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genesis of ideas of vocational guidance as conditions of professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment

For designing of process of vocational guidance of minors condemned, directed on formation of their readiness for professional self-determination and providing them resotsializatsiju, it is necessary to analyse developed domestic and foreign practice in this area and to find out the most effective and proved approaches.

It is represented, that the istoriko-pedagogical analysis of practice of vocational guidance of minors condemned can be spent two ways. The first way assumes studying of formation of a science of vocational guidance and labour education as its element. This research will be carried out in the tideway of psychology history since variety of scientists considers vocational guidance as a special direction of psychological practice, related psychology of work [99]. Actually pedagogical work on formation of readiness of minors condemned to professional self-determination (experience, scientific workings out) to describe thus will not be possible. The second way of research - the historical analysis of pedagogical work correctional facilities of various type with them condemned for a choice of a trade and their attraction to work - will allow to reveal specificity of activity of an educational colony, and also to designate stages of registration of domestic institute of vocational guidance of minors condemned. With a view of our research this research approach is optimum.

Unfortunately, we did not manage to find the special researches devoted to the description of practice of vocational guidance of minors condemned. Its separate aspects are described in A.A.Ashina, L.I.Beljaevoj, V.M.Zubenko's works, etc., however it does not allow to present the pedagogical phenomenon interesting us completely. In the characteristic
Experience of vocational guidance of minors condemned the special attention has been given: histories kategorizatsii minors condemned as special object of pedagogical influence, to the description of separate receptions of the pedagogical activity providing formation of their readiness for professional self-determination.

Results of the analysis of domestic and foreign experience are presented in our research separately since the available information is inadequate. Studying of domestic practice allows to track in a retrospective show the organisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned, and the description of foreign practice - to allocate innovative approaches to formation of their readiness for professional self-determination.

Till XIX century as follows from V.M.Zubenko's [40] works, children who have committed crimes, served time on the general with adults the bases. Them placed in rabotnye at home, gave on military service, banished in the remote provinces, on penal servitude, concluded in prisons. Before judicial reform of 1864 of special institutions for correction and re-education of children who have committed crimes, in Russia was not. There were no also the especial laws regulating an order of execution of punishment and defining the rights and duties of minors [40].

Creation of system of establishments for serving of punishment in the form of imprisonment by minor prisoners is connected with the reforms spent during the period of reign of Alexander II. By the law from December, 5th, 1866 «About establishments of shelters and colonies for moral correction of minor criminals» [40] it was established two new types of establishments (shelters and colonies), an order and conditions of execution of punishment in the form of imprisonment in them essentially differed from execution of punishment concerning adult prisoners.

By 1881 in Russia, according to L.V.Badja [10], there was a system of corrective institutions for the maintenance of the minor and juvenile offenders, including shelters, agricultural
Craft colonies, uchebno-corrective shelters, remeslennoyoispravitelnye shelters, vospitatelno-corrective craft shelters, vospitatelno-corrective agricultural colonies, corrective shelters for juvenile criminals and homeless children. Each of establishments in a basis of corrective influence defined, according to the Charter or Position, attraction of minors to a certain kind of work, and character of influence on minors raznilsja according to establishment type.

O.I.Pospelov asserts, that in corrective institutions of Russia in second half XIX - XX centuries there was a differentiated approach of the vospitatelno-pedagogical personnel to a choice of a craft speciality for each pupil. It was taken into consideration as desire of teenagers, level of their physical and intellectual development, natural abilities and bents, and device possibility for good work and with decent earnings in the future [18]. The Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1831 had been made the Instruction to the inspector of the provincial prison lock in which it was specified in necessity of familiarising of prisoners to work, «to be after clearing useful to and family» [7,181]. At appointment of works the age, a state of health, professional skills and wishes of prisoners, and also their class accessory were considered.

