<<
>>

Integrated development of children of preschool age as concept

The concept «integrated development» is a multidimensional definition and can include the whole complex of various interpretation; for example, speaking about integrated development of the child, mean process of complete development of its mental informative processes or process of formation of the person during interaction between growing and environment factors on the one hand and personal experience - with another [142].
As with concept integralnosti we were defined in the previous paragraph, it is represented expedient to define now such category, as "development".

Russian explanatory dictionary offers following interpretation to a word "development": «process of natural change, transition of one condition in another, more perfect; transition from an old qualitative condition to new, from simple to difficult, from the lowest to the higher; degree of consciousness, culture, kulturnosti» [145].

The big Encyclopaedic dictionary treats this concept a little on other: «the directed, natural change; as a result of development there is a new qualitative condition of object - its structure or structure. Two forms of development distinguish: evolutionary, connected with gradual quantitative changes of object and revolutionary, characterised by qualitative changes in object structure» [10].

The newest philosophical dictionary considers as development the characteristic «qualitative changes of objects, occurrence of new forms of life, innovations and innovations and interfaced to their transformation internal and external relations» [111].

We can find in various psychological dictionaries also following definitions: V.Zelensky in «the Dictionary of analytical psychology», referring on jungianskuju psychology, makes definition of development as: «.evoljutsii children's (infantile) behaviour.» [52]. He suggests to consider development from the point of view of the relation to either to objects, or to instinctive impulses.

Krajg Grejs and Don Bokum in the dictionary under the book «development Psychology» consider, that development (development) - the changes occurring eventually in a structure of a body, mentality and behaviour of the person as a result of the biological processes occurring in an organism, and influences of environment [73].

Korduell M understands development as sequence of events and changes, proihodjashchih during vital term. [68, c.312]

The Oxford explanatory dictionary on psychology under A.Rebera's edition offers some versions of interpretation of a category "development": sequence of changes during all life expectancy of an organism; maturing (here means, that this process biological and is substantially defined by genetic processes. This value, probably, the oldest and etymologically goes back to Old French desveloper, meaning disclosing or expansion. When this term is used in this sense, it is often opposed to processes which grow out nauchenija);

Irreversible sequence of changes. (Somewhat this concept of irreversibility contains and in aforementioned values of this term, but in this case is noted because of its use in medicine and psychiatry for a designation of a developing current of illness or frustration at which stages regularly follow one another); the progressive change conducting to higher levels of differentiation and the organisations. (Positive character of progress, increase in efficiency of functioning, maturing, improvement, enrichment and complication Here is meant.

This value usually is supposed in such phrases as «development of the person», «social development», "intellectual development", «emotional development» etc. it is necessary to pay attention, that in this value there is no the genetic sense marked in values 2 and 3; more likely here means, that these processes are connected with environment factors (nauchenie, a food etc.)) ) [119].

Clearly, that here we deal with free enough term. And, as it often happens in cases to the terms designating processes, having fundamental value, its application is very wide. Almost in
Any of aforementioned values the developing object can be everything: molecular system, bones and bodies, emotions, ideas and informative processes, moral systems, the person, relations, groups, societies and cultures.

In the psychological literature there is also a treatment of development as directed, natural change of the phenomenon or the process conducting to occurrence of new quality [126]. In our opinion made definition too obshcho also cannot characterise development in the foreshortening necessary to us.

The same it is possible to tell and about development interpretation as process and result of transition to new, more perfect qualitative condition, from simple - to difficult, from the lowest - to the higher [29, c.176] or

More detailed characteristic it is found in A.A.Reana's work where development looks as the process of the irreversible, directed and natural changes leading to occurrence of quantitative, qualitative and structural transformations of mentality and behaviour of the person [137].

