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INTRODUCTION

The present stage of development of a society is characterised by transition to the economy based on knowledge in which in creation of public riches the human capital [82 began to play a main role, s.86-87].

In this connection readiness for constant acquisition of new knowledge, abilities, skills, orientation to their continuous updating and development become key characteristics of workers of postindustrial economy.

At the present stage of one of universal tendencies in society development intellectualization of all spheres of a life of the modern person is. The importance and cost of intellectual work considerably increases, the role of the information and information tehn ology increases. The intelligence becomes the basic competitive advantage more and more. It dictates necessity of qualitative increase human, a society mental potential and by that puts before an education system which basically and urged to provide formation of the human capital meeting actual and perspective requirements of an epoch worried by us, the new purposes and problems.

Result of formation in modern conditions are not only knowledge, but also ability of their productive application, personal qualities and practical experience for successful activity in certain area, possibility quickly to adapt for changes, the creative approach to the decision of problems, ability to generate idea and to become the subject of innovative processes.

«Technologies of the future, - the known American sociologist and futurologist Elvin Toffler marks, - millions the semiliterate people ready in the full consent to work on performance of infinitely repeating work are not necessary, the people resignedly executing orders, knowing are not necessary to it, that the daily bread price is an automatic submission to the heads, - those who is capable to the critical are necessary to it
To judgement who can orient in new conditions who quickly defines new communications in promptly varying validity »[114, with. 437].

In the given context, for the domestic theory and formation practice the complex of the problems which constructive decision assumes formation of the growing person as socially active, creative person, preparation not only competent, but also the competitive professional quickly adapting for changing conditions of a modern life is priority. Therefore one of leading tsennostno-target reference points of educational process of modern school consists in development at trained kognitivnyh abilities, to consider and carry out from positions lichnostno the-focused and humanistic approaches pedagogical influence on educational requirements and possibilities of each of them, thereby providing a training individualization.

Hence, studying and judgement of theoretical approaches and experience of their realisation in a context of the decision of a problem of development kognitivnyh abilities trained, understanding them of the real world, successful adaptation to a life, intellectual development, support of an individualization of training which have proved the efficiency in foreign pedagogics is obviously important.

In this context special interest Howard Gardner's pedagogical views - professors of pedagogics at the Harward higher pedagogical school represent, the winner of award Makartura which is annually handed over to citizens of the USA for outstanding results and creative potential in sphere of professional work and award Grawemeyer Award in a sphere of education, awarded by Lousvillsky university.

G.Gardner is the known psychologist-kognitivistom, the author of the theory of plural intelligence, and the teacher who has developed on its basis the author's pedagogical concept which has made appreciable impact on
Transformation of approaches to training in the USA also has received a wide circulation in the different countries of the world.

The urgency of studying of pedagogical views of Howard Gardner developed in a channel kognitivnogo of the educational approach, amplifies a number of the reasons. First, studying domestic psihologoyopedagogicheskoj literatures testifies that Howard Gardner's name is not widely known for the Russian pedagogical community. Till now at us its basic work under the theory of plural intelligence «reason Structure» [39], and also a number of books devoted to various types of thinking [36, 38] has been published only, but its works on application of the given theory in educational practice are little-known. G.Gardner's these works at us not only are not translated, but also practically are absent in the English-speaking original. In the-second, psihologoyopedagogicheskie G.Gardera's sights are in frameworks kognitivnogo the approach which has taken roots in the late seventies of the XX-th century in the western psychology and pedagogics. Their detailed studying can help is fuller to open the maintenance and substantive provisions of the given approach, with its support on a consciousness principle, the account various kognitivnyh styles, characteristic for trained concrete educational group, and educational strategy which they thus use. In many respects kognitivnyj the approach corresponds to modern lines of development of a domestic education, the central place in which occupies its orientation on the individualization of training connected with such organisation of educational process at which the choice of ways, receptions, rate of training considers individual distinctions of pupils, a level of development of their abilities to the doctrine. This approach concentrates attention to persons of the child, on its specific features, on transformation of the pupil from object of training activity of the teacher in the active participant of process of the doctrine. Thirdly, offered by Howard Gardner within the limits of the theory
Plural intelligence the training concept is very many-sided. It can be used as for children with traditional educational requirements and possibilities, and for talented and presented, and also for children with those at them those or other problems arising at them in training. Such approach is in many respects conformable typing today popularity in domestic pedagogics to programs inkljuzivnogo formations from them orientirovannostju on availability of formation to everything recognising, that all children - individuals who can differ on presence at them special about brazovatelnyh requirements. Work in the conditions of realisation of various educational programs for the named categories trained dictates necessity of filling of professional work of the teacher new kompetentsijami, received reflexion in the professional standard of the Russian teacher. Fourthly, Howard Gardner's pedagogical concept was created in many respects as the answer to inquiry of the American society in reforming of an education system of the USA. An American education in 80th of the XX-th century has faced similar problems which are tested by the Russian school today. It and a problem of decrease in level of knowledge and erudition of the population, and a problem of falling of an average level of formation in comparison with other developed countries, and a problem of low social adaptability of graduates of schools, knowledge and which abilities all less corresponded to new realities of quickly varying world. Therefore, necessity of the objective analysis of achievements of foreign school and judgement of possibility of creative use of elements of its positive experience in Russia is rather actual today.

