formation of representations about personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in 1900-1920

Patrisija Alberg Grem, the researcher of development of North American school education, characterises the first twentieth anniversary of the XX-th century the period «assimilations of immigrants during the American life» [54, with.

18]. All immigrants had a confidence, that America will give them possibility to improve the life, will give chance to their children to become successful. People moved the whole families in which, as a rule there were many children. All wishing to move to the USA (in the majority the of Europe) were guided by different motives. Someone has decided to escape from poverty, to find good work and means for normal existence. Some representatives of the European continent suffered because of political or religious discrimination in the homeland. Flow of migrants created weight of the problems demanding the immediate decision. In 1877 William Torri Harris authorised on problems of formation of the USA, expected considerable growth of the population of the country at the expense of visitors and foresaw probable results of mass resettlement of foreigners in the USA: «If we not"Americanize"ours

Immigrants, having inspired to them aspiration to join advantages of our civilisation they begin to promote decline of our political organisation and will destroy the American way of life »[54, with. 18]. Thus, on a boundary of the XX-th century of one of the major problems facing to schools, there was a maintenance of educational institutions with the qualified teachers which catastrophically did not suffice.

P.A.Grem allocates the major professional and personal qualities of the ideal school teacher of the period of assimilation: good knowledge of one or several foreign languages (not considering English language), ability to support discipline, enthusiasm, ability to bring up in young men the American values, indisputable authority.

At the heart of the program of school assimilation there was a problem of a combination of intellectual and physical development of children with inculcation of the basic moral values and ethical principles of a North American society. School by means of

97 pedagogical efforts of the American teacher should adapt to new conditions, and to become that establishment which would help teenagers to be integrated into a life on new continent. The first difficulty which young immigrants have faced are an ignorance of English language which they had to learn in parallel with other subjects as foreign instead of as the native language. The American school teachers tested the big stress at occurrence of weight of children, enough various on the social origin, the cultural qualification, ethnically non-uniform.

According to P.A.Grem which it results in the book «America behind a school school desk» (2011), during the period between 1890 and 1920 in the USA on a constant place a residence have got over «more than 18 million persons, mainly from East and Southern Europe where only few of them have managed to get a little essential education» [54, с.16]. The Considerable quantity of migrants considered training of children at school as the main step towards to successful adaptation to a new life and a basis of the future material success on the new native land. In large cities the quantity of immigrants made then to two thirds of population, and it means, that city schools have been overflowed, as without that caused weight of diverse problems.

Growth of number of pupils has caused also new problems with discipline.

Prompt growth of quantity of schoolboys has served one of the reasons of decrease in quality of training. The maintenance of school education of the beginning of the XX-th century differed from the modern. Schools were guided by the uniform program. After the training expiry of the term those schoolboys who have not mastered the program, could pass repeatedly it next educational year. On statistical data of the studied period in some cities from thousand pupils less than hundred persons were able finish it, and in rural regions it is even less. Many inhabitants of agrarian areas of the country aspired to find to themselves work in cities where moved whole families. However in their city certain difficulties and serious requirements expected, namely: erudition (ability to read, competently to write and consider), the discipline, responsibility, ability to work in a command to observe rules and official duties, respect and submission to a management.

Many pupils threw employment at school to have possibility to work and receive money. As a whole the elementary school functioned well, but on

High school level the big problems were observed. Except sharp shortage of the teachers owning foreign languages (to help immigrants to learn faster English language) there were no school premises, classes have been overflowed, and about quality of training there was no also a speech. City schools as a whole were in more favourable position as in cities was more teachers and the managers having special preparation. At schools many teachers-women who could not find to itself work in other trades worked. Teachers from among immigrants who have well mastered English language began to appear, thereby having had an opportunity to make an ascension on a professional ladder. Not all teachers had the vocational education, the few had possibility to finish pedagogical colleges. There were cases when on interview the person, applying to receive a post of the teacher, a smog fascinate the good manners or erudition of the representative of local city council and acquired the right to become the teacher in one of schools. One of the most known and authoritative higher educational institutions for preparation of teachers in the end of XIX century was the Pedagogical college at the Colombian university in New York. It has been based as independent structure in 1887. In college advanced achievements of pedagogical thought of those years were applied. Teaching was conducted by the best experts among whom it is possible to name the famous teachers John Dewey and Edward Li Torndajka. Since 1906 the college first in the USA has started to prepare experts of preschool training at university level, but the professional teachers who have received qualitative preparation, still did not suffice at country schools.

The care of children of immigrants has laid down on school shoulders. Within the limits of a family children could not learn English language, parents spoke among themselves on the native language is more often, and very slowly mastered English, unlike children constantly visiting school. The school has incurred a duty to impart to young generation the values based on the American patriotism, democratic belief.

