foreign models of realisation of integration processes in training and a modern condition of integration of an average of the general and average vocational training in Russia

The right to a quality education irrespective of a floor, a social origin and position in a society the global concept of a development of education «has proclaimed Formation for all» which has been put forward UNESCO [239].

Necessity of integration of the general education for a context of problems of development of the concrete country is reflected in Strategy of the World bank for formation sector. In the report the analysis of the key problems facing to the general secondary education in the XXI-st century is resulted, structural frameworks which are recommended to be used by working out of national strategy of modernisation and development of systems of secondary education are offered.

According to the Concept of the Federal target program of a development of education for 2016-2020, «Russian education modernisation provides maintenance of formation of new strategic initiatives and their introduction in practice of educational activity» [157].

O.N.Olejnikova, A.A.Muraveva and N.M.Aksenova [141, with. 8], analyzing the general tendencies of the changes which are carried out in a comprehensive school for last 10-15 years, come to conclusion, that there is a gradual alignment of the organisation of school training concerning its key parametres. Authors carry to such parametres:

- The general duration of school training (an obvious priority 12­летнего term);

- Orientation of a final cycle of the average general education (universal profile training);

- Total certification (mainly by results of out-of-school uniform examination).

«The general education maintenance is standardised now practically in all countries. Distinctions concern, as a rule, forms and degrees of standardization which is more rigid for an elementary education and gradually weakens in process of advancement to the senior step of secondary education» [17, with. 50].

In the majority of the countries of the world (more than 80 %) the general secondary education has two levels. The first step is more often compulsory education. The secondary education of the senior step usually follows after the termination of compulsory education and is characterised by a wide set of various programs where pupils can choose from variety of trajectories. Average duration of the given step varies from 2 till 4 years, and the most widespread is the three-year model. This grade level is profile [226, 233, 241, 245, 246, 262, etc.].

Let's more in detail describe training in high school of France as a classical example of such system. The training final stage in lycée makes 3 years. Throughout this period training is spent in specialisation sections (now in the French general educational lycées
3 specialisations of the academic profile and 4 - technological). By a similar principle the closing stage of full secondary education in a number of the countries of Europe (Belgium, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Sweden), partially in the USA and in many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America [243, 255, etc.] is carried out.

Profile training in foreign countries varies depending on what purpose is put before profile formation by the state and what way of its achievement it is considered priority. So, in Germany and Sweden there is a distribution on the profiles focused on the future trades; to the Great Britain, the USA, Canada and the countries of Asia profile character of training is realised on subject matters or groups of disciplines [208, 228, etc.]; in France and in Belgium the trained distribute in directions (natural-science, economic, technological, etc.) .

Also rather the wide circulation was received by system of the mixed profiles when in the course of training in «frameworks of two-three directions there is a gradual division on narrower profiles. Also in practice often use the mixed schemes of profile training when within the limits of two-three basic directions there is a consecutive distribution on narrower profiles focused on concrete disciplines (the academic profile) or specialities (a professional profile)» [141, with. 11].

In vocational training sphere in the western countries it is possible to explain an intensification of integration processes by a number of the reasons, among which ^:

- Development of strategy of training during all life;

- Stability and competitiveness of the European economy in a situation of economic globalisation [209, 210, etc.];

- Possibility of maintenance of comparability of the qualifications received by citizens of the different countries, etc.

The general integrated system of qualifications focused on the competence, unites the western systems of vocational training. It provides flexibility and mobility of individual educational trajectories in world educational space as there is an offset of all before received by the trainee kompetentsy, without dependence from time and a training place [109, with. 6].

Integration of an average of the general and average vocational training into Russia develops thanks to creation of the integrated educational complexes on which base the educational programs developed on the basis of integration of the maintenance of formation of various levels are realised. Integration of the maintenance of average vocational training into educational programs of the average general education allows to form professional the competence and to realise qualitative vocational counselling of the trained. The state policy in education modernisation sphere is directed on creation of conditions for the most effective integration of educational levels. The federal law «About formation in the Russian Federation» [195] declares possibilities for «continuous formation by means of realisation of successive basic educational programs and various additional educational programs; Grantings of possibility of simultaneous development of several educational programs, and also the account of had education, qualifications, practical activities experience at reception of formation of the subsequent levels with possible reduction of terms of training »[16, with. 115] (a Fig. 2).