The carried out analysis domestic and foreign psihologo - the pedagogical literature on an investigated problem allows to divide available scientific researches on the given subjects into following basic groups.

The first group concern istoriko-psychological and istoriko - pedagogical works of the past and the present in which various aspects of the theory and formation practice in the Western Europe and the USA previous occurrence kognitivizma (V.P.Bespalko, A.N.Zhdan, A.N.Dzhurinsky, I.A.winter, G.B.Kornetov, F.G.Kumbs, T.Lihi, Z.A.Malkova, Etc. Martsinkovsky, V.Okon, V.V. Platonov, E.JU.Rogatchyov, M.A.Choshanov [1], etc.) are considered.

The second group of researches consists of foreign works of a philosophical, psychological and pedagogical orientation where data about kognitivizme contain, its sources and genesis in the field of psychology and pedagogics (J. The Anderson, R.Klatski, P.Lindsej and D.Norman, J. Miller, U.Najsser, R.L.Solso, J. Sperling, L.Festinger, R.Harre, N.Homsky [2]), and also domestic works on the given subjects (E.V.Astapenko, L.V.Ahmetov, M.E.Bershadsky, I.S.Bessarabova, B.M.Velichkovsky, V.S.Goncharov, T.A.Gusev and S.I.Kudinov, T.S.Tabachenko [3], etc.).

The third group of works the researches make, histories concerning questions and a modern condition of didactic thought of the USA. Among them it is necessary to note B.S.Bluma, T.Bramelda's works, J. Konanta, D.R.Gelissona, C.Pattersona, M.Skrivena, M.Eppla [4], etc. In researches of the specified authors on the big actual material is shown history of formation and development of the American didactic concepts which have influenced the theory and practice of formation not only in the USA, but also is far behind their limits. The general characteristic of a condition of pedagogical thought of the USA and the basic directions of its development in second half of XX-th century is given also by works of domestic researchers (A.E.Babashev, M.S.Bernstein, N.E.sparrow, A.I.Galagin and G.I.Poljanskaja, G.D.Dmitriev, Z.A.Malkova, G.V.Mikaberidze, N.D.Nikandrov, E.JU.Rogatchyov [5], etc.).

The fourth group of scientific researches contains works western (R.Atkinson, J. Bruner, V.Kintch, D.Norman, D.P.Ozbel, G.Sajmon [6]) and domestic (A.A.Brudnyj, h.p. Vygotsky, V.N.Druzhinin, I.JA.winter, V.P.Zinchenko, A.N.Leontev, A.R.Lurija [7]) developers
kognitivnogo a method, allowing to draw a conclusion on substantive provisions kognitivnoj training theories. It is necessary to notice, that the greatest attention in frameworks kognitivnogo the educational approach is given today to working out of methods kognitivnogo training. In domestic kognitivistike they in bolshej concern a measure of a technique of teaching of foreign languages, including Russian as foreign (N.V. Profiteers, B.V.Beljaev, Z.I.Klychnikova, S.V.Remizova, T.S.Serova, A.N.Shamov, A.V.ShChepilova [8], etc.) Questions of the organisation of educational process on a basis kognitivnogo a method, the account of informative styles of pupils in the course of training are reflected in works western (J. Klein, J. The Royce, G.Uitkin, D.Uordell, O.Harvi [9]) and domestic (V.M.Allahverdov, G.A.Berulava, M.A.Holodnaja [10], etc.) researchers.

The fifth group of works researches of the foreign authors make, directly concerning theories of plural intelligence of G.Gardner and its pedagogical concept developed on its basis (T. Armstrong, M.Kornhaber, S.D.Kunkel, L.Mak nejl, S.Skarr, D.Traub, T.R.Hoerr, M.Chiksentmihaji [11], etc.)