To a game. ХІХ - nach. HH centuries the Russian corrective institutions tried to use directions of vocational training applied in usual educational institutions in the activity. Some of them as marks L.I.Beljaeva, were mixed by sign professionalizatsii: in the winter pupils in them studied craft, and were engaged in agriculture in the summer. Sometimes the institution profile was defined or varied depending on different circumstances, including - subjective. Separate corrective institutions did it, having found out, that pupils do not apply the received knowledge. As a rule, in everyone
Institution some crafts were studied, the approach to their choice differed: in one institutions the arrived went there where there was a place, in others - for finding-out of its propensities stay time in novitsiate (so, in the St.-Petersburg colony it was equaled to year) was used. Sometimes possibility independently to choose for itself employment was given to pupils. For example, in the Kharkov shelter, the Chernigov colony the pupil could during 2 - 3 months to try to be engaged in each of available crafts, and then to make a definitive choice. In case of difficulties directors or tutors who taking into account the general preparation, physical development and interests of the pupil recommended this or that craft [18] to the aid came. The named kinds of works actually testify to professional tests carried out on professional diagnostics, profpodbore, promoting formation of readiness of pupils to professional self-determination.

Special interest in a context of our research represents the Law published on April, 19th, 1909 on vospitatelno-corrective institutions for the minors, confirming as a special measure of influence formation (the general, professional and religious) [40]. Vocational training reception is impossible without definition of preferences in the world of trades. It allows to assume, that the personnel of corrective institutions assisted minors in professional self-determination (that is a vocational guidance element). The law established necessity of patronage over the released minors («protection left of institutions» [51]) so, questions of the further assistance professionalizatsii committed a crime could be studied with participation of the public which was active enough during this period.

The beginning of XX century has been connected with essential updating of standard base of activity penitentsiarnyh establishments, including - in the field of vocational guidance of minors condemned. According to
Decree SNK RSFSR from January, 14th, 1918 «About the commissions for minors», abolishing courts and imprisonment for the teenagers, all minors containing in prisons and arestnyh houses, have been released, and actions for reorganisation and creation of new educational establishments for serving time minors began to be carried out. So, for minor offenders-recidivists or made the grave crimes, poorly giving in to measures of mediko-pedagogical character, the premise in the closed educational establishments - reformatorii and agricultural colonies [56] has been provided. Training, education and preparation for a labour life, teaching of practical knowledge and expansion of the general intellectual development »[7,183] young men at the age of 17 - became 21 years the activity purpose reformatoriev.

About the same purposes stood and before colonies for minors: to care of pupils, to give them the general education and practical skills which would help to receive means of subsistence justly: «people should leave during a life the armed knowledge; otherwise they will be dragged away again on a bottom by impracticality to normal ways of existence» [7,184].

Since 1921 in system correctional facilities for the minors who are carrying out including problems on their vocational guidance, the new type of establishments - labour houses [7] has been included. The premise purposes in them were defined so: to train in the qualified kinds of work, to impart moral principles, to develop the higher spiritual interests, to expand intellectual horizon by the general and vocational training and to create amateur and understanding the rights and duties of citizens of the Soviet republic [56]. Labour houses for offenders from Workers' and Peasants' youth, besides the general corrective-labour influence, accustomed to discipline, consciousness in the relation to a labour society

And consistencies in acts [56]. All containing minors

Have been obliged To work [7,185]. Schooling to work possessed
The corrective And the socialising potential that answers
To mission Vocational guidance of minors condemned in

Educational colony at the present stage.

In 30th, etc. ideas of the labour polytechnical school start to develop P.P.Blonsky, N.K.Krupsky, A.S.Makarenko, S.T.Shatsky, separate questions of assistance to professional self-determination dare in this context. In a number of establishments the labour education of schoolboys assuming development of interest to separate kinds of labour activity, development of socially realised relation to a trade choice (these are significant elements of vocational guidance) is carried out. Study of some theoretical questions of vocational guidance of pupils was carried out also. So, P.P.Blonsky in article «the trade Choice», the central problem of vocational guidance devoted to the analysis - essence of self-determination, propensity and ability of the teenager named the principal causes, inducing to choose for itself this or that trade [21].