Thus, development in scientific and reference books is considered as: 1) strengthening, strengthening; 2) finishing to not which degree of a spiritual, intellectual maturity, consciousness, kulturnosti and so forth; 3) finishing to not which degree of force, power, perfection; a raising of level something; 4) expansion something over a wide range, with full energy; 5) expansion, distribution, deepening of the maintenance or application something. In other words, as development usually understand quantitative and qualitative growth (structures) of any system, the increase in its complexity conducting to improvement of fitness of this system to external conditions (for example, organism development);

Concerning development of the person its following features are traced:

1. Qualitative change. Transition from one condition to another (for example, thinking is evident-effective, is evident-shaped, is abstract-logic).

2. Irreversibility of development. Development assumes stability (an absolute constancy, stability of the regular phenomena, preservation of individual distinctions).

3. Specificity of object of development (mentality and consciousness or the person in system of its social relations).

Certain laws, in particular are inherent in human development: non-uniformity and geterohronnost (as non-uniformity it is understood different speed of formation and formation of mental functions, properties and novooobrazovany, under geterohronnostju - non-simultaneity (asihronnost) phases of development of separate bodies and functions; instability of development: development always passes through the unstable periods (it is expressed in development crises); presence senzitivnyh the development periods - the periods of the raised susceptibility of mental functions to external influences in certain areas, for example for training to language; [21] kumuljativnost (the result of development of a previous stage joins in the subsequent); divergentnost/konvergentnost, where divergentsija — increase of a variety in the course of mental development, and convergence, accordingly, — its curling, selectivity strengthening.

Development of the child can be divided conditionally into three components where the first is a physical development (change of weight of a body, growth etc.); the second - development of mental processes (intelligence - thinking, attention, memory, etc.) and emotionally-strong-willed sphere; the third - social development (change of the social status). As physical development to a lesser degree depends on psihologo-pedagogical conditions of stay and training of the child in the HOOPOE, under development we will agree to understand
Mainly development of intellectual, emotionally-strong-willed and social sphere of the preschool child.

So, development is the natural, directed qualitative change of material and ideal objects. Simultaneous presence of these properties distinguishes development from other changes. Reversible changes are characteristic for functioning processes (i.e. Cyclic reproduction of constant system of communications and relations); in the absence of a change orientation cannot collect, that deprives process of the uniform for development uniform, internally interconnected line; absence of laws characterises casual changes of catastrophic type.

The philosophical judgement of development means reproduction of general characteristics of all variety of communications, relations and reality processes. As a result of development there is a new qualitative condition of object. The essential characteristic of development is made by time as any development is carried out in real time and only time reveals its orientation.

The modern public life convincingly confirms difficult, ambiguous character of developments, denying treatment of development as linear progress; shows, that public progress is reached completely not automatically, that the general ascending line of development is result of dialectic interaction of diverse processes in which the main role belongs to the purposeful activity leaning against knowledge of objective laws of history, society and the person (for example, purposeful training). Public practice shows also that development cannot be carried out out of continuity, it turns around the recourse rejecting a society back [111]. For example, now Russia should solve a number of problems on restoration of the broken continuity in an education sphere, social relations, culture and so forth

Summing up and having analysed the above-stated, it is possible to offer following working definition of concept "development" in aspect interesting us: development is (process) natural (go) occurrence () the new, more difficult irreversible mental new growths conducting to perfection of the person as a whole in the course of specially organised and purposeful training.

Speaking about integrated development, it is necessary to address to Ken Uilbera's works.

At the heart of Ken Uilbera's integrated concept representation about a consciousness spectrum according to which the consciousness types, known to us from many spiritual traditions of the world, are the higher stages of development of consciousness lays. On it one of positions of the integrated concept that development does not come to an end at mature age is under construction and can proceed till the end of human life. Thus, the concept of a spectrum of consciousness leads to representations about stages of development of consciousness. Uilber underlines, that development occurs not in the form of gradual forward process, and in the form of time conditions (peak experiences) and only gradually, in due course becomes the stable characteristic, and about it it is possible to speak any more as about a condition, and as about a stage, or a level of development.

