in potential for its self-development and deepening of the maintenance of historical consciousness of pupils of domestic classical grammar schools.

Influence of a business factor on definition of the maintenance of history as subject matter is a little ambiguous. The economy, most likely, cannot be considered as original base for judgement of a role of history in a modern society and, in particular, the ideas defining the maintenance of history as a subject matter.

However the economic judgement of events, revealing of value of economy in development of historical process is a necessary condition of definition of the maintenance of history. It is substantially connected by that social being, most likely, does not define the public consciousness which part is also the historical public consciousness, but in process of the increasing degree of development of capitalist commodity-money relations of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries it all influences outlook of a society that shows defined obrazovatelno - educational inquiry and to formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys more actively.

In paragraph end it is obviously necessary to notice, that domination of influence of each of factors on formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian classical gymnasia formation as conditions of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in domestic system of classical gymnasia formation of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries is shown in various degree. However throughout all investigated period influence of the state factor playing the in the lead role in formations of historical consciousness of pupils of classical gymnasia formation is traced.

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A source: ZUBAREVA Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016. 2016

More on topic 1.1. Factors of formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian subject matters of classical gymnasia formation as a condition of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys:

  1. 1.3. Influence of spiritual and scientifically-world outlook potential of humanitarian disciplines on formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school
  2. Chapter 1. Value of humanitarian subject matters in the maintenance of domestic classical gymnasia formation for formation of historical consciousness of pupils of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  3. 1.2. Development of a historical science as one of significant a determinant of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school
  4. 2.1. Influence of evolution of the maintenance of history as subject matter on formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys
  5. 2.3. Pedagogical experience of formation of historical consciousness in a domestic classical grammar school of the investigated period and its value for development of modern formation
  6. 2.2. Evolution of the maintenance of historical study of local lore as a condition of formation of historical consciousness in classical gymnasia formation of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  7. Chapter 2. Perfection of the maintenance of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries and its value in a present context
  8. ZUBAREV Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  9. Zubarev Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the dissertation Author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  10. factors of formation and development of conceptual bases soyoderzhanija gymnasia formation in Russia of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginnings
  11. THE CHAPTER I. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE MAINTENANCE OF GYMNASIA FORMATION IN RUSSIA OF SECOND HALF XIX - THE XX-TH CENTURY BEGINNINGS.
  12. the basic directions of development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of the Russian gymnasia formation in the end XX - the XXI-st century beginning
  13. use of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in shkoyolah the USSR in 30 - e-80 - e years of the XX-th century
  14. development of conceptual bases of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in second half XIX centuries
  15. CHAPTER 3. MODERN LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAINTENANCE OF THE RUSSIAN GYMNASIA FORMATION
  16. preconditions and factors of formation of the maintenance and a technique of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school (end H - the middle of XIX centuries)
  17. CHAPTER 2. TRANSFORMATIONOF THE MAINTENANCE OF GYMNASIA FORMATION IN THE XX-TH CENTURY
  18. Kozlova. N.V. formation in the conditions of high school formation: akmeorientirovannyj the approach, 2008
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