The practical showdown, allowing to acquaint teenagers with the maintenance of professional work became special means of vocational guidance. Stages of realisation of a method: pupils did «professional test» in several branches, passing during employment if it is required, from one workshop in another, after practical acquaintance with trades chose to itself the most suitable. We will notice, that the term «professional test» was used in other, than in modern conditions, sense (professional test is «the practical work consisting of a part of labour actions of any expert which can be carried out in school workshops» [70]). Unfortunately, pupils truddomov received only elementary labour skills, becoming handicraftsmen that has caused of reorganisation of the given establishments in schools of a factory apprenticeship [56].

The operational experience of establishments for minor offenders of system Narkomprosa (and especially - labour communes OGPU) became a basis of such reforming. Idea of creation of labour communes in a pedagogical science connect with A.S.Makarenko's name. Modern researchers try to rethink in a new fashion its contribution to formation of ideas of transformation of the person in the course of work. S.S.Egorovoj's considering activity of communes position «real experience« bezretsidivnoj pedagogics », ingenious socially-pedagogical experiment resotsializatsii« difficult "teenagers" [34] is specific in this sense. E.J.Illaltdinova specifies, that these teaching and educational establishments were subjects not only educational, but also social and economic activity. Their special purpose became education of the conscious owner understanding an essence of production, its economic feasibility, and also ways of effective work [43]. The commune should restore normal relations between the person and a society, to excite new system of motivation that would allow to overcome social dezadaptatsiju and to strengthen influence of the basic institutes of socialisation of the person [61].

Separate ideas of the concept of labour training and A.S.Makarenko's education, in our opinion, can be applied in work on formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned. It: an intellectual saturation of labour activity; fascinating complexity of work; work in collective, etc. Work, according to A.S.Makarenko, opened space for satisfaction of tastes and bents of pupils, forming at them various organising skills and tempering character. Participation in work provided the conditions necessary for the realised choice in various situations and their versatile development. Under S.S.Egorovoj, A.S.Makarenko's statement suggested to carry out «proektirovku persons, to create the programs of human character including all maintenance
Persons »[34], that is partly conformable with a vocational guidance problem at the present stage, consisting in resotsializatsii the condemned.

Being the supporter of the regular approach to vocational guidance, S.T.Shatsky suggested to spend with teenagers not only collective, but also individual work - focused on excursions, supervision and... The approaching... To this or that trade »[136].

By March, 1931 work on reorganisation of all labour houses in schools FZU NKJU [56] has been finished. In them placed minor offenders at the age from 15 till 18 years on the basis of sentences of court, decisions of the commissions on affairs of minor and other representatives on that of bodies. For the differentiated organisation of correction and re-education of various categories of offenders some kinds of schools FZU NKJU were provided: closed, half-opened, opened. Their work was under construction on interaction with the industrial enterprises, collectives of workers (this necessary condition of vocational guidance of minors condemned and at the present stage). Working collectives carried out patronage over FZU, allocated for this purpose for a permanent job of the best young workers.

The further development of practice of vocational guidance of minors condemned, in our opinion, is connected with occurrence in 30th of new types of establishments of XX century - insulators, labour colonies and receivers - of distributors.

Duration of stay of the minor condemned in a colony was defined not so much by punishment term on a sentence, how many actual achievement of the purpose of its re-education and training of the certain worker of a speciality. It was in a colony until will be prepared for an independent labour life and will not orient on pravoposlushnoe behaviour. A main objective of activity of colonies - training of minors condemned to the qualified kinds of work, development of their spiritual interests, expansion
Intellectual possibilities through the general and vocational training, and also education «amateur and understanding the rights and duties of citizens of the Soviet Republic» [7,178].