Integrated concept Uilbera asserts, that the overall picture of development is much more difficult, than it seems at first sight. Uilber notices, that the consciousness of the person represents a difficult phenomenon in which it is possible to allocate separate characteristics. Uilber names their lines, or abilities. Consciousness development develops of development of these lines, and, agrees Uilberu, these lines are rather independent from each other. For realisation of integrated development he offers t.naz «practice of an integrated life», aimed on all-round - both physical, and moral, both intellectual, and aesthetic, and spiritual [148].

As to integrated development of the child, to us it is thought, permissibly to correlate practice of an integrated life with a technique of its training (irrespective of a subject domain) which also should be aimed at harmonious its all-round development. Any subject - whether it be acquaintance with world around, drawing, music, rhythmics, etc. invariably should improve both intelligence, and soul, and a body of the child, and in such degree that these parties existed in indissoluble unity.

In the general view it is possible to present the scheme of essence of integrated development of preschool children as follows (the scheme 1, с.30)

The scheme 1. Integrated development of preschool children

Such position corresponds P.F.Lesgafta's to thesis, that development of the person of the preschool child is not compulsory process of its leading to the purposes planned by the teacher, and «the activity directed on directing the child at reflexions, to excite feelings, intellectual and strong-willed activity, to accustom it to own and operate itself» [96, with. 201].

Thus, the overall objective of children's development consists in realisation of idea of a harmonious growing, in which process the growing person 30

Realises, masters and realises intellectual, emotional and social experience.

Denisov R. R in the research offers other model of integrated development of the preschool child. She considers, that the qualities providing complete personal development of the preschool child, can be united in three interpenetrating spheres: knowledge, dialogue, a reflexion. Knowledge sphere concern: ability to imagination, imagination and generation of ideas; feeling of novelty and singularity; a thinking non-standard; initiative; ingenuity; erudirovannost; ability to find communication between subjects to observe and experiment; inquisitiveness; randomness of informative processes. The dialogue sphere includes readiness emotionally to respond to an event; ability to empathy; ability to carry on dialogue and to understand the interlocutor; ability to carry out the instruction of the teacher; ability to follow the established rules; possession of cultural norms and traditions; ability to organise joint activity. The reflexion means the steady positive relation to; self-respect; confidence of the forces; originality and knowledge of the specific features; an insight and intuition; ability samoopredeljatsja in choice situations; an openness to an external world; ability tselepolaganija; skills of self-organising and planning of own activity [38, s.102-104].

Apparently, the scheme offered by us can be imposed"on Denisovoj R. R's classification, since represents mental aspect stated by it (basically, dejatelnostnyh) qualities: development of all three spheres depends on a level of development of informative and emotionally-strong-willed processes.

The listed qualities of the preschool child are desirable, opened for expansion and change, represent difficult formations and
Include the whole set of various personal lines and properties. They make the purpose and a basis of integrated development of the child in the course of preschool education and formation.

From positions of the system approach integrated development of the child, undoubtedly, is system object, instead of simply sum of components. On the basis of available concepts of development of the person in psychology (A.G.Asmolov, L.I.Bozhovich, V.P.Zinchenko, V.S.Muhina, A.V.Petrovsky, D.I.Feldshtejn, etc.) and pedagogics (V.I.Bespalko, E.V.Bondarevskaja, B.T.Lihachev, A.V.Mudrik, V.V.Serikov, etc.) can allocate following components of integrated development of the preschool child, vzaimoobuslovlivajushchie and interpenetrating each other: is intellectual-operational; aksiologichesky; communicative and reflective [18, c.181].

The is intellectual-operational component characterises set of the general and special knowledge, degree and a level of development of intellectual qualities, sformirovannost intellectual operations, aspiration to knowledge and creativity.

The Aksiologichesky component means high motivation of the child to mastering by knowledge and its stability, the humane relation to people and world around, to other person as to the higher value, independence in judgements and estimations, ability to self-education.