The majority radical, and also visitors of Americans believed, what not broad education is required to all children. Thus all should learn English language, receive representation about the American culture, customs, traditions to seize arithmetics elements, to learn to be sincere, to work hard and

99 fairly to live. The assimilation program contained all these base skills and contained promises to bring up in children of virtue and to give them knowledge. The school paid attention to education at schoolboys of patriotism, including in the maintenance of lessons reading and discussion of books about worthy citizens of the country, its heroes. Process of Americanization of immigrants included education in rising generation of universal values: honesty, diligence, sincerity, decency, mutual aid. A duty to execute this noble program under the maintenance it was necessary to army of school teachers which catastrophically did not suffice.

P.A.Grem especially notices, that in those conditions «the authority of the teacher became absolutely indisputable; English language was unique possible language of dialogue at school; fidelity expression to the United States was supposed only in the unconditional form» [54, with. 32]. P.A.Grem mentions, that school directors and managers cared of that the school functioned, all carried out the duties, but thus at administration and teachers were not time and desire «to encourage moral searches of pupils or sudden flashes of their inquisitiveness» [54, with. 32].

Scanty means were allocated for national education. As a result in the south of the country lived a large quantity of illiterate Americans. The salary Euroamerican and afroamerikanskih teachers till the end of XIX century was rather low - «23 dollars a month for white and 22 dollars - for Negroes» [54, with. 28]. By 1910 white teachers received more - 54 dollars, and black only 24 dollars.

Composers of programs of school education have been assured of the XX-th century beginning that it contains enough information to give to pupils of knowledge of civil skills and to help them to earn to itself for a life. As a whole the program operated well. The problem of school of the USA consisted in satisfaction of requirements of a society and preparation of children (aboriginals and immigrants) to active and productive activity in the future. During the specified period school teachers, being guided by requirements of programs, as a rule, did not give attention sotsiokulturnomu and to psychological education of teenagers, not enough values gave to results of training. First of all, from pupils ability to adapt for the rules of behaviour accepted at school was required. Some changes

100 there were by 1920 when reaction of the public to strict usages in educational institutions have led to a considerable reorientation of activity of schools on satisfaction of requirements of children, instead of societies as a whole.

By 1920 of one of school problems began to promote children in their development. The strict official plan of training became more and more flexible in which it was possible to notice the new disciplines focusing the attention to development of interests of children, application of new methods of training. Thus the quantity of the hours which are taken away on development of classical traditional school subjects, was reduced in favour of applied disciplines. Teenagers from rich families with solid cultural luggage did not suffer from change of the school program as could get missing knowledge in house library or with the private teacher. However children from the poor families, receiving knowledge basically only at school, lost the helpful information and base knowledge on a number of the important disciplines, for example the mathematician, English language and the literature.

By 1920 rural schools of the country lost city by educational possibilities as in cities the formed teachers and managers worked, there were libraries accessible to all, children (including children of immigrants) saw prospects to find work in the presence of secondary education. Among good teachers many women were. Women could realise themselves in teaching as other trades were inaccessible to them. Teachers from among immigrants who showed abilities to training in due course began to appear and quickly mastered the reading and writing. The knowledge of several languages helped teachers - to immigrants to adapt quickly in school collective and to find the approach to children of different nationalities. Not all teachers of that time could brag of the diploma about a special pedagogical education.

The period of history of the USA from the end of XIX century till the twentieth years of the XX-th century is characterised by occurrence of numerous works of bright thinkers, the scientific, practising teachers, the visible theorists of the formation who have enriched philosophy of a science, pedagogics, formation sociology, both culture deep and at times entering in contradictions among themselves the ideas which have reflected achievements modern it of a science and other influences and influences of the various parties and displays of material and spiritual development of a North American society.

Under the influence of scale social and economic transformations to lives of the American school there are important changes. On a boundary XIX and in the beginning of the XX-th centuries curriculums of schools began to include the subjects directed on adaptation of teenagers by a life in society. At the same time, developers of curricula include the subjects considering individual abilities of schoolboys. The XX-th century beginning is considered absolutely fairly by the period of formation and formation of pedagogics of a pragmatism which should be reflected in activity of the American and European schools. It is possible to explain pragmatism influence to that the given direction of thought unites in itself many isolated theses and concepts with which some American teachers acted, philosophers and psychologists. Thus the pragmatical pedagogics has rejected all minor, little significant, and was generated in the finished, harmonous pedagogical concept which on the beginning of the XX-th century more all met requirements (requirements) of a North American society.

Let's consider, how ideas of a pragmatism have found the reflexion in educational programs of that time, and that new it was offered for school education improvement of quality to the USA, what requirements supporters of the concept of a pragmatism showed to the ideal school teacher.