Let's notice, that ideas of vocational guidance more and more penetrated penitentsiarnuju practice. That fact testifies to it, that at a choice of a kind of labour activity for condemned, serving time, the establishment administration quite often was guided by their propensity to this or that sort of work, knowledge, former employment, the general state of health and possibility to apply at an exit from correctional facility the acquired knowledge [7]. The Primary goals of activity of a colony on the organisation of vocational training and attraction of minors to socially useful work as writes A.A.Ashin [7], a steel: conviction formation in necessity of work; acquisition by each pupil of a trade and various labour skills; vocational counselling on prospect; definition of the speciality corresponding to individual and personal features of the condemned; search of optimum ways which can help with acquisition of the chosen trade. Such construction of work testifies to understanding the state of necessity of realisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned and formation of its system.

In the same context it is necessary to estimate and the creation fact in system of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of special department of labour colonies for a management of their activity. In our opinion, to correctional facility functioning, administrative body it is necessary to consider this display of special attention of the state as the subject of a management and the initiator of sociolabor influence on minors condemned. For this reason within the limits of experimental work it is expedient to think over optimum forms of participation of territorial body in work on
To formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned.

In labour colonies GULAGa four kinds of manufacture, as a rule, functioned: metallo - and derevoobrabotka; shoe and knitted manufacture [7,189] (that is more various, than for today). Researchers notice, that in many corrective institutions there was a wide choice of studied crafts which answered sotsialnoyoekonomicheskoj to a situation in the country and to demand for these specialities (it corresponds also to modern requirements to the vocational guidance organisation). Thus training programs were differentiated depending on term of punishment of the pupil. It is interesting, that they provided variety of grade levels: studying of safety rules; acquaintance to manufacture, skills and receptions of manufacturing of separate details; training in separate kinds of more difficult work for fastening of the passed material. Various forms proforientatsionnoj works were used: Lectures and conversations, excursions to the industrial enterprises, conversations with experts, performance of tasks [7].

Studying of an operational experience of industrial practice workshops, according to A.A.Ashina, shows, that the training organised in them to socially useful work provided colonies with orders and gave the chance to realisation of made production, but the main thing - allowed to form interest of teenagers to certain trades.

Since 40th HH century have been accepted a number of the is standard-legal documents which have allowed more differentsirovanno to organise the maintenance and education of various categories of minor offenders. Thus each aspect of functioning correctional facility solved a special pedagogical problem that did not exclude carrying out and vocational guidance of minors condemned.

With the statement in 1956 of new Positions about children's labour colonies and children's educational colonies of the basic structural
The group, and the most part of the actions spent with minors became unit of a generality condemned, has got mass and group character. It has provided full coverage of all condemned by educational influence and has essentially complicated individual approach application in work with them (that especially actually for vocational guidance).

On May, 24th, 1996 the State Duma of the Russian Federation had been accepted the new Criminal code of the Russian Federation which became the basic regulatory legal act regulating execution of all kinds of punishments. Its distinctive lines - accurately formulated socially-pedagogical orientation, expansion and deepening of a legal status condemned, respect giving to a guarantee and protection of their rights, freedom and legitimate interests, a regulation of vospitatelno-corrective influence [46]. According to item 109 of the Criminally-executive code of the Russian Federation educational work with condemned to imprisonment urged to generate at them the valid relation to the person, a society, work. To raise their educational and cultural level [124]. The specified problems should not and cannot to be reached, in our opinion, exclusively during educational work as correctional facility has a long-term experience of application of other means of influence on behaviour and consciousness of minors condemned (vocational guidance concerns their number).

Thus, in development of ideas of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned in domestic penitentsiarnoj practice can allocate a number of stages: dosovetsky (connected with understanding of the importance and necessity of realisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned, being in isolation); Soviet (characterised by creation and approbation of separate means of vocational guidance of minors condemned); modern (differing vocational guidance inclusion in the general system of problems of an educational colony).

