genesis of theoretical representations of the American thinkers about an ideal of the school teacher in ХІХ a century

Formation of North American educational system and the pedagogical theory from the historical point of view totals hardly more than three centuries of the evolution. Istoriko-pedagogical process in the USA in the ideologically-theoretical bases in many respects repeats leading tendencies of development of the West European pedagogics and thereof, in the intrinsic characteristics implitsitno has reflected many progressive tendencies of formation of world progressive democratic pedagogics.

In the western istoriko-pedagogical thought are traced «English-

75 American and ex-German research traditions in which frameworks have received a theoretical substantiation evoljutsionistskaja (Charles Leturno), evoljutsionno-racist (Charles Shmitt) and stadialnaja istoriko-pedagogical concepts (Fridrih Dittes), the basic which scientifically-ontologic characteristics are limiting teoretizirovannost, stsientizm, rationalism, metodologizm, utilitarizm and apragmatizm »[74].

Following basic philosophical schools defined development of the theory and practice of formation and education of the USA, and also considerably influenced activity of school teachers: idealism, a pragmatism or an instrumentalism, the religious schools presented in basic philosophy neotomizma. The rational approach by a life and practicalness are expressed by currents of modern rationalism and existentialism.

It is important to underline, that all concepts in philosophy of formation of America (except a pragmatism) are based on ideas of scientific European thought though roots of a pragmatism of John Dewey leave to some extent in separate researches Pestalotstsi, Gerbarta, Gegel and Darwin. Hence, and the methodology of philosophy of formation of the USA, formed in second half XIX centuries, was under the influence of doctrines of the European thinkers (J.Komensky, D.Lock, Z.Russo, I.Pestalotstsi, G.Flaubert, I.Gerbart, G.Spenser). Teaching and education practice borrowed much the German school.

The visible American teacher, the educator and public figure Horas of God-sends (1796-1859), is world-wide recognised by the founder of the American education system and the American pedagogical theory (paragraph 1.2 see). Horas God-sends the first in history of pedagogics the scientist who has developed the original pedagogical concept, focused on multidimensional democratisation of an education system of the USA. The pedagogical heritage of the American educator covers the various pedagogical problems connected with the purposes and problems of school education, methods of teaching and education means, requirements to personal and professional qualities of teachers.

In paragraph 1.2. The given research merits of visible educator Horasa the God-send in business of formation and school education development in the USA were marked, in the given section we put a problem to analyse the pedagogical doctrine of the teacher from the point of view of its sights at the person of the ideal school teacher of the corresponding

Epoch, namely second half XIX centuries.

The North American school and pedagogical thought have borrowed some European educational traditions and concepts, trying to adapt them to special conditions of development of the state. The original culture of the people of the North America, special economic and social conditions have created essentially new preconditions for formation of system of school education in the USA and the pedagogical theory, and also have affected formation of pedagogical views of H.Manna.

In the pedagogical researches the North American educator leant against concepts Jean Jacque Russo, concepts of a constitutional law of John Lock, philosophy of nominalism of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes's rationalism, democratic ideas «Declarations of the rights of freedom of the person and the citizen», «the Bill about the rights», etc. Horas God-sends as the progressive teacher and the statesman was in the centre of many, exclusively American movements of time, namely: abolitionism - a public current for slavery abolition in the USA; dzheffersonianstvo - political movement for carrying out of reforms in various fields of activity of the state; unitarizm - a religious direction proyotestantizma for the reference to base Christian ideals.

In the pedagogical theory X. The god-send the training and education purpose - to prepare the young man for a life in a democratic society, to execution of civil duties by it, to provide equal possibilities for all citizens in all spheres of their social activity. H.Mann urged to refuse superficial, encyclopaedic and scholastic training which was inherent in pedagogics of first half XIX century Instead of it has put forward the important principles of school education: conscious active training, independence, creative initiative. To realise democratic ideals in the pedagogical theory new techniques of teaching of the majority of subject matters were required. Horas God-sends a lot of time gave to working out of techniques of teaching of various disciplines, and this activity was one of prevailing aspects of scientific and pedagogical creativity X. A god-send.

Defending advantages of classical training of H.Mann understood, that in the middle of XIX century the deep philological bias of formation was inappropriate, more important

77 all were deep studying of the native language (the American colloquial variant of English language). The Overall objective of studying of English language - formation of language culture of pupils. It is logical to assume, that preparation of the competent, methodically grounded teachers of English language was one of the primary goals in the middle of XIX century.

In one of articles «Motives of the teacher» («The Teacher’s Motives») H.Mann has specified in those motives by which school teachers in the pedagogical activity should be guided. The educator lists motives from the weakest to the considerable. The payment of the teacher, in opinion the God-send, admits not the most important motivational stimulus of work of the teacher, but nevertheless the teacher it will not be effective to work without worthy compensation. The second motive is covered in desire of the teacher to meet with general approval of its activity; positive responses of its pupils are especially important for the teacher. If the school teacher managed to wake interest to study at the most pity and ignorant pupil, to charge its energy for intellectual, moral and physical development are happy there will be both is both the teacher, and the pupil. Analyzing records of one of school teachers of the State of Massachusetts which it conducted within eleven years, H. God-sends has found out data that «one of each nine boys has been sent in staff prison, either it is taken into custody, or there was in correctional facility» [208, a river 283]. On a rhetorical question on the one who was engaged in formation of character of these children, «the teacher could not give an alibi» [In the same place]. On the school teacher huge cargo of responsibility for education of moral and legislative citizens of the country lays. Pupils become live advertising of incompetence of the teacher. In bolshej degrees character of the pupil is formed under the influence of the school teacher who trains it. Earlier training and character of the adult person are in a close connection, as cause and effect. Therefore much depends on the teacher in formation of the future citizen. H.Mann marks: «Each word of the teacher said loudly or whisper, clears up an echo which will live eternally» [208, p. 284].