The communicative component includes ability to interaction - both with adults, and with contemporaries, desire and ability to join in joint activity, free expression of the thoughts and intentions by means of verbal and nonverbal means, a step and respect for the person of the interlocutor, ability to empathy and detsentratsii, ability to adaptation in the new social environment, etc.

The reflective component expresses a personal orientation of the child, skills of self-control and self-checking, attention to own private world, understanding of the abilities and interests,

Confidence of the forces, ability to introspection, ability to see in "mirror" of another, etc.

The close connection between elements is provided with a reflective component thanks to which their difficult interdependence leads to integrated development and different qualities and abilities are cemented in the complete person.

The allocated components serve as the sample and the purpose of purposeful preparation of the child to training in school, and define development parametres at a stage of the preschool childhood, and also are studied for the purpose of perfection of educational process. They can be used and in the diagnostic purposes for the control over development of children [79, c.9]. The appendix to the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation № 2151 from July, 20th, 2011 about introduction of Federal state requirements to structure and conditions of realisation of the basic general educational program of a preschool education underlines, that development - not only «process of closely interconnected quantitative and qualitative changes of intellectual, personal and physical characteristics of the child of preschool age»; it also «the integral component and a target reference point of process of formation of children of preschool age» [in the same place].

The federal state educational standards of the preschool education which confirmed by the Ministry of Education on August, 28th, 2013 and has come into force since September, 1st, 2013, specify, that «preschool education educational programs should be directed on versatile development of children of preschool age with their account age and specific features, including achievement by children of preschool age of the level of development necessary and sufficient for successful development by them of educational programs of the initial general education, on the basis of an individual approach to children of preschool age and specific to children of preschool age of kinds
Activity »79]. C the account of that children of preschool age get education not only in preschool centres, but also in establishments of an additional education of children, the given instructions should be carried and to programs of training and development of the preschool children, realised in additional education sphere. The federal state educational standard of the preschool education which has come into force 1. January, 2014, directly specifies in it:« As a whole educational work of families, the organisations and the persons realising the Program, should be directed on achievement of integrated characteristics of development of the person of the child as target reference points of a preschool education »[151].

The given integrated characteristics of development of the person of the child are considered by the Standard in following aspects: sotsialnoyokommunikativnoe development; informative development; speech development; artly aesthetic development; physical development. What assumes the Standard under the above-stated concepts?

Sotsialnokommunikativnoe development means assignment of norms and the values accepted in a society, including moral and moral values; development of abilities and readiness for dialogue and interaction of the child with adults and contemporaries; formation of independence, purposefulness and self-control of own actions; development of social and emotional intelligence, emotional responsiveness, empathy; formation of the valid relation and feeling of an accessory to the family, the small native land and Fatherland, representations about sotsiokulturnyh values of our people, about domestic traditions and holidays; formation of bases of safety in a life, society, the nature.

Informative development assumes development of inquisitiveness and informative motivation; formation of informative actions, consciousness formation; development of imagination and creative activity; formation of primary representations about itself, other people, objects
World around, about properties and relations of objects of world around, about a planet the Earth as the general house of people, about variety of the countries and nations of the world.

Speech development includes first of all possession of speech as dialogue means; enrichment of the active dictionary; development of coherent, grammatical correct dialogical and monologic speech; development of a sound and intonational standard of speech, phonemic hearing; formation of sound analitiko-synthetic activity as preconditions of training to the reading and writing.

Is art-aesthetic development assumes development of preconditions of tsennostno-semantic perception and understanding of works of art (verbal, musical, graphic) and the nature world; formation of the aesthetic relation to world around; formation of elementary representations about art forms; perception of music, fiction, folklore; stimulation of empathy to characters of works of art; realisation of independent creative activity of children (graphic, is constructive-modelling, musical, etc.).

Excepting physical development which does not enter into frameworks of the given work, and is art-aesthetic, being too specific in relation to a theme of training to a foreign language, other aspects have quite something in common with the components offered by us (see the scheme 1).