The analysis of publications speaking another language allows to conclude, that in a foreign science for a designation of work correctional facility on formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned, special terminology is not used. There are no also the monographic researches analyzing the given question in historical prospect of the concrete state. We will present further some developed approaches deserving the account in modern domestic penitentsiarnoj to practice.

In many foreign countries general educational training and vocational training are based on positions of standard legal certificates which provide general availability, besplatnost, sequence of formation [41], its adaptability to level and features of development of the person. One of conditions of effective functioning of foreign educational system, in our opinion, can consider presence of social institute of vocational guidance. The analysis of modern publications allows to allocate three models of vocational guidance: American, West European and Japanese [29]. Their specificity, according to I.V.Dementyev, is defined by an economic and political situation in the country, a society standard of well-being, features of functioning of an education system, duration of development of vocational guidance, etc. [29]

The vocational guidance country-ancestor considers the USA where in 1908 the first has been organised profkonsultatsionnoe a bureau and the first concept of vocational guidance of F.Parsona is offered.

The modern system of vocational guidance of the USA is characterised by plurality of organizational schemes. Formation questions are in conducting corresponding bodies of staff. Except schools, in vocational guidance structure services of employment of the population (state are included and
Private) [29]. The Leading part is played by the advisory service "Гайденс" [I] organised in 1908 and representing the whole complex of divisions, including five various services. Problems of service of measurement include gathering, ordering, an estimation and the analysis of all information on the child (in the specialised file data on conditions, residing area, a material prosperity of a family are fixed) that helps to understand its behaviour better. The information service extends data on all questions of activity "Gajdens". The consultation service carries out individual influence on the person. The direction service is engaged in the device of schoolboys for work or study. The control service behind results of the program realises feedback functions. The big circle of persons is involved in field of activity Gajdens: kaunsler (the adviser, the tutor), the social worker, the psychologist, the employee who is responsible for attendance of pupils (at school), teachers-advisers, teachers of "a house room», the attache on communications with judicial authorities, the doctor, nurses, heads of circles and clubs, assistants-secretaries [72]. Activity kaunslera includes the decision of problems of vocational guidance.

Besides, in the USA educational programs "Academy H", «From school to work», the preparations of youth focused on improvement for an independent labour life [29] are realised.

The essential role in professional self-determination is played by an information network database (Occupational Information Network) [29] in which various data on trades (means of activity, requirements to professional qualities of workers, etc.) are presented. Presence of such federal base, in our opinion, would facilitate carrying out preparation for a trade choice in domestic educational colonies, carrying out functions of a supply with information of such activity.

Educational programs realised in the USA allow condemned to receive the certificate (certificate) granting the right to development of the professional program. They are popular and as confirms J.S.Ivasenko, «are capable to answer individual inquiries of prisoners» [41].

With a view of relapse preventive maintenance in penitentsiarnoj to practice of the USA, according to I.I.Salamatinoj, the whole set various educational, training and treningovyh programs, including - professionally directed [108] is created. Their purpose - to create conditions for acquisition by minors condemned labour their possibilities labour and professional skills and the knowledge allowing them to find a place on a labour market after clearing [108]. In S.E.Tarabrinoj's research also it is underlined, that in reformatorijah the USA during realisation of corrective programs condemned possibility to master various forms dekorativnoyoprikladnogo arts is given. It is considered as means of formation at condemned healthy requirement constantly to be engaged in useful activity. The corrective program actually reflects the social order to correctional facility: The prisoner should correspond as much as possible to society requirements, successfully being guided in world around, to be the expert in the area [120].

Thus, functioning proforientatsionnoj systems of the USA is provided with a variety of theoretical concepts, curriculums of practical preparation of minors to a trade choice, wide use of information resources.

As well as in the USA, in Germany vocational guidance - a field of activity of various structures. Historically it includes two forms: out-of-school and school [19]. Within the limits of out-of-school vocational guidance from the end of I World war, according to the legislation, conducting the state account of work was included into the competence of communes. They advised by trades and
Directed to service of the account of work. Since 20th years of XX century as marks M.Berdan, actions on «to education about trades» became a component of consultations by trades of all services [19]. The vocational guidance School uniform has started to develop about 60th of XX century and mentioned questions of the general praktiko-focused education on trades (requirements to competitors and the operating workers, connected with a trade or labour features [19]).