Studying and the analysis domestic psihologo the-pedagogical literature shows, that G.Gardner's pedagogical sights were shined, mainly, in journal articles which have survey character and do not give a full picture of its pedagogical activity, reflecting only its separate fragments (F.G.Abljakimova, V.P.Belogrudova, T.O.Bobrova, O.V.Glushina, O.V.Evstifeeva, V.K.Zagvozdkin, V.L.Ivashina, A.A.Lyalin, M.Choshanov [12], etc.). The theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner has found the reflexion and in materials of a methodological seminar in Kherson «the Theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner - understanding of endowments» [13]. However till the present moment us it is not revealed any dissertational research on studying of the theory of G.Gardner of concrete or generalising character. Pedagogical sights and Howard Gardner's experience, their value have found still a due estimation in the modern
To domestic pedagogics. The given research also is devoted completion of this blank.

Thus, the analysis foreign and domestic psihologo - the pedagogical literature allows to reveal contradictions of the modern pedagogical validity in an estimation and the analysis of works of G.Gardner between:

- Modern paradigmalnymi installations on creation of conditions for high-grade individual development of each child, irrespective of its mental, physical and social characteristics, and the insufficient theoretical analysis of ideas and experience of the modern pedagogical approaches focused on the decision of given problems;

- The developed representation about Howard Gardner's activity as psychologist and its objective perception, as author of the pedagogical concept on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence;

- Presence in Howard Gardner's pedagogical works actual for domestic about brazovanija ideas of an individualization of training as means of development of the person of each child and absence of the complete characteristic and the system analysis of its pedagogical concept.

The requirement for the permission of these contradictions makes a problem of research which in the theoretical plan consists in disclosing of substantive provisions of system of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner, and in the practical plan - in revealing of methods, forms and conditions of their realisation in training practice at modern school. It also has defined a choice of a theme of research: «Howard Gardner's Pedagogical views».

Object of dissertational research are psihologoyopedagogicheskie Howard Gardner's works, and an object of research - Howard Gardner's pedagogical views and experience of their realisation in modern educational practice.

Research objective: to reveal and open genesis, teoretiko - methodological bases and key positions of the pedagogical concept
Howard Gardner to prove conditions of its realisation in modern educational practice. In conformity with the purpose, a subject and object of research following problems have been formulated:

1) to reveal sociohistorical conditions and teoretiko - the methodological bases of formation of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner;

2) to characterise the theory of plural intelligence as a basis of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner;

3) to establish essence and the basic maintenance of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner;

4) to prove conditions of successful realisation of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner in modern educational practice.

Research sources. The given dissertational work is executed on the basis of various sources which can be divided into some groups conditionally:

1. G.Gardner's scientific works: books, articles. They were the basic source at reconstruction and the analysis of its pedagogical sights. Difficulty here consists that except the fundamental book of the scientist «reason Structure» [14], its theory of plural intelligence opening an essence, and also the several works devoted to the analysis of types of thinking [15], its other works devoted to problems of intelligence and formation among which there are also fundamental works («Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21 st Century», «The Unschooled Mind», «The Disciplined Mind,« Multiple intelligences: New horizons "," To Open Minds "," The Mind’s New Science: A history of the Cognitive revolution "," Frames of Mind: The
Theory of Multiple Intelligences »[16]), are not translated into Russian and in an overwhelming part are absent at us even in an English-speaking variant. Owing to it, the given works are little-known to domestic experts in a sphere of education whereas acquaintance to G.Gardner's pedagogical ideas and their creative application can promote the decision of actual problems of modern Russian school.

2. Theoretical works of prominent representatives western psiholo - pedagogical thought (Z.Piazhe, B.F.Skinner, E.S.Tolmen [17], etc.). Use of this block of sources allows to carry out the comparative-historical analysis of sights of G.Gardner with the basic theoretical positions of other pedagogical schools of the XX-th century, to recreate those scientific and ideological conditions in which there passed its formation as kognitivista.

3. Materials of the psihologo-pedagogical press of the USA. Questions interesting us have found the reflexion in magazines Journal of Phychology ("Psychology"), Journal of Personality ("Person"), Journal of Experimental Child Phychology («Magazine of experimental children's psychology»), Harvard Educational Review («the Harward educational review») where actual problems of formation are covered, are located materials of performances of foreign scientists, are conducted discussions.

4. The state documents concerning formation, textbooks and manuals on psychology and pedagogics, slovarno-reference books.

As a whole, the dissertations taken as a principle sources are full, various and allow to solve the problems put before us successfully.