In the end of XIX - the beginning of XX centuries of the USA have received popularity in educational community as the country where the new pedagogical direction "progressivizm" as which base the pragmatism has acted was experimentally developed. The given direction did successful steps to the decision of difficult educational problems to the country which considerably rose in the economic and cultural development. The appreciable contribution to creation of methodology and the pedagogical education theory have brought D.Djui, U.Kilpatrik, F.Parker, E.Parkherst, D.Snedden, E.Torndajk, S.Holl, the developed innovative technologies and models of training of effective pedagogical shots. The pedagogical current "pragmatism" began to extend widely in world practice in the XX-th century beginning, especially in the Great Britain, Canada and Australia. The basic vectors of a pragmatism by working out of school curricula were accent on interests of the child, the account of social requirements of a society, an emphasis on technical training of pupils in the course of training.

Pragmatism origin carry to 70th years of XIX century when were published

102 works of the well-known American philosopher, logic, scientist Charles Sanders Pirsa (1839-1914). In the researches the philosopher concludes, that representations of the person about a certain thing concentrate round it has what practical results for it. One of founders of development of the concept of a pragmatism in the USA can name the influential American philosopher, the teacher and psychologist Uilliama James (1842-1910). U.James was the teacher - the theorist, but having experience of teaching activity. The scientist considered, that teachers should form useful skills at pupils, for example, a habit to consider the actions instead of to carry out them mechanically. He has been convinced, that the constant trainings of pupils directed on development of attention essentially it is more important, than storing by heart.

As any practising teacher or the theorist of formation, the scientist reflected on what in an ideal the teacher before the pupils should appear. U.James well understood problems of teachers and realised importance of improvement of quality of teaching in the educational organisations of all levels. Besides knowledge of a subject and a teaching technique the good teacher should share the truthful and objective information, to be fair and sincere. U.James's the most known and authoritative books are the researches devoted to questions of effective training, reflexion about quality of an average and higher education, not casually lectures of the teacher made the big success. In the book «Conversations with teachers about psychology and with students about ideals which should be imitated» (1899) U.James reflected on skill and practice of the teacher including through a psychology prism. One of ideas of the scientist consisted in that, children a priori have natural interest and propensity to training, therefore it is necessary for teacher to create the comfortable psychological environment motivating the child to participate in educational process. U.Dzhejms repeatedly insists on importance of inculcation to the child of desire to study and learn the new; this factor is necessary for successful formation. The important role is played also by internal discipline of the pupil, and to develop in itself self-discipline and the control the teacher daily consecutive actions and correctly picked up methodical means helps.

The effective teacher in U.James's understanding thinks over the employment so that they adjoined to essential interests of pupils, tries

103 to draw parallels between a studied theme and vital practice of an individual. Besides, motivation preservation to training it is possible in that case when the teacher constantly updates the discipline maintenance, brings the bright, interesting information, results analogies and remembering examples from history.

According to U.James, only interesting, creative and not repeating types of exercises and tasks can develop motivation to training and fix a habit to open new knowledge. Therefore lessons-lectures should not occupy a lot of school hours, and the accent should be displaced in favour of practical active employment. Mission of the teacher in the given context consists in that the pupil as a result of joint long work from instructors has developed a habit independently to study, seriously to study sciences and technologies.

Features of the concept of U.James with reference to area of search of an ideal of the school teacher can be presented in the form of following theses. 1. The ideal teacher forms at pupils a habit to comprehend the actions, instead of to carry out them automatically. 2. The ideal teacher realises, that constant working off by pupils of skills of concentration of attention on certain object will bring more advantage, than learning by heart. 3. It is necessary to make use is better of that saved up pedagogical experience which already is available. 4. The ideal teacher gives the truthful information to the pupils. 5. The main task - to create the favorable

The psychological climate, motivating to study with pleasure. 6. All-round aid by the pupil in deduction motivation to study. 7. The control of behaviour and carried out actions. 8. The ideal teacher encourages pupils to keep

Attention to a studied subject. 9. The material of lessons always corresponds with practical interests of pupils. 10. Planning of a considerable quantity of active creative employment, is less - passive lessons-lectures. 11. Mission of the ideal teacher - to learn the pupil to get skills necessary for employment and a habit to study.

John Dewey (1859-1952) divided ideas of a pragmatism of U.James and has tried to use them with reference to formation. In a huge heritage of J. Dewey a special place belongs to formation questions. The school, according to the scientist, should become a platform of social reforming of a society, and the pedagogics should realise the major philosophical ideas in practice.

Concepts of J. Deweys have influenced the educational and social theory, and also have introduced many fresh ideas in the American pedagogics. J. Dewey has made attempt to give the exact logic theory of concepts, reflexions and conclusions, focusing attention to experimental ways of achievement of the future results.