As motivation of the teacher the desire of the teacher to ennoble the trade serves sincere, to give it special value. The skilled highly skilled teacher not only well performs the work, but also charges enthusiasm of colleagues, exchanges experience, realises importance of the work in business of education cultural and

78 formed members of a society. The school teacher is proud of the trade, constantly improving a teaching technique to raise quality and efficiency of the work. Not casually following motive of teaching activity to become connected with desire of the teacher the Expert which stimulates professional teachers to enrich the knowledge in all directions: in philology, rhetoric and the logician, modern geography, history and culture. The aspiration to improvement of quality of the pedagogical activity helps the teacher to become the literary and classical critic, «which men of science» [208 will advise, the river 290].

One more motive of work of the teacher at school is a desire to avoid dangers, characteristic for their trade. Each trade leaves the trace on the person, including negative, for example, loss of physical or mental health, and the teacher - not an exception. H.Mann compares work of the teacher to the higher appeal court, where the teacher - the arbitrator of last highest authority on whom decisions on many questions depend. Thus the teacher solves so much questions for one day, how many appeal court not reshet and for one year. All these circumstances can transform the teacher into «the categorical, categorical, wilful and obstinate person» [Ibid. P. 291].

Strong motive of pedagogical activity of the teacher are children - live Divine creations, the most sincere and direct. Therefore «in formation there are no such things, as trifles or trifles» [Ibid. P. 293], each detail in education and training of children matters. At school there is no such pupil on whom influence of the teacher would not extend. «The physical, intellectual and moral condition of each child should, at least partially, to be generated that who determines their destiny» [Ibid. P. 295]. Teachers understand the mission and are ready to answer destiny calls.

As to teachers-predmetnikov except use of the most advanced and effective techniques of training, it is necessary that they realised training overall objectives. H.Mann considered, that the purpose of mathematical formation is a formation of mathematical thinking at pupils, and philosophy studying should promote outlook formation.

The founded H.Mannom the first North American pedagogical magazine (Common School Journal) involved the big number in formation and school questions


Experts. Except the publication of articles in H.Mann's magazines actively acted with lectures, participated in legislative process that formed heightened interest to pedagogics in the American society. If before H.Manna's occurrence in the USA it was not observed the big interest to scientific pedagogics «as a result prosvetiyotelskoj activity of the teacher the American scientists substantially intensified researches in the given area, therefore H.Mann deservedly is considered the ancestor of the American pedagogical theory» [75]. Thanks to H.Manna's efforts to the middle of XIX century the financing of education in the country has increased twice. It meant, as the wages of teachers have been doubled. Thus, we can assume, that the trade of the teacher during this period of time began to be considered as one of the most highly paid in the USA. H.Manna's influence on development and an establishment of system of school education was considerable. « The middle of XIX century is noted in the American history by occurrence of the big number of new comprehensive schools, colleges and universities, magnificent school buildings, development of public charity in favour of education system »[75, with. 80]. With H.Mann's big work has achieved opening of the Pedagogical institute first in the USA in Lexington where for the first time for history of the USA women could be trained. H.Mann has been convinced, that women more all are inclined to pedagogical activity at school as they«... Are more predisposed and capable to education of children of younger school age, than the man. Their manners are more delicate and are refined and, hence, tendernesses of the childhood »[266, the river 176] are more harmonious.

Generalising the ideas stated to H.Mannom about formation, school and teachers, it is possible to make the following portrait «the ideal school teacher» for H! H centuries.

1. School teachers «should imagine clearly ideals to which they aspire, - differently there will be no that unity of action which is necessary for reasonable, firm progress» [90, c. 44] 2. An education Overall objective the ideal teacher sees in formation of morals of pupils. 3. The ideal teacher builds relations with the pupil on the basis of liking, sympathy, respect and friendship. 4. The ideal teacher conducts active training, stimulates pupils to independence, motivates to creativity. 5. Authoritative style of mutual relations with pupils is not priority in pedagogical activity of the ideal teacher. 6. The ideal teacher uses sokratichesky a method of training, supervision,

80 experiences and researches, the best effective methods of studying of school disciplines. 7. Teachers-predmetniki develop language, historical, mathematical and world outlook culture. 8. The ideal teacher does not apply the physical

Punishments. 9. The ideal teacher develops critical independent judgement of the pupil concerning the world surrounding it, cares about disclosing of the abilities put in pawn in the child. 10. The ideal teacher sincerely loves children.

The visible theorist American education ХІХ of a century is as well Edward D.Mensfild, pedagogical and which philosophical ideas are reflected in its book «the American education, its principles and elements. It is devoted teachers of the United States» («Аmeriсаn Eduсаtion, its Prinoiples

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A source: ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019. 2019

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