Methodological basis of research are following positions:

- At philosophical level: system and complete approaches in disclosing of the intrinsic phenomena; dialectic unity of general and individual (especial);

- At general scientific level (social sciences): conditionality of theories, concepts socially-economic, political, cultural and religious factors; pluralism of gnoseological approaches and estimations of the studied social phenomena; particularly-historical approach to the studied facts, the phenomena;

- At level of a pedagogical science: the system approach opening integrity of object and mechanisms providing it, based on search and a finding of complete characteristics of the studied pedagogical facts and the phenomena; communication of the theory and history of pedagogics with civil history; the humanistic approach putting in the centre of pedagogical process of the pupil, its self-expression as the unique person representing absolute value in a context of definition aksiologicheskih of reference points of process and results of training.

The basic methods of research are:

- The analysis, synthesis and pedagogical interpretation of the information containing in sources, in a context of an investigated problem;

- The comparative-historical method, allowing to compare G.Gardner's sights with sights of representatives of other directions psihologo - pedagogical thought, to reveal in them the general and especial;

The-genetic method, giving the chance to consider kognitivnoe training on the basis of the analysis of conditions of its origin and the subsequent development within the limits of previous and the investigated period;

The-biographic method, allowing to reveal theoretical positions, sights in a context of ability to live of G.Gardner and formation of its pedagogical views.

Reliability of research and validity of its results is provided with conformity of the selected methodology to the put problem, object, the purpose and problems of work, its source study base, observance of the objective approach to research.

The personal contribution of the author of the dissertation consists in theoretical maintenance of all stages of process of research, in a substantiation of its concept, in interpretation of the theory of plural intelligence of Howard Gardner as bases of its pedagogical views, in ordering of pedagogical ideas of Howard Gardner, and also in revealing of leading conditions of their realisation in modern school education.

Scientific novelty of research. The complex analysis of pedagogical works of G.Gardner which has allowed to reveal structure and the maintenance of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner, including the purposes, problems and training methods, the formation maintenance, training principles, motives of objects of training, approaches to otsenivaniju knowledge trained, organizational methods and means of activity of the teacher is carried out.

Socially-historical conditions and teoretiko - the methodological bases which have affected formation of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner are revealed.

Pedagogical interpretation of the theory of plural intelligence is carried out.

The pedagogical potential of scientific views of G.Gardner, consisting in possibility of creation in the course of training of conditions of trained as much as possible corresponding to an individual mental potential is opened actual for domestic education development.

Value and G.Gardner's contribution to updating and development of the modern formation, consisting in understanding of intelligence, as sets of the various abilities forming unique for kazhd about go the person kognitivnyj a profile that is a basis for an individualization of process of training is defined.

The theoretical importance of research. Results of studying of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner create complete representation about it as the many-sided scientist, the psychologist and the teacher, the head of the scientific school created by it. The interpretation of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner carried out in the dissertation from it orientirovannostju on creation of the various informative possibilities answering to an individual mental potential of the trained brings the important contribution to a problem of a theoretical substantiation of modernisation of system of the domestic education assuming according to requirements FGOS, creation of conditions for an individualization and profilizatsii training. The conceptual bases opened in work and components of the pedagogical concept of G.Gardner (concept of plural intelligence - as bases of the theory of development of the child; possibility to construct on this basis training and development so that to provide harmonious and an individual approach to each pupil; Approach change to otsenivaniju knowledge trained; formation of the disciplinary approach to training; training for understanding) matter for development obshchemetodologicheskih and theoretical approaches to training practice.

The practical importance of research is defined by possibility of use by teachers of the received results of research as a basis for construction of educational process taking into account individual intellectual about sobennostej the trained. The conditions of realisation of the pedagogical concept of Howard Gardner proved as a result of dissertational research, are directed on
Maintenance of realisation of an individual approach to training. Teoretiko - methodological positions, conclusions and the positions containing in dissertational research, can be used by preparation of lectures, seminar employment and elective courses on the general pedagogics and pedagogics history, in the course of lichnostno-professional formation of students of a pedagogical direction of preparation, improvement of professional skill of teachers. The experience of realisation of ideas of G.Gardner presented to dissertations in the foreign pedagogical validity is a condition for designing and realisation of innovative student teaching in modern domestic school education.

On protection following positions are taken out:

1. Formation and development of pedagogical views of G.Gardner were influenced by following socially-historical conditions:

- Global changes in the American society, manufactures dictated by complication and its dependence on discoveries, demanded formation reforming;

- Begun in 50th HH century in the western psychological and pedagogical science kognitivnaja revolution and change of a leading direction in formation with bihevioristskogo on kognitivistskoe;

- Occurring in 60 e of the XX-th century change of priorities in formation philosophy where displacement of accents with the subject-objective of the approach to the training is carried out, the teacher based on a dominating role, on the subject-subject assuming an active position of the pupil in its interaction with the teacher in the course of achievement of the educational purposes.