Here it is necessary to make the reservation, that in pedagogical researches of the American scientists the various definitions of a pragmatism acting to a certain extent as synonyms of data kontsepta are used, namely: eksperimentalizm, progressivizm, constructivism. Therefore and in our work the given concepts, as equivalent to a pragmatism will be used. J. Dewey has enriched a pragmatism with two important components: psychological and logic aspects. Like U.James, J. Dewey ascertains, that the knowledge is the tool for judgement of the purposes; ideas act purposeful oruzhijami knowledge. The conceptual basis progressivizma is a pragmatism. The pragmatical approach to pedagogics demanded to reconsider base bases of preparation of teachers, having displaced accent from the teacher with wide knowledge of the narrow subject on the teacher-psychologist, the teacher-instructor, the teacher-researcher. Thus, the prime purpose was to prepare the new teachers conceiving, developing, the interested novelties in a science and the technician, psychology and sociology. The concept of training of teachers has been developed J. Dewey in a tandem with F.Parker. Researchers insisted on inclusion in the program of preparation of teachers the general culture, the vocational education, professional competence, a methodical component, pedagogical skill. As a result curricula have replenished with effective innovative technologies which answered time calls. Teachers began to apply various techniques of training of teenagers among which the following was considerably allocated: training in the course of practical activities, discussion of a problem with a ghost of own arguments, question or theme research, "case-method", the problem permission, training game and others. Theoretical training directly contacted practical activities of pupils which occupied a solid part of time and had good results. As marks E.JU.Rogatchyov, «Dewey's experience stimulated development of laboratory movement of schools in the USA, has given powerful spur to creation of experimental schools in Europe, thereby

105 cardinally having changed approaches to training methods, made active the doctrine, has brought ideas of democracy in a class room »[146].

The period of development and introduction at school of ideas progressivizma / a pragmatism / eksperimentalizma have enriched pedagogical thought of the USA with the newest non-standard approaches to training and education. The domestic researcher of the concept progressivizma allocates with N.V.Maminova its following important components: «activity of the teacher and the pupil, the importance of experience, creation of a situation of success, a support on a research method, a method of projects, communication of training with Wednesday, idea of continuous formation» [113].

J. Dewey was not lonely in the ideas concerning reforms in school education. With criticism of authoritative formation other thinkers have acted also, namely: G.Viveken, L.Gurlitt, O.Dekroli, E.Demolen, E.Kej, G.Kershenshtejner, U.Kilpatrik, V.Laj, G.Litts, E.Mejman, M.Montessori, and others. However the most influential and not ordinary person in formation of new philosophy of the American pedagogics there is John Dewey - the scientist, the philosopher, the psychologist and the teacher.

The pragmatism was for J. Dewey that philosophy which has arisen not only for judgement of the facts and the validity phenomena, but also for assistance in the decision of difficult and non-standard situations. « He thought of philosophy as the education theory, as the tool of training of a rationality as the means, allowing to make a life of people »[87, with. 15]. In one of early works« My pedagogical credo »(1897) J. Dewey notices, that correct education should become an effective method of social perfection, that the school should create carrying out conditions during a life of the social law and order. And teachers, in turn, should realise well this fact and use the best efforts, to pay attention of a society to school education, to motivate the public to support educational initiatives. In 1894 of J. Dewey has written« the Pedagogical memorandum »in which has paid attention and persons of the teacher dividing positions of the concept of a pragmatism. The teacher of a new formation should become the co-ordinator of changes, the experimenter owning pedagogical knowledge, the best effective techniques, understanding of features of age psychology.

In one of scientific researches «the Child and the curriculum» J. Dewey tries to correlate requirements and hobbies of children and a practical training in the school

Audiences. In the given essay the scientist has allocated three levels of activity for use at school. The first level intended for preschool children and included tasks for touch bodies and development of coordination of movements. The second level assumed use of tools and various materials from environment. The problem of the teacher to motivate youth to an ingenuity, eksperimentirovaniju and to creation. Innovative pedagogical positions of the theory of education are reflected in work in J. Dewey «My pedagogical credo» (1897) in which the thinker has proved new ways of training and youth education, ways of reforming of school teaching. In 1916 D.Djui has published the research «Democracy and formation», subsequently repeatedly quoted by scientists, teachers and public figures of all world. In the given product of J. Dewey reflected on formation not from a position of its efficiency, and from the point of view of growth of the person.

J. Dewey have deeply been convinced, that formation standards will vary, that process this difficult, but very important, as: «declaring formation by social function It will differ depending on quality of a life, characteristic for group. The society which not simply changes, but also considers changes by one of the ideals, will have other standards of education, than what aspires only at consolidation of the customs» [66, with. 181]. For J. Dewey was obvious, that formation which was received by young men in the XX-th century beginning, was insufficient and defective.

According to the teacher, democracy underlies pedagogics, instead of authoritativeness or liberal views. Democratic strategy is inherently directed on education of the best human qualities, forces to think of that «that we as the person we want, what our requirements and problems» [69, with. 157].

