<<
>>

INTRODUCTION

Research urgency. One of directions of a pedagogical science which in last quarter of the century is actively developed by domestic scientists, research of pedagogical thought and educational practice of Russian abroad is.

In the tideway of the named direction it is represented timely to address to studying of statement of music education of children and youthes in 1920-1930th years at Russian emigrant schools and out-of-school establishments. In this sphere the positive has been made a lot of: a number of theoretical ideas, methodical approaches on familiarising of children with music in the conditions of emigration is put forward and proved, and grants on music curriculums are developed for a comprehensive school, productive forms of musical training, education and education of children during educational and nonlearning time are offered and realised in practice.

Necessity of performance of the research devoted to scientific judgement of teoretiko-methodical and practical aspects of music education in Russian emigration, is caused by following circumstances.

Now the Russian pedagogical science conducts active theoretical search of the updated approaches to music education statement at schools and additional education establishments. At it aim the governmental documents [1]. In the given activity theoretical and methodical operating time of philosophers, scientists-teachers, musical figures of Russian abroad can be used. Considerable interest represents today also practical experience of Russian musical
Teachers, the educational institutions working in emigration, on preservation and transfer to growing generation of a domestic cultural heritage, on education at children through their dialogue with music of patriotic feelings, to inheritance of domestic cultural traditions by them. It those questions, which decision sharply faces to modern domestic school.

Research of teoretiko-methodical and practical aspects of musical training and education of children in Russian abroad is represented essential because of the importance not only for modern Russian school and pedagogics, but also for the Russian schools which are now in the states of the near abroad and numerous Russian diasporas of the various countries of the world. G osudarstvennaja the policy of Russia is directed on comprehensive support rendering to such schools. The concept testifies to it «Russian school abroad» which puts one of problems «cultural and aesthetic education trained, based on the Russian traditions» [2] confirmed by the president of the Russian Federation. Experience of 1920-1930th years on familiarising of Russian children with music in conditions inokulturnoj can appear environments useful at the decision of the named problem. Told the urgency of the present research above is defined.

Condition of a level of scrutiny of a problem. The first works devoted to studying of Russian emigrant school and pedagogics, have appeared in 1920YO1930 th years abroad. S.I.Warsaw, A.P.Dehtjaryova, M.N.Ershov, P.E.Kovalevskogo, V.V. Rudnego's works concern their number. Later, in 1960YO1980 th years, G.V.Adamovicha, M.Bejssaka, M.I.Raeva's books and others in which formation questions were considered in a context of development of all Russian emigrant culture abroad have been published. In some from
These works separate examples about music education of children of refugees are resulted.

In our country questions of formation and pedagogical thought of Russian abroad long time were not studied. Their active research, as well as many other things aspects of Russian emigrant culture, has begun in 1990th years. For the period which has passed from these years in Russia the big number of the researches devoted to historical, legal, cultural urological, art criticism and other aspects of Russian abroad (by Z.S.Bocharova, A.V.Kvakin, E.I is executed. The brewer, JU.A. Poles, L.I.Eryomenko, I.V.Sabennikova, G.J.Tarle, etc.) . By present time much is made in scientific judgement of problems of Russian emigrant school and pedagogics. The big contribution to studying of the given problems has brought collective of researchers under the guidance of professor E.G.Osovsky (Saransk). Scientists of this collective in many details recreate process of formation and development of school and out-of-school business in Russian emigration, various aspects of the organisation and the maintenance of training and education of children of Russian refugees are opened. Questions of emigrant school and pedagogics have received scientific judgement in M.V.Boguslavsky's works, S.K.Dubrovinoj, E.V.Kabanovoj, A.V.Semchenko, D.J.Skrjabinoj, V.A.Suhachyovoj's dissertations, S.N.Vasilevoj, V.A.Vladykinoj's articles, etc.