At the present stage vocational guidance is realised on the basis of two concepts [19] - information and biographic. The information concept represents vocational guidance as intervention (the decision of an individual problem) taking into account labour market requirements, the position of the minor is thus considered poorly, the biographic concept reflects orientation to personal features of the minor and connects a professional choice with satisfaction actual requirements for it.

M.Berdan specifies, that vocational guidance in Germany develops abilities of the minor «to own decision for the organisation of the working career and life planning» [19, 383]. Such approach is claimed and in modern domestic penitentsiarnoj to practice that allows to consider it at the organisation of our experimental work. In Germany new methods of vocational guidance are successfully applied. One of them is «the system of the Berlin school firms» [19,385] (NEBS), possibility giving to teenagers to receive knowledge and skills in the conditions of independent work to train and apply the abilities. Minors can test in various roles, develop important the competence (personal responsibility, independence) to form representation about enterprise thinking and actions. Possibly, specified approaches find some reflexion and in penitentsiarnoj to practice.

In Germany for minors the special order of serving of punishment which extends on persons aged to 21 years is established. «It is provided two kinds of the establishments connected with imprisonment, - closed and specialised» [28,26]. Condemned, not left the basic school, «the basic disciplines should study... Or to visit corresponding employment at special school» [41]. These actions are spent taking into account the condemned lacks revealed in formation, and allow to give condemned corresponding school education and, thereby, to ensure them a trade [4].

Productivity of this activity is promoted in many respects by specialisation of prisons on a certain direction of work with condemned [41], and also prison-distributor creation (Hagen), to the special commission called by forces including: the lawyer, the adviser for employment, teachers, psychologists, social workers, scientists-sociologists, employees of the general service of execution of punishments [69] to diagnose everyone condemned and to define an optimum direction for it resotsializatsii, including - by assistance in a choice of a trade or selection of a direction of vocational training. Such activity carries out the important socialising function [69].

Employees of social services of prisons of Germany carry out with condemned the social trainings directed on «studying of socially comprehensible not criminal ways of overcoming of the situations arising in a daily life» [41, 50] (a special place in subjects of social training the theme «Work and the Trade» occupies). The employee responsible for the organisation of training, annually informs the chief of establishment, and that, in turn, - the chief of territorial body on the done work. Such practice testifies to attention of a management penitentsiarnyh services to results of vocational guidance.

Besides attraction of minors condemned to work, in correctional facilities of Germany carry out the educational
The actions reception of documents on vocational training and mastering by a trade [28] becomes which result. The list of kinds of the professional work offered by the centres of vocational training in Germany, includes, according to A.V.Morozova, to 96 trades [69]. This figure approximately four times exceeds similar Russian indicators.

For stimulation of self-determination of minors correctional facilities condemned administration uses various means (including compensation for work) [69].

Responsibility for carrying out of vocational guidance of minors depending on correctional facility type can be assigned to the employee of establishment, representatives of special trade union on profobrazovaniju [68], the diplomaed social teacher realising the individual intensive socially-pedagogical help in a municipal social service [53].

Thus, vocational guidance in penitentsiarnyh establishments of Germany is characterised by presence of two concepts (information and biographic), integration of formation of minors and mastering by a trade, a recognition of socialising function of a choice of a trade. The success of this activity is caused by the developed tradition of state regulation of vocational guidance by formation of the special legislation, specialisation correctional facilities for minors, the control realised by them proforientatsionnyh actions by the authorised administrative bodies.

The analysis of scientific sources has allowed to find out, that in the European practice use of preparation condemned to a choice of a trade and independent labour activity as the basic means resotsializatsii [58] is extended. It is a basis of corrective concepts of special establishments for minors condemned.