Among numerous problems of school education of J. Dewey placed special emphasis on development of children in harmony with the nature, successful adaptation of the child to a life in society, education of polycultural values. The successful life in society is impossible without understanding and possession of cultural norms and values.

Kontsept "formation", according to J. Dewey, should have a close connection with practical activities. Judgement the person of the experience, its self-knowledge are extremely important for development of logic and critical thinking, for adequate behaviour in society, for education of feeling of freedom, responsibility for acts,
Strengthening of internal discipline. We will consider, how the teacher promotes education in its pupils of these major human qualities according to the philosopher. Daily the teacher puts the purpose to learn children independently to think, analyze the acts, to participate in various kinds of activity with other members of society, to feel the importance and uniqueness for a society. In pedagogics of a pragmatism of J. Deweys development of the child and its interests are on the first place, therefore curriculum subjects should act as those necessary tools with which help the pupil develops in every respect. The ideal teacher considers the pupil as the independent person and builds the training directed on its all-round development, instead of on transfer of knowledge as those, thus the teacher - the adherent of a pragmatical direction in pedagogics, focuses the attention not on transfer of ready knowledge, and on creation of conditions of creativity, activity, independence and search. J. Dewey promoted desire of children to continue the education in higher educational institutions.

The essence of the pedagogical concept of John Dewey with reference to search of the ideal school teacher can be formulated in the form of following installations. 1. The ideal teacher appreciates the person in each pupil and directs the pedagogical activity on its all-around development. 2. The ideal teacher, the adherent of ideas of a pragmatism, should become the co-ordinator of educational process, the experimenter. 3. The ideal school teacher owns in perfection the a subject, base bases of pedagogics, and also the newest techniques of training; uses knowledge of age psychology. 4. The ideal teacher should be the researcher and be able to involve children in independent researches of the world. 5. The ideal teacher is responsible for education in the child of ability to think, reflex.

The big interest causes opinions of the higher ranks of an American education and the public on requirements to schools and teachers during the specified historical period. The rector of the Harward university Charles William Elliot in 1908 has sounded idea that it is not obligatory to have the uniform program for all high schools about which diskussirovali in recent times Committee of ten. He insisted on that teachers of an elementary school formed pupils according to their predisposition to certain interests and an expected occupation in the future. Thus,
School teachers had new powers, and managers had the right to regulate flow of pupils. Teachers were guided also by other base criteria of formation of pupils on classes. Among them it is possible to list progress, a floor, race, an ethnic accessory and others. The young democratic state gave huge possibilities to its each citizen, and selection of pupils by different criteria was often unfair, broke democracy principles, therefore there was a sharp requirement for working out of such school programs which would be both useful and fair for all. Vocational training has filled this niche, and on American professional formations have influenced many representatives of the European pedagogical thought. Manual skills have been aimed at mastering by the useful skills which results can be seen the eyes, the knowledge of English language in perfection thus was not required.

Vocational training within the limits of high school had the purpose to prepare young men by a life, but not to prepare them for receipt in college. In 1917 Smith-Hughes's law which provided federal financing of initial high school and which rejected idea has been passed, that all American children should study under the same curriculum. By 1920 pupils could receive the certificate about secondary education after four years of studying of the academic subjects (algebra, biology, history, etc.) or after four-year courses of a professional orientation (agriculture, housekeeping, trade and so forth).

Opinions on school programs, their essence, the school education purposes expressed many representatives of the public, scientists, theorists and experts. To the first decades of the XX-th century there were active disputes on the future of the nation and on how to construct the prospering state. All understood, that as a whole the school education system is inefficient. Various concepts of development developed in this period school and higher education. Each of researchers of formation proved the approach to it reformatsii.

As contrast ideological direction of development of educational thought of the USA in relation to a pragmatism acts essentsializm. Uilliam Begli (1874-1946), one of followers essentsializma in which basis the "intrinsic" approach lays to

To 109 pedagogics. Essentsialisty insisted on rigid discipline at schools and importance of studying of base, fundamental bases of knowledge, erecting on a pedestal intellectual development of schoolboys. U.Begli opposed utilitarizma and a pragmatism in formation, but insisted on strengthening of historically developed functions of school, namely: at school it is necessary to devote much time to development of knowledge, on development of mental abilities, trainings of skills of cerebration. Begli did not accept principles of pragmatical formation and a method of projects. The scientist with criticism concerned the theory of knacks, doubted testing possibilities adequately to estimate a mental potential of the person. He considered, that testing reflects only level of the got knowledge.