In 2010th years there were first works in which have received illumination separate aspects of musical training and education of children of Russian emigrants. In J.J.Bugakovoj, P.V.Gajdaj, A.S.Petelina, E.E.Sedovoj, J.J.Tereni's articles it is shown, that the music education in Russian abroad was carried out in preschool, school and out-of-school establishments, that along with the general music education in emigration has received certain development and professional music education. At the same time the historiographic analysis has shown, that questions of school and out-of-school music education in
Russian emigration are studied extremely insufficiently. In particular, till this moment there are no researches in which in a complete kind theoretical and practical aspects of music education at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad of the period of 1920-1930th years would be analysed. Stated gives the basis to speak about presence of variety of contradictions, including:

At socially-pedagogical level - between requirement of a family, a society and the state for considerable improvement of statement of music education of children and youthes and insufficient use in this business of positive experience of the past, including experience of Russian abroad;

At scientific-theoretical level - between a theoretical readiness of many fundamental questions of training and education of Russian children in the conditions of emigration and insufficient scientific judgement of theoretical bases of music education in Russian abroad;

At scientifically-methodical level - between the experience of the decision of methodical and practical aspects of music education of rising generation saved up in Russian emigration both its almost full obscurity and non-use in modern educational practice.

The analysis of contradictions has allowed to formulate the problem of research consisting in an establishment on what teoretikoyometodicheskoj to a basis was under construction and as the rising generation music education at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad was practically carried out, in disclosing of possible ways of use of the given experience in modern children's music education.

The stated has caused a choice of a theme of research: «Music education of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad (1920-1930th years)».

Chronological and territorial frameworks of research: the given work is limited by the period designated in the Russian and foreign historiography by the term «the first wave» the Russian emigration, representing rather complete phenomenon which beginning goes back to the first poslerevoljutsionnym to years, and end occurs in premilitary years. The choice of the specified chronological frameworks is caused by that during the given period have arisen and up to the end of 1930th years Russian schools abroad functioned and these years questions of the theory and practice of music education of Russian children in the conditions of emigration were developed. Territorial frameworks of research are limited by the European continent as the given territory was the basic place of moving of Russian refugees, the main things scientific and the educational institutions which have spent theoretical and practical search in the field of training and education of children of Russian emigrants, including on music education problems here have been concentrated.

Object of research: process of music education of rising generation at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad of the period of 20-30th years of the XX-th century.

Object of research: teoretiko-methodical bases and practice of musical training and education of children in emigrant educational institutions of the considered period.

Research objective - to reveal and open teoretiko-methodical bases and features of practice of music education of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad of the period of 1920-1930th years.

Research problems:

1. To characterise essence of Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon, structure and elements of its educational space.

2. To reveal and open theoretical bases of music education at schools of Russian abroad of 1920-1930th years.

3. To show the contribution of musicians-teachers of Russian abroad to working out of methodical aspects of school music education, its programmno-methodical maintenance.

4. To establish, what were the maintenance, forms and methods spent in Russian emigrant schools and out-of-school establishments of practical work on familiarising of children of Russian refugees with musical art.

5. To plan ways of use of teoretiko-methodical and practical experience of music education to Russian abroad modern school and pedagogics.

Teoretiko-methodological bases of research.

Theoretical base of research have made:

Positions and conclusions of modern scientific researches concerning the theory and methodology of istoriko-pedagogical knowledge (M.V.Boguslavsky, E.D.Dneprov, V.I.Zagvjazinsky, G.B.Kornetov, I.D.Lelchitsky, M.A.Lukatsky, Z.I.Ravkin);

The generalisations containing in historical, pedagogical, cultural urological, musicological researches, devoted to Russian abroad (A.A.Aron, M.V.Boguslavsky, S.N.Vasileva, M.A.Zaharishcheva, L.Z.Korabelnikova, E.G.Osovsky, I.V.Sabennikova, E.E.Sedova, V.A.Shevchenko);

Modern theoretical representations about values, the purposes, principles, the maintenance, forms and methods of the general school and additional music education (E.B.Abdullin, JU.B.Aliev, L.L.Alekseeva, G.P.Sergeeva);

Theoretical positions of researches in the field of history of the general and professional music education (O.A.Apraksin, Century And.