Designing of continuous educational routes in the conditions of an educational complex

Fig. 2. Designing of continuous educational routes in the conditions of an educational complex

Profile training becomes the basic condition of differentiation and a training individualization as creates conditions for realisation of the praktiko-focused training in a Russian education, leans against construction of educational activity taking into account interests and abilities trained.

«According to the Concept of profile training [91], profile subjects are focused on preparation for the subsequent vocational training» [15, with. 4]. Realisation of profile training allows not only to translate smoothly trained on the subsequent educational step, but creates ample opportunities for construction of an individual educational route.

Active introduction of elements of the praktiko-focused training in Russia was preceded by successful experience of the European countries at realisation
Elements of dual training [235-237, 239, 247, 249-251, 265, etc.]. So, at the tenth session of the Russian-German working group on vocational training in June, 2016 in Munich (Germany) «results and prospects of development of bilateral cooperation concerning preparation of personnel, realisations of projects of introduction in the Russian professional educational organisations of the praktiko-focused model of training have been considered. Questions of realisation of new projects in the field of preparation of pedagogical shots for system of average vocational training» [58] have been solved. Leaning against successful experience of the German system, in our country there is the unique system based in practice of cooperation with the enterprises.

G ermanskaja the system dual profobrazovanija was formed within centuries. Thus the concept "dual" describes profobrazovanie, organised and carried out by the enterprises for a principle «on the job» to which theoretical training in the state vocational schools is added. In Germany the maintenance of the program of training define the state and business associations with participation of social partners. Thus the enterprises define practical requirements, the state together with the enterprises - necessary theoretical knowledge, connection with school general educational system and the minimum qualification as a condition necessary for an official recognition of a trade on which education is got, the state. Along with purely professional achievements in frameworks profobrazovanija the attention of the social competence, the competence of actions, for example, in that, as to independence of actions, discipline on manufacture, working capacity and ability to bear responsibility is paid. At present in
Germany preparation of qualified personnel on dual system is carried out more than by three hundred trades [64, 224, 229, 238, 242, etc.].

Within the limits of dual system potential employers (the enterprises and the organisations) put means in preparation of qualified personnel at the enterprise, that subsequently quite pays off. Giving trained working materials and the form, paying work of instructors on manufacture and work to pupils, the enterprises can spend long-term personnel planning, carry out the organisation of daily work, personnel stimulation, improvement of professional skill of the workers. Besides, already during training, pupils bring the considerable contribution to manufacture directly at enterprise, and for some specialities «recoupment of investments» is observed for the third year of training.

Thus, thanks to system of dual formation and praktiko - to the focused training of the enterprise as a result receive shots which completely correspond to their industrial requirements, and the created conditions of payment of work of experts allow them to receive high payment of the work stably. The certificate given out by commercial and industrial chamber on vocational training confirms presence of the professional qualification recognised on all country. The state investing the large sums of money resources, both in creation of vocational schools, and in preparation of teachers for these schools, receives qualified personnel — a determinative of successful economic development on long prospect (a Fig. 3).


Fig. 3. The German system dual profobrazovanija: development of personnel potential and state economy

Undoubtedly, above presented system to realise in the shortest terms in other countries it is not obviously possible, but efficiency of the given system is marked all over the world. In Russia last years development of the praktiko-focused training is observed. N.A.Denisov [56, with. 124-126] allocates positive sides of introduction of elements of dual training in educational process:

- Increase of investment appeal of the educational organisations of average vocational training at the expense of preparation of the highly-skilled personnel corresponding to requirements of employers;

- Increase of prestige of experts of an average link, qualified workers as a result of development of new forms of formation;

- Improvement of quality of formation as a result of optimisation in educational process of theoretical and practical preparation;

- Decrease in risk of refusal of employment after training end;

- Acceleration of social and professional adaptation of young experts in labour collective.