One more new direction of scientific thought of the USA of first third of XX-th century was biheviorizm which has found the reflexion and in pedagogical researches. Lecture of American scientist John Brodesa Watson «Psychology from the point of view biheviorista», read in New York on February, 24th, 1913, has begun direction development biheviorizma. Researches of the person have begun with this period from the point of view of its behaviour. Watson has offered the mechanism proving behaviour of the person and animals. It is stimulus and reaction. It was experimentally possible to observe and measure stimulus and the reactions, therefore the given approach has not caused doubts in experts. Watson considered, that at the appropriate approach it is possible to foresee behaviour with the big accuracy, to carry out its monitoring, and also to form by transformation of environment with a finding in it representatives of the necessary trades.

The follower of ideas biheviorizma J. Watson is as well known American psychologist Edward Li Torndajk (1874-1949). However the scientist carried itself to other branch biheviorizma, to "konneksionizmu" (from English СоппссЛіоп - communication). E.L.Torndajk has entered a definition operantnogo the behaviour which formation occurs by trial and error. One of merits of known American psychologist Torndajka is system engineering of numerical measurement of intellectual development of the young man by means of special tests; the psychologist has been convinced, that pedagogics, first of all, requires similar methods of research.

E.L.Torndajka's scientific workings out in the field of psychology, biology, pedagogics

110 and didactics form a basis of many programs of training as in the USA, and abroad. Us its sights at an essence of school education both personal and professional qualities of teachers, first of all, interest, therefore we will consider short basic ideas and E.L.Torndajka's concepts thereupon.

Education in E.L.Torndajka's treatment, is always directed on change which is the major making pedagogics. Belief about necessity of internal transformations for the person have led the scientist to conclusion, that one of pedagogics problems as sciences is studying of structure, essence, the reasons and values of these changes. The following problem of pedagogics - to find ways for qualitative changes in the person. Also it is necessary to make substantiations why these, instead of other changes should make the school education purposes. The teacher, being responsible for development and intellectual growth of children, should understand accurately and clearly the main pedagogical purposes and values and to use in the activity principles which in the best way will lead to desirable changes. An education ideal in concept E.L. Torndajka education of noble motives, sound body and spirit development, augmentation of knowledge of the world, the nature and a life of people is represented in development in the child of the best human qualities. Teachers should stimulate interest of children to a science and practical activities, to form in pupils skills of thinking, noble behaviour, to convince to be active, fair citizens. As well as many known teachers, thinkers and E.L.Torndajk's scientists confirms importance for any school teacher to have deep scientific knowledge in the field of biology, physiology and hygiene and necessarily psychology.

The basic resource of intellectual development of E.L.Torndajk named an instinct of intellectual activity without which loses sense school training. The basic ideas about intelligence were embodied in the theory and methods of quantitative measurement of mental faculties of an individual by means of measurement of characteristic reactions. These ideas have laid down in a basis of the intellectual testing as which developer E.L.Torndajk [has acted see, for example, 293].

The tests offered by E.L.Torndajkom, were a prototype of programmed training in creation and which working out Berres Skinner, etc., taken for a basis the theory and methodical achievements of the psychologist participated. E.L.Torndajk before others,


Still before the definition "feedback" began to be used in pedagogics together with the computer approach to co-ordination by educational activity, accented value of a feedback in educational activity, having offered «influence laws» [See 295]. Conclusions and practical ideas of the concept of E.L.Torndajka represent pedagogical value for school teachers, help to select the best techniques. B.M.Bim-Bad allocates components of productive activity of the teacher which mentioned E.L.Torndajk, namely: training is directed on independence during search activity; statement of the purposes and the task organisation should precede training; it is necessary to give all sources of the necessary information for training; are necessary approval and encouragement in successful activity; the prevention of errors and their analysis [See 25].

Interpretation of the pedagogical concept of E.D.Torndajka allows to assume, what requirements should be shown to the ideal teacher. The ideal teacher necessarily has good vocational training, namely theoretical knowledge of the subject, psychology, biology, physiology and other areas; owns the newest techniques of teaching; presents a material consistently, in a logic order; understands the purposes and problems of training, value of educational system; carefully prepares for lessons.

How the control over schools, over the school districts was carried out, what changes occurred in work of directors of schools of the two first decades of the XX-th century? To answer these and other important questions on functioning of the American schools it is interesting to address to activity of the official and the scientist in the field of school education of the USA of E.Kabberli.

Ellvud Kabberli (1868-1941) was born in the State of Indiana where at local university has got the first education, has continued education at the Colombian university of of New York later. The capable and talented young man, E.Kabberli has begun the career with a post of the school teacher. Then it has passed to work in college and has promoted to a position of the president of Vinsennsky university. The operational experience in different posts promoted E.Kabberli's successful career. The following post in a track record was the managing director of school district of of San Diego, California. Administrative skills, communicative abilities, teaching experience were necessary for the following step in career ladders


Kabberli - him have invited to hold a post of the dean of pedagogical faculty of Stendfordsky university. Management of school district, pedagogical faculty have forced the scientist to study the theory of management of that time carefully. E.Kabberli's merit consists that he has suggested to use the basic theoretical components of management with reference to management of school. The scientist has developed a management system of management of the American school and has accurately registered, what role should carry out operating school districts and directors of schools. The presented E.Kabberli model was widespread the USA in territory and was popular in the country in first half of XX-th century.