Adishchev, N.A.Astashova, A.S.Bazikov, E.A.Bodina, S.I.Doroshenko, E.V. Nikolaev, E.N.Fedorovich, V.A.Frolkin).

Research was spent in a support on cultural urological and aksiologichesky the approaches, aiming to consider music education of Russian abroad in a wide historical and cultural context, in communications and interactions with spheres of musical art and the general education, to reveal the valuable bases of an investigated phenomenon.

Research methods: the analysis, ordering, synthesis, actualisation, statistical, istoriko-genetic, comparative-historical, biographic.

Istochnikovaja base of research:

- The neopublished materials and the documents revealed in the State archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian state archive of the literature and art, archive of the Moscow state conservatory of P.I.Tchaikovsky. The given sources in the majority are entered for the first time into scientific use;

- Periodicals of Russian emigration: pedagogical magazines «the Bulletin of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad» (Prague), «the Bulletin of the Manchurian pedagogical society» (Harbin), «the Bulletin of the Pedagogical bureau» (Prague), «the Bulletin of Russian student's Christian movement» (Paris), «the Bulletin of a religious-pedagogical office» (Paris), «Russian school abroad» (Prague), «Day of Russian education» (Revel), «Day of the Russian child» (San Francisco);

- Publications and the materials stored in funds of Russian abroad of the Russian state library, library of the House of Russian abroad of a name of A.I.Solzhenitsyna, national library of the Czech Republic;

- Standard documents, office work materials, nauchnoyometodicheskie works, programmno-methodical editions of teachers and
Musical figures of Russian abroad, sources of a personal origin, statistical materials, musical editions, educational books, works of modern writers on an investigated problem.

Scientific novelty of research:

1. In a complete kind teoretiko-methodical bases and practice of music education of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad of the period of 1920-1930th years are presented.

2. The base ideas which have been put forward by philosophers and scientists-teachers of Russian abroad, made a theoretical basis of music education at Russian emigrant school (ideas about preservation of national originality of Russian children in inokulturnoj are revealed and analysed to environment; about training and education of children of emigrants on the basis of national cultural wealth, the doctrine of Russian orthodox church; a sight at music as the powerful factor of patriotic, moral, aesthetic education of rising generation, as an effective remedy of psychoemotional support of children of refugees in difficult conditions of their finding abroad).

3. The contribution of leading musicians-teachers of Russian abroad to working out of methodical aspects of music education of children in the conditions of emigration is opened. Are revealed and in the generalised kind their sights and installations at teaching of musical art at Russian emigrant schools (about necessity of construction of musical training and education on the basis of a domestic musical heritage (secular and spiritual), about a special role of national songs in rising generation education, about expediency of acquaintance of children with music of the people of the countries of residing of emigrants, about necessity of a combination of class, out-of-class and out-of-school forms of musical work with children) are presented.

4. Organizational aspects and stages of work on curriculums in a subject "Singing" for Russian emigrant schools are established. The originality of these programs in comparison is revealed and opened with
Similar programs for comprehensive schools of pre-revolutionary time and the first years of the Soviet power. The continuity in approaches to music education of children stated in programmno-methodical materials of pre-revolutionary and foreign Russia of 1920th years is shown.

5. It is established, that practical work on familiarising of pupils of comprehensive schools of Russian abroad with musical art was spent in two directions: at lessons of singing and during out-of-class time. The place of lessons of singing at Russian schools of the different European countries is opened. It is shown, that Russian emigrant grammar schools, cadet cases and female institutes, continuing traditions of pre-revolutionary time, the considerable attention was given to the organisation and activity of student's choruses and orchestras, musical education of pupils, organizuja for them by concerts of professional musicians, visiting of theatres.