So, in establishment AH Basel (Switzerland) for the purpose of optimisation proforientatsionnoj and educational activity minors condemned are divided on two groups. One group in first half of day within a week visits employment at school, other group is engaged in a workshop, next week groups vary. Application of such experience of the organisation of teaching and educational process, in our opinion, is actual and for the Russian practice and would allow to realise a principle of separation condemned [76].

In workshops of establishment minors make various production which is made under the order, teenagers have a possibility, using the equipment which is available in a workshop to make subjects of a private use which they can leave subsequently to themselves. Such practice, according to employees of establishment, not only raises interest of minors work, but also strengthens their motivation to a trade choice. AH Basel supports contacts to educational institutions and the enterprises of a various profile for maintenance of acquisition with minors of an operational experience and training at the enterprises of various professional areas. Training of minors on a trade profile will be organised not only in establishment workshops, but also on the basis of the industrial enterprises of canton, with possibility of the subsequent employment.

Experts of the Center of execution of forced measures punishments Uitikon (Switzerland) special attention give the organisations of internal structure of vocational training of minors, considering necessary regular contacts to vocational schools, associations and courses. It is provided at different levels of activity differently. Vocational training in the Center will be organised according to kantonalnym to educational charters of the various professional associations submitting to Federal department of vocational training and technologies [129]. So it is carried out
Regulation and the control of vocational guidance of minors condemned, that testifies to interest of the state in effective assistance to a professional choice of minors. In domestic practice, unfortunately, such submission is absent, that in many respects complicates sistemnost and quality of the organisation of activity of employees of an educational colony.

Vocational training of each minor condemned in the conditions of the Center includes two directions - the individualised general educational training and

Specialised profobuchenie, carried out by employees uchebnoyoproizvodstvennyh the enterprises. The maintenance profobuchenija in the Center is made by transfer of a professional knowledge, craft skills, formation of professional identity condemned for the purpose of them resotsializatsii. The establishment gives reception possibilities profobuchenija in 10 spheres [129]: car-care centre, gardening and truck farming, housekeeping, cookery, agriculture, painting (list), metal working, joiner's business and technical services.

The purposes of work of industrial practice workshops are finding-out of professional propensities, abilities and suitability of minors condemned, strengthening of professional skills already available for them. It should, according to experts, to facilitate their subsequent vocational training. Experts of the Center try to attach teenagers to a professional life and to motivate them. To transition of the minor to a stage of specialised vocational training precede joint with the teacher otsenivanie the spent work and report drawing up. It forms a subject position condemned, involves it in the realised construction of professional and vital prospect.

The administration youth establishments ShenkungDeplz (Switzerland) is convinced that for passage of a complete course of training or introduction
In a trade condemned formation and ability to communicate are necessary certain motivation, sufficient for this purpose. The establishment should consider meaningly and systematically requirements and behavioural difficulties of young men in the organisation of their daily life [138].

In establishment there is own vocational school (the same, that professional school) and four industrial practice workshops (joiner's, mechanical, painting workshops, a workshop of professional training and vocational guidance). Vocational training reception in establishment is carried out on the basis of own professional school (that is characteristic and for domestic educational colonies) where young men receive also the general, and vocational training. Teachers make the individual semestrial curriculum in which define the purposes and concrete approaches for each pupil. Plans are corrected time in half a year. Thus, on the one hand, help measures condemned in achievement of necessary educational level are formulated, and with another - directions of the further perfection of practice of vocational training in the conditions of establishment are defined.

In a workshop of professional training and vocational guidance young men have training preparation for the future vocational training: study to organise the working day in a trade, carry out a trade choice through system of professional tests (for this purpose they are offered to perform work with various materials accompanied by the professional adviser). In the Soviet practice of vocational guidance the method of professional tests was used actively, modern market conditions and absence of institutes of vocational guidance (services, the centres, other) have practically excluded, in our opinion, assistance to a professional choice in such form. Though possibilities to check up the abilities to a concrete kind of work to "try on" conditions of professional work and to feel the professional,
Undoubtedly, would help a qualitative choice of a trade and have made this work attractive and for persons with criminal experience.