2. Teoretiko the-methodological basis of formation of pedagogical views of G.Gardner is made by Z.Piazhe's works on psychology of development of children, the theory of psychological development of person L.S.Vygotskogo and A.R.Lurii's research on nejropsihologii. The big influence on G.Gardner's formation as kognitivista was rendered by views known
Psychologist Eric Ericson on psychology of development of the person; new sights at formation in frameworks kognitivnogo the approach to the training, presented to the book «training Process» J. Brunera; N.Geshvinda devoted to the brain organisation of abilities of the person and participation of G.Gardner's in various scientific projects the neurologic researches, the problems of formation connected with research together with J. Brunerom («the Person: the research program» (1965)), N.Goodman («the Zero Project» (1967)) and «the Project of human potential» (1979), founded by the Netherlands

Fund Bernarda Van Leera.

3. At the heart of G.Gardner's pedagogical concept the theory lays

Plural intelligence. Allocated with G.Gardner eight

Independent kinds

Intelligence (linguistic,

Musical,

logiko-mathematical,

Spatial, corporally-kinestetichesky,

mezhlichnostyj and

vnutrilichnostyj,

Naturalistic,

ekzistentsionalnyj)

Have cardinally changed representation about

Intellectual profile of the pupil that has allowed to treat it much more widely, and not just from the point of view logiko-mathematical intelligence as it was accepted earlier. It, in turn, has provided specification and addition of conditions for an individualization of process of training, formation socially adapted, the creative person.

4. The essence and the basic maintenance of pedagogical views of G.Gardner is reduced to following positions:

- There is a set of the various mental abilities meeting in various combinations, instead of uniform base mental abilities;

- The account of intellectual distinctions, instead of conviction that all children think equally, is the basic factor for creation in the course of training of the various informative possibilities as much as possible corresponding individual intellectual

To potential of pupils;

The-organisation of educational process should be directed on creation of conditions in which pupils have possibility of acquisition of the experience demanding involving of various types of intelligence;

-One of problems of school besides realisation of educational process taking into account an individual intellectual profile is the help in comprehension by pupils of their abilities for a support in the course of training on the "strong" parties and development "weak";

- Possibility of use in the course of training more than one way nauchenija;

- Approach change to otsenivaniju knowledge trained by means of use for this purpose authentic methods (a portfolio, a method of projects), allowing to diagnose real achievements trained and providing revealing sformirovannosti for them skills in situations as much as possible approached to a real life (daily or professional), instead of uzkonapravlennyh the standardised tests;

- Formation of a disciplinary way of thinking (scientific, mathematical, historical, art) is mission of school education and allows to seize the studied material at level of the understanding guaranteeing efficiency of use of mastered knowledge further;

- For understanding, that is formation at trained to ability to apply the received knowledge at the decision of new problems or in new conditions, as it is necessary to consider training by tsennostno-target sense of school education.

5. Offered by G.Gardner on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence approaches to formation have found application in school education not only the USA, but also behind their limits. Conditions of successful realisation of the theory of plural intelligence in school education consist in the following:

- For each concrete educational institution at the heart of which work the theory of plural intelligence lays, the educational program corresponding to the educational purposes and problems of the given educational institution should be developed;

- The pedagogical concept created on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence, provides possibility of its realisation taking into account cultural features and traditions of the country in which it takes root;

- The considered pedagogical concept is characterised by the efficiency not only in general educational, but also at specialised schools for children with special educational requirements, for example, differing backlog in intellectual development.

Approbation of results of dissertational research. Substantive provisions and results of the carried out research have been presented at scientifically-practical conferences: «the Scientific forum: pedagogics and psychology» (Moscow, 2018г.), «Science and education in modern realities» (Cheboksary, 2018г.); Social work and pedagogics »FGBOU IN« the Tver state university »were discussed on faculty meetings«, and also the Russian Federations are presented in the published works, including, reviewed editions VAK MON included in the List.

Structure of dissertational research. The dissertation consists of the introduction, two heads, the conclusion, the literature list (177 sources). The total volume of the dissertation makes 149 pages.

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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic INTRODUCTION:

  1. in introduction
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 10.1. Introduction
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. approbation and introduction of results.
  7. Introduction
  8. Introduction
  9. INTRODUCTION
  10. INTRODUCTION
  11. Introduction
  12. Introduction