6. It is revealed, that the essential contribution to business of music education of children of Russian emigrants was brought by the various out-of-school and educational organisations of Russian abroad. It is established, that the basic forms of their activity were lectures and conversations about music, holidays, musical excursions, training to game on musical instruments which have been urged to acquaint rising generation with a domestic musical heritage, to promote formation of national identity of Russian children.

The theoretical importance of research:

1. Results of research in a certain measure enrich istorikoyopedagogicheskuju a science knowledge of some features of development of the theory and practice of teaching of music in school and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad.

2. Theoretical positions containing in work expand existing scientific representations about essence of the general music education in Russian abroad, supplement and specify in history
Music education representation about values, the purposes, the maintenance, directions and features of music education of children in emigrant educational institutions.

3. Generalisations and research conclusions represent one of sources at development of theoretical bases of musical training and education of children and youthes in modern comprehensive schools and additional education establishments.

The practical importance of research. The materials of research containing in it theoretical positions and conclusions can be used:

1) at reading of courses on disciplines «music education History», «the music education Theory», «a music education Technique» for students of musical faculty of pedagogical educational institutions;

2) in modern educational process by teachers of music of the Russian comprehensive schools, especially at the organisation of a different kind of out-of-school forms of music education;

3) in working out of lectures for retraining of teachers of music at courses of improvement of qualification;

4) as methodical recommendations in activity of musical teachers of Russian schools in Russian diasporas of present time.

Scientific validity and reliability of results of research are provided by that they are received on the basis of the analysis of a considerable file quantitatively and qualitatively representative sources, application adequate to a subject and research problems of methodological approaches and research methods.

The personal contribution of the author consists in the following:

Development of music education of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad (1920-1930) is reconstructed;

Teoretiko-methodical aspects of the maintenance of school and out-of-school music education of children are presented to emigrations;

Practical work on musical training and education of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad (1920-1930) is opened.

Conformity of the dissertation to the passport of a scientific speciality:

The dissertation theme corresponds to requirements of the passport of a speciality 13.00.01 - the general pedagogics, pedagogics and formation history: history of development of a pedagogical science and educational practice (the analysis of historical development of practice of formation; formation and development of scientific and pedagogical ideas, concepts, theories; monographic studying of a pedagogical heritage of outstanding teachers of the past).

Investigation phases:

2010-2012 - studying of the literature concerning the theory and music education practice in Russian abroad, revealing of a problem of research, working out of its device, teoretiko-methodological bases;

2013-2014 - revealing, the analysis, synthesis of the published and archival sources on an investigated problem;

2015-2016 - judgement and a formulation of results of research, registration of the text of the dissertation, approbation of the basic results of research.

The positions which are taken out on protection:

1. The music education of children of Russian abroad in 1920-1930th years was appreciably carried out in a support on traditions and experience of children's music education of pre-revolutionary Russia. Familiarising of children of emigrants with music was spent in various kinds of schools (classical grammar schools, real grammar schools, grammar schools of new type, the real schools mixed and humanitarian grammar schools, not numerous female institutes, military schools), and also in
Out-of-school establishments (Russian houses, Russian public universities, Russian musical societies, etc.).

2. A theoretical basis of the general music education in Russian abroad set of the ideas developed by Russian philosophers which were in emigration and scientists-teachers (has made V.V. Zenkovsky, S.I. Giessen, I.A.Ilyin, etc.): about the complete person and complete formation; construction of vospitatelno-educational process at emigrant schools on the basis of national cultural wealth, on the doctrine and a cultural heritage of Russian orthodox church; about the special importance of art, music in study and a life of children as effective factor of their moral and aesthetic development, national education, psychoemotional support in difficult conditions of stay abroad; about necessity of studying of language and culture of the people of the countries of residing.