As educational masterful SHenkungDepplz are independent and constructed on marketing principles the industrial enterprises which are carrying out orders of private persons, the states and the industries condemned during training of a trade in them face such natural requirements of economy, as success, accuracy, reliability and corresponding behaviour on a workplace. In establishment the special therapeutic environment in which the minor condemned receives the help not only in a trade choice, but also in the decision of actual vital problems and acquisition of vital skills is generated.

The analysis of corrective concepts of the above-stated establishments of Switzerland allows to assert, that in each of them the author's model of assistance to professional self-determination of minors condemned, based on transformation correctional facility to a platform for development by the young man of a special professional knowledge, labour functions, acquisition of professional experience is actually created. Such approach in penitentsiarnoj to practice of Europe, in our opinion, provides formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned, on the one hand, and their successful resotsializatsiju - with another.

Thus, the analysis of genesis of ideas of vocational guidance as significant condition of professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, allows us to draw following conclusions:

- Certificates on carrying out of specific work on vocational guidance of minors condemned in history Russian penitentsiaristiki practically does not exist, since corresponding concepts of a legal and pedagogical science are not applied, thus the pedagogical work promoting the decision of a question of a choice of a trade,
Accompanied execution of punishments concerning minors, representing the form of social influence on a choice them to a trade;

- In development of vocational guidance of minors condemned in domestic penitentsiarnoj practice can allocate a number of stages: the first - a stage of understanding of the importance and necessity of realisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned, being in isolation; the second - a stage of creation and approbation of separate means of vocational guidance of minors condemned; the third - a stage of inclusion of vocational guidance in the general system of problems of an educational colony;

- In foreign penitentsiaristike there were concepts and models correctional facilities for the minors condemned to imprisonment, based on work influence on their behaviour, process of maintenance of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned accompanies their process resotsializatsii and is based on activation of internal personal mechanisms of self-determination.

Modern scientific knowledge and the conclusions received by us allow to assert, that the organisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned, promoting formation of their readiness for professional self-determination and more successful resotsializatsii, is possible in the conditions of an educational colony. It allows us to pass to modelling of process of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in activity of employees of an educational colony.

1.3.

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A source: Barysheva Anna Viktorovna. Formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment. The dissertation on competition of degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic genesis of ideas of vocational guidance as conditions of professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment:

  1. realisation of pedagogical conditions of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  2. the analysis and interpretation of results of skilled-experimental work on realisation of pedagogical conditions of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  3. pedagogical model of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  4. readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, as psihologoyopedagogicheskaja a problem
  5. the purpose, problems and the organisation of skilled-experimental work on approbation of pedagogical model of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  6. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  7. Chapter 2. Skilled-experimental work on formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  8. Barysheva Anna Viktorovna. Formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment. The dissertation on competition of degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  9. BARYSHEVA Anna Viktorovna. FORMATION of READINESS For PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION of the MINORS CONDEMNED To IMPRISONMENT. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  10. § 3. A problem of definition of criteria of classification of the crimes condemned for plurality by kinds correctional facilities and a choice of conditions of enduring the punishment in the form of imprisonment
  11. § 1. Subculture of a microhabitat condemned, leaving imprisonment
  12. § 1. Features of a legal status condemned to imprisonment
  13. perfection of execution of the punishments which have been not connected with imprisonment concerning condemned, sick socially significant diseases
  14. 4. Use in educational work of possibilities general educational and vocational training condemned
  15. § 3. A parity material and right rules of procedure in maintenance of a legal protection condemned to imprisonment
  16. perfection of execution of punishments in the form of imprisonment concerning condemned, sick of socially significant diseases
  17. execution of punishments in the form of imprisonment concerning condemned, sick of socially significant diseases