It is necessary to notice, that if Federal state requirements to preschool education programs described integrativnye qualities of the graduate of preschool centre on educational areas and it is more concrete, FGOS a preschool education, naming these characteristics target reference points, gives them as the integrated, generalised qualities which can be divided on aspects of development only conditionally:

«- The child seizes the basic cultural ways of activity, shows the initiative and independence in different kinds of activity - game, dialogue, designing, etc.; it is capable to choose to itself an occupation, participants on joint activity;

- The child possesses installation of the positive relation to the world, other people and to itself, possesses self-respect; actively co-operates with contemporaries and adults, participates in joint games. It is capable to agree, consider interests and feelings of others, to empathize failures and soradovatsja to successes of others, adequately shows the feelings, including feeling of a self-confidence, tries to resolve conflicts;

- The child possesses the developed imagination which is realised in different kinds of activity, and, first of all, in game; the child owns different forms and game kinds, distinguishes conditional and real situations, is able to submit to different rules and social norms;

- The child well enough owns oral speech, can express the thoughts and desires, can use speech for expression of the thoughts, feelings and desires, constructions of the speech statement in a dialogue situation, can allocate sounds in words, the child has literacy preconditions;

- At the child the large and small motility is developed; it is mobile, hardy, owns the basic movements, can supervise the movements and operate them;

- The child is capable to strong-willed efforts, can follow social norms of behaviour and rules in different kinds of activity, in mutual relations with adults and contemporaries, can observe rules of safe behaviour and personal hygiene;

- The child shows inquisitiveness, sets questions to adults and contemporaries, is interested in relationships of cause and effect, tries to think out independently explanations to natural phenomena and acts of people; is inclined to observe, experiment. Possesses initial knowledge of, of the natural and social world in which he lives; a sign with products of the children's literature, possesses elementary representations from area of wildlife, natural sciences, mathematics, history, etc.; the child is capable to acceptance of own decisions, leaning on the knowledge and abilities in various kinds of activity »[151].

Summarising achievements of sciences about the person concerning the nature of personal development in early ontogeneze, we will notice, that the children's person is complete in itself, and it cannot be developed or formed in parts, on separate qualities [89]. From here necessity and possibility of complex, all-round, integrated development of the children's person also results.

<< | >>
A source: Zheltova Svetlana Stanislavovna. Pedagogical maintenance of integrated development of preschool children in additional education establishments (on a training material to English language). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Ryazan - 2016. 2016

More on topic Integrated development of children of preschool age as concept:

  1. Model of integrated development of preschool children on an example of employment by English language at Children's school of arts
  2. 3.1. Working out of criteria of an estimation of a level of development of children of preschool age
  3. Chapter 2. An additional education role in integrated development of preschool children
  4. Chapter 3. Skilled-experimental work on efficiency check integrativnoj training techniques to English language of preschool children in aspect of their integrated development
  5. 2.2. A technique of research of process of understanding of the text children of preschool age
  6. 2.3. The analysis of materials of experiment on research of activity of understanding of the text by children of preschool age
  7. Ontogenez speeches in the light of statistical data about speech health of children of preschool age
  8. Duskazieva. ZH.G.gender of feature of uneasiness of often ill children of the senior preschool age and possibility of its correction, 2009
  9. 2.5. The analysis of influence of factors of a social environment of the child on process of formation of ability of understanding of the text by children of preschool age
  10. Zheltova Svetlana Stanislavovna. Pedagogical maintenance of integrated development of preschool children in additional education establishments (on a training material to English language). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Ryazan - 2016, 2016
  11. Chapter 2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDYING of PROCESS of UNDERSTANDING of the TEXT by CHILDREN of PRESCHOOL AGE With the ACCOUNT of FACTORS of the SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT of the CHILD
  12. Zheltova Svetlana Stanislavovna. Pedagogical maintenance of integrated development of preschool children in additional education establishments (on a training material to English language). The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Ryazan - 2015, 2015