3. Didactic installations in the field of music education at the Russian emigrant schools, developed by leading musicians - teachers of Russian abroad, were reduced to following substantive provisions: the purpose of teaching of lessons of singing - the general musical development of children, preservation of national originality of Russian children; domestic music should be put in a basis of the maintenance of music education of schoolboys (secular and spiritual), especially Russian national songs; along with domestic music in work with children should find a place musical art of the people of the countries of residing of Russian emigrants; their own performing activity in student's choruses, orchestras should become leaders by familiarising of pupils with music; realisation of interrelation of class, out-of-class and out-of-school forms of familiarising of youth to music. The given methodical installations have been taken as a principle the curriculum on the singing, recommended to use at all Russian schools abroad.

4. Practical work on musical training and education of children of Russian refugees was carried out at lessons of singing and during out-of-class time. The greatest development was received by various forms of out-of-class musical activity, especially student's choruses and orchestras. Familiarising of rising generation with musical art was promoted by the emigrant out-of-school and educational organisations arranging for children and youthes of lecture, conversation, concerts, holidays. In musical work of schools and out-of-school establishments have appreciably received a practical embodiment many pedagogical ideas of thinkers of Russian abroad, in particular, about prioritetnosti education of children on cultural achievements of Russia, preservation and transfer to growing generation of national cultural wealth, the reference in work with children to a musical heritage of the various people.

5. Use of positive sides of theoretical and practical experience of music education of Russian abroad is obviously possible in following basic directions: by working out of concepts, programmno-methodical documents, carrying out of practical work on musical training and education of children in modern Russian comprehensive schools and additional education establishments (through the reference to ideas of complete formation, priority development of achievements of domestic musical culture, introduction of children in the music world through active playing music, in education at pupils through dialogue with music of feeling of national pride, respect for culture of other people); At the decision of problems of music education of rising generation at the modern Russian schools which are in near and far abroad (through use of emigrant experience of struggle against rising generation denationalisation, its preservation "russkosti", the reference to idea of dialogue equal in rights between various pedagogical and musical cultures, etc.).

Approbation of results of research. Results of research are published in 15 articles and theses of reports. Substantive provisions were reported at the international and All-Russia scientific conferences, symposiums, seminars: the International seminar of the third session of Scientific council on problems of history of music education «music education History: new researches» (Great Novgorod, 17­20.10. 2012); All-Russia (with the international participation) a seminar

The fourth session of Scientific council on problems of history of music education «music education History: new researches» (Kursk, 22-25.04.2014); the International scientific conference «Russian school abroad: the past and the present» (St.-Petersburg, 18-20.10.2014); the First International scientific symposium «Culture of Russian abroad: the past and the present» (Kursk, 20-21.10.2014); the International seminar of the fifth session of Scientific council on problems of history of music education «music education History: new researches» (Moscow, 19-22.04.2016); the All-Russia symposium of the sixth session of Scientific council on problems of history of music education «the Childhood of musicians: history, the present (an interdisciplinary discourse)» (Votkinsk, 18-21.04.2017); XIX International scientific conference «Russian musical archives abroad. Foreign musical archives in Russia» (Moscow, 21.03.2018) (in the co-authorship from V.I.Adishchevym). Results of research were annually reported and discussed at total scientific conferences of chair of musicology and musical pedagogics PGGPU (Perm, 2012-2016). Positions and research conclusions were approved by the author of dissertation in lectures and a practical training on history of the music education, spent for students of the Perm state gumanitarno-pedagogical university.

Dissertation structure: research consists of the introduction, two heads, the conclusion, the list of sources and the literature (198 names).

<< | >>
A source: MAMAYEVA Nadezhda PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018. 2018

More on topic INTRODUCTION:

  1. in introduction
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 10.1. Introduction
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. approbation and introduction of results.
  7. Introduction
  8. Introduction
  9. INTRODUCTION
  10. INTRODUCTION
  11. Introduction
  12. Introduction
  13. INTRODUCTION
  14. Instead of Introduction …
  15. PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION OF RESULTS OF WORK
  16. 5. Attention strengthening to questions of legal introduction.
  17. Introduction
  18. Introduction
  19. Introduction
  20. Introduction