It is quite natural, that Kabberli had both the supporters, and opponents. Opponents of its theory criticised the scientist for excessive bjurokratizatsiju educational system, for attempt of blind application of rules of efficiency in the permission of various problems in school. Some offered ideas Kabberli have a rigid authoritative orientation, and even racist notes. Kabberli wrote, that though the USA are considered as the democratic state, and that all people have the equal rights, and there is no division into classes, but actually the employee - is serving, and the hired worker remains hired. It is possible to assume safely, that Kabberli meant that the Afro-Americans remain those, restrained in the rights and possibilities. No laws on a desegregation and formation can improve a life of the black population of America considerably. Statements Elvuda Kabberli were rigid and proved, but officials as a whole did not wish to notice them. The scientist, nevertheless, has made the big impact on occurrence of new American managers, heads of school districts and directors of schools, and E.Kabberli's contribution to management development to formation has an appreciation and to this day.

The special role business of development of an American education and especially formation of the Afro-Americans was played by the visible black educator, the politician and writer Buker Taliafer Washington. The black population of America is proud of talented, formed Afro-American B.T. Washington defending the rights to reception of formation and equality of the former Negroes, and nowadays the Afro-Americans.

Buker Taliafer Washington (1856-1915) - the talented orator, the politician and the writer, was one of the most well-known educators and fighters for formation of the American Negroes. Buker Washington was the native of state of Virginia. His mother was

113 black slave working as the cook in the house of the planter, and the father - the white American unknown to Washington. Traditionally slaves in North American states had no surnames, but after Civil war in the USA (1861-1865) they have received freedom; Buker has legalised papers and has chosen to itself a surname Washington in honour of the first US president.

From childhood B.T. Washington differed good mental abilities, firm will and purposefulness, is not casual it has independently mastered reading, and has ended the Sunday school created specially for children of Negroes later. B.T. Washington helped a family, earning additionally where could, in parallel studied and engaged in self-education.

In 1872 B.T. Washington has arrived in Hemptonsky selhozinstitut for students of the Afro-Americans. After three years of study Washington began to work as the teacher at Negro schools of the South of the country, also earned additionally the secretary of general Samuelja Armstrong, the rector of Hemptonsky institute. B.T. Washington has continued the education in Washington. In 1879 it has received the diploma of the teacher and began to teach at Hemptonsky institute. The future politician and the writer was also the remarkable orator, one of the famous educators and supporters of education of the Afro-Americans. In September, 1895 B.T. Washington has made speech in the city of Atlanta (State of Georgia) in which has proved the concept of political and social development of a society and importance of cooperation of all inhabitants of the USA without dependence from their colour of a skin. B.T. Washington was the first in country history the black American who has addressed to Euroamericans. In the speech the orator urged to reach equality of white and black citizens first of all in two spheres: in reception of work and in business. Its ten-minute speech has defined the racial policy in the south of the country and has made B.T. Washington known among all Negro people of the USA, became the precondition of its promotion in leaders of Negro national movement.

B.T. Washington became the first managing directors of Negro normal institute (The Tuskegee Negro Normal Institute), opened on July, 4th, 1888 in Taskigi, the State of Alabama. At this institute students received secondary education in industrial directions. Along with traditional academic subjects, the special attention was given actual then to practical disciplines: to farming,


To manufacturing of building materials, footwear tailoring, etc. the institute Budget was poor, only 2000 dollars a year which went for the salary of teachers. B.T. Washington thanks to the public statements earned money for the institute. President Teodor Roosevelt appreciated the Afro-American and addressed for council concerning attraction on responsible state posts of the worthy Afro-Americans. The curriculum and efficiency of preparation of experts, especially in agricultural sphere, drew attention of many universities, including foreign (Europe, Japan and China) which adopted experience of teaching of institute Taskigi. Popularity and effective management of institute has allowed it to develop successfully. The university student's campus totaled more than hundred new constructions, and the number of students has reached 1600 persons.

Efforts of not ordinary teacher, the politician and writer B.T. Washington promoted development of vocational training for the former slaves, have opened the basic problems of Negro formation. Acting with lectures on the country, B.T. Washington propagandised the main things, from its point of view, value of the American people - diligence, persistence and self-discipline. Being the far-sighted politician, an expert and the organizer, B.T. Washington understood, that access to higher education of the former slaves will be gradually reached in the future. For this purpose there should come suitable time. Contribution B.T. Washington in business of formation and a development of education for the Afro-Americans is considerable.