Even at carrying out of the separate measures which are guided by main principles of dual training, namely preparation with orientation to practical work, it is possible to raise a skill level of personnel considerably. Such measures concern, for example, training introduction in educational process, cooperation of the state educational centres with the enterprises or the programs of improvement of professional skill of teachers of vocational training focused on practical needs [133].

Orientation of the Russian system of vocational training to integration into the European educational space demands working out of corresponding tactics taking into account features of own education system, formation of realistic ways of its rapprochement with the European formation.

In T.JU.Lomakin and M.G.Sergeeva's research [109, with. 9-10] specify, that as a result of reforms for last fifteen years the educational organisations have received ample opportunities for flexible adaptation to inquiries and requirements of users, and formation of an autonomy of the educational organisations is accompanied by development of their variability.

Overcoming of a branch orientation, expansion of a network of the professional educational organisations, increase of availability of average vocational training, formation of system of the opened
(Remote) training - here the basic characteristics of development of the educational organisations of vocational training.

Expansion of a choice of level and kind of formation and increase in financing at the expense of granting of possibility of reception of educational services on a paid basis promoted formation of system of a multichannel financing of education [110].

Features of the present stage and prospect of development of such spheres as economy and social sphere promoted increase in demand at the experts of an average link necessary for development of the high technology and hi-tech manufactures, creations of corresponding conditions for perfection of managerial processes, maintenance «developments of a market infrastructure, technical, information and social service» [30, with. 25-27]. Change of model of average vocational training was carried out, basically, in following directions:

1. Improvement of a network and expansion of the average educational organisations at the expense of change of their organizational structure, creation of versatile colleges.

2. Creation of the educational complexes having base for realisation and development of system of average vocational training in multilevel system of vocational training.

We can allocate the basic directions of development of average vocational training in a modern society which have defined general tendencies of a development of education::

- Globalisation and formation merge as the basic tendencies of formation of uniform world educational space;

- General computerisation and consecutive introduction of ecological ideas and principles in formation;

- Positive culture of training as a direction based on overcoming of the crisis moments of development of a society and development of humanistic representations as the base of positive development.

For successful social and economic transformation of Russia many efforts on active inclusion of the country in the international cooperation in an education sphere, in creation and development of uniform world educational space have been enclosed. Doubtless and basic argument for introduction of Russia in uniform world educational space became the richest saved up pedagogical experience (both theoretical judgement, and practice of introduction of pedagogical technologies).

Other orientation - the democratisation shown in real «practical steps on creation of equal conditions for all in quality education reception, in differentiation and an individualization as one of ways of satisfaction of various interests and predispositions» [58].

Active pedagogical integration of systems of an average of the general and average vocational training was promoted by modern lines of reforming of formation. Perfection of mass (general) formation, i.e. transition from formation elite (accessible to certain levels of population) to high-quality formation of all levels of population without dependence from an origin became one of significant directions in development of educational system. Qualitative mass formation as a national education system of the majority of inhabitants promotes occurrence of the new outlook adequate to realities of promptly varying world.

Proceeding from the basic and ordered system in formation and principles of development of the vocational training, it is possible to speak about general components of functional literacy (abilities of the person quickly to adapt and function in environment) which formation has occurred in the course of transition to a modern industrial society.

Depending on control degree over the formation centralised or decentralised, there is a formation of market relations in a national economy. Reflexion of these processes became standardization and regionalizatsija formations, as defining modern directions of development of vocational training.

Last years in formation structure there were changes which have been connected with prompt development of a national economy and change of requirements of a society as a whole and have defined directions of development of all system of vocational training.

The international commission of UNESCO offers the vision of the permission of this problem by introduction of new model of the educational organisation spending work on constant reconstruction of formation - in the centres on innovations [227]. Thus, the system of average vocational training has received new potential and development when it has started to be realised in the new multilevel, versatile educational complexes, which steels really the innovative educational organisations considering the requirements of time, operating according to requirements of employers and preferences of addressees of educational services.