The short conclusion under the paragraph

The first twentieth anniversary of the XX-th century is characterised by an epoch of "assimilation" of immigrants during the American life, and the society and school education main task consisted in "Americanization" of immigrants. More than eighteen millions persons have got over in the USA on a constant residence during the period with 1890 for 1920 Not casually in the first twentieth anniversary of the XX-th century was observed perepolnennost schools at sharp shortage of professional teachers, especially teachers of English language, and also absence of qualitative educational programs. As consequence of it, 1900-1920th years are noted by decrease in indicators of quality of school education, a low indicator left high school.


Absence of due attention to development of mental abilities of schoolboys as the basic accent has been made on maintenance of discipline and education of the American values was besides, observed. The ideal teacher of the period of assimilation should have following professional qualities: good knowledge of one or several foreign languages, organising abilities, ability to support discipline, ability to bring up in young men the American values. Personal qualities: tolerance, enthusiasm, love to children.

In the first twentieth anniversary at schools special attention to subjects of a professional orientation, manual skills, instead of the academic disciplines was observed. Therefore schools required also teachers of vocational training. Such attention spoke desire of teenagers somewhat quicker to get professional skills and to find to itself work. Interest to higher education reception in the near future almost was absent. Besides, agricultural areas of the country had the worst conditions on granting of a quality education owing to the economic reasons.

The XX-th century beginning also is noted by occurrence and development of new directions of modernisation of school education among which the pragmatism is considerably allocated, to one of which founders is J. Dewey. Within the limits of the pragmatical concept the traditional model of preparation of the teachers, focused on preparation of the teacher-predmetnika has undergone to changes. The social order of a society demanded from the ideal teacher of a profound knowledge not only the subject, but also age psychology, a reflexion of the pedagogical activity, the creative approach to work and aspirations to studying of the best achievements of science and technology.

The direction biheviorizma has enriched with E.L.Torndajka the pedagogical theory and practice by new approaches to training, has brought the contribution to quantitative measurements of intellectual development of pupils, has formed a basis of programmed training. Thanks to researches of scientists-bihevioristov the purposes and values of formation have been reconsidered, the basic questions of school education are rethought, for example, «to That to learn?» And «how to learn?». E.L.Torndajka's concept has made following demands to professionally significant qualities of the ideal teacher: the thorough vocational training including theoretical knowledge


Subject, psychology, biology, physiology and other areas, possession of the newest techniques of teaching, sequence, logicality, knowledge and understanding of the purposes and problems of training, values of educational system and thorough training of lessons.

In the XX-th century beginning questions of training of the multicultural American nation were staticized. Schools began to solve the main tasks connected with socialisation of migrants and aboriginals of the country, to inculcation of the American values by it and possibility after leaving school to find to itself work, to be free independent citizens of the young democratic state.

Growth of schools and quantity of pupils in them demanded attraction of the best teachers and managers, revision of the purposes and training problems in new social and economic conditions. E.Kabberli's merit consisted in working out of effective administrative mechanisms on management of school districts. Processing of base theoretical bases of management for management of schools has allowed to adjust good work of schools, promoted efficient control. E.Kabberli has proved and has registered, what role should carry out operating school districts and directors of schools.

During the investigated period activity of the black population of the USA was observed to get education along with their white compatriots though in the intellectual plan they considerably lagged behind the European migrants. Occurrence of the black national leader of former slaves B.T. Washington has inspired the nation, and has expanded possibilities to the Afro-Americans to get worthy education.


<< | >>
A source: ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019. 2019

More on topic formation of representations about personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in 1900-1920:

  1. ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019, 2019
  2. Astapenko Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
  3. 2.2 Pedagogical technology of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity
  5. 2.1 Pedagogical model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity and pedagogical conditions of its realisation
  6. the Chapter II Empirical check of model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity
  7. Personal qualities in system of professional skill of shots of management and a problem of their perfection
  8. Self-educational activity of the teacher of an elementary school and its feature
  9. KAZANTSEV Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Voronezh - 2013, 2013
  10. Kazantsev Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014
  11. Structure, criteria and levels sformirovannosti creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school of self-educational activity
  12. Creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school as pedagogiyocheskaja a problem
  14. § 1.1 Evolution drevneegipetskih representations about maat: from an imperial prerogative to ethics of personal virtue
  15. MAMAYEV HOPE PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018, 2018
  16. MAMAYEV Nadezhda Pavlovna. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2019, 2019
  17. 1.1. Factors of formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian subject matters of classical gymnasia formation as a condition of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys
  18. 1.3. Influence of spiritual and scientifically-world outlook potential of humanitarian disciplines on formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school
  19. 1.4.1. Features diskursivnoj persons of the teacher-language and literature teacher