In the educational organisations of average vocational training at realisation of educational programs the new are considered
The requirements shown to qualified employees and experts. Cooperation with the enterprises at realisation of the praktiko-focused training defines tendencies of development of average vocational training. Average vocational training is distinct from other educational levels and should be carried out with the account as settled traditions and modern lines in work sphere, and taking into account vision of model of the modern worker and the expert in Russia and abroad. Thus defining moment of a demand and effectiveness of system of average vocational training is its advancing character and an orientation on continuous vocational training as formation of the person throughout all his life.

In our research the basic tendencies of reforming of all Russian vocational training as complete system, are considered from a position of subjects on which the vocational training purposes are directed is a person, a society, manufacture and an education sphere. « As shows the international experience, now employers at hiring of workers consider not only their formal qualifications, but also those of the competence which bear the added cost for their organisation. The preference is given to the flexible workers capable quickly to adapt for unforeseen changes. Thus, profiles of abilities should combine the concrete abilities necessary for labour activity in certain area and base abilities, necessary for any workplace. Base abilities name also "transversalnye" abilities, key abilities or "soft" abilities - soft skills »[141, with. 5]. To them carry communicative abilities, ability to analyze and organise the difficult information to incur responsibility, to operate risks, to make effective decisions, to work in a command etc.

In the modern worker employers especially appreciate: «competence; independence; responsibility and mobility; system and analytical thinking; information, legal and ecological culture; enterprise and creative activity; readiness for constant updating of knowledge» [141, with. 5].

Development nadprofessionalnyh qualities of the person of the graduate of the organisation of average vocational training is considered in complete system together with its professional kompetentsijami. Trained acts as the carrier of activity, the individual, subjective experience, aspiring to realisation and expansion of the internal potentials (aksiologicheskogo, communicative, creative) [84, with. 82-84].

Thus, the praktiko-focused training is considered from a position of possibility of realisation of an individual approach to development professional kompetentsy the trained. Working out and introduction of individual curricula, work under individual educational schedules, formation kompetentsy under inquiry of the employer at integration of an average of the general and average vocational training - these changes in the maintenance and the organisation of educational activity provide qualitative preparation of the graduates who are meeting the requirements of modern manufactures to shots. The praktiko-focused training, by a world community recognition, provides the decision of a problem of continuity of the general and vocational training.

Actively developing all over the world including in Russia, the model of the praktiko-focused training promotes improvement of quality of an average of the general and average vocational training, adjusting
The coordination and interaction in system «the educational organisation - a society - the enterprise».

Modern employers consider at employment not so much formal kvliifikatsii, how many kompetentsnts experts (professional and base) on which basis the wages are formed. The Russian educational system is aimed at preparation of competitive shots for modern hi-tech manufactures. Совреміенное qualitative oorazoovine promotes formation at trainees of system professional kompetentsy and nadprofessionalnyh the qualities of the person providing readiness of the graduate to the future professional work in the conditions of general globalisation and information. Integration processes in formation provide a priority πj) ^f

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A source: Artemyev Igor Anatolevich. INTEGRATION of the AVERAGE of the GENERAL And AVERAGE VOCATIONAL TRAINING In the conditions of SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019. 2019

More on topic foreign models of realisation of integration processes in training and a modern condition of integration of an average of the general and average vocational training in Russia:

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  2. strategy of development of integration processes in system of an average of the general and average vocational training
  4. the analysis of results of skilled-experimental work on realisation of model of integration of an average of the general and average vocational training in the conditions of social partnership
  5. a role of social partnership in integration of an average of the general and average vocational training
  7. Artemyev Igor Anatolevich. INTEGRATION of the AVERAGE of the GENERAL And AVERAGE VOCATIONAL TRAINING In the conditions of SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
  8. ARTEMYEV Igor Anatolevich. INTEGRATION of the AVERAGE of the GENERAL And AVERAGE VOCATIONAL TRAINING In the conditions of SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP. The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
  9. Modern konstitutsionno-legal regulation of the right to average vocational training in the Russian Federation
  10. Chapter 2. Konstitutsionno-legal regulation and constitutional law realisation on average vocational training