methods and means of teaching of orthodox culture

The traditional form of training at pre-revolutionary school was the lesson. In methodical grants zakonouchitelej repeatedly there is a detailed description of lessons of Law Bozhija and, in particular, structures of their construction.

So, E.F.Sosuntsov in the methodical workings out offered structure of a lesson of Law Bozhija from four stages, obligatory by preparation and employment carrying out:

1) passed - during the given stage pupils, as a rule, should answer repetition questions zakonouchitelja, helping them to staticize received on the past (or last) knowledge lessons;

2) studying new materila - at the given stage occurred studying of the new material presented zakonouchitelem (as a rule, by means of a heuristic method E.F.Sosuntsov was which adherent);

3) material fastening - at the given stage occurred fastening studied on a lesson, as a rule, or in the form of learning (choral repetition by pupils), or in the form of answers to questions;

4) a moral conclusion - the given stage, according to the author, was obligatory and one of the most important during carrying out of each lesson. Pupils independently (or in case of some difficulties with the help zakonouchitelja) should draw a moral conclusion which should become a certain result of the spent lesson and which helped to apply further the received knowledge in a moral life of pupils (more detailed description of a moral conclusion as one of methods of studying of orthodox culture and tradition see on with. 125)

As a rule, at carrying out of lessons of "Law Bozhija» reading of prays before the beginning of employment and after it was obligatory. Anywhere in methodical workings out zakonouchitelej about this aspect as to a lesson part it is not spoken, however various positions about educational process in various kinds of schools of the pre-revolutionary period order this stage. It is possible to assume,
That the given aspect was self-evident and simply has not been included zakonouchiteljami in the description of structure of a lesson «Law Bozhija». The practical orientation of a course «Divine» assumed the Law, that its studying will occur in indissoluble communication with a practical life of Church. So, F.Nozer conditionally subdivided kinds of practical forms of studying of "Law Bozhija» into the following [171, with. 84]:

1) a pray (houses, at school and in Church);

2) presence on divine service (a liturgy, the sermon, an explanation of Sunday and celebratory readings from Gospel and Apostle books, various molitvoslovija - molebny, and also presence at other ceremonial religious rites etc.);

3) participation in sacraments of Church (a confession and communicating);

4) honouring sacred (reading zhitijnoj literatures, worship hallows and icons of saints, pilgrimage to the sacred places, the glorified saints connected with life Divine);

5) church church chanting (their listening, participation in church singing, preparation for church singing - rehearsals of church chorus);

6) church year (studying of events of church holidays, participation of pupils in the organisation and their preparation, participation in them) etc.

In opinion zakonouchitelja, thanks to such forms of training begins possible to reach an object in view of studying of a course «the Law Divine» - «to give firm thorough knowledge of Christian belief, to bring up a Christian direction and to direct a Christian life» [171, with.


It is necessary to stop in more details on some of the specified after-hour forms of training, for example, participation in church holidays. Being the out-of-class form of the training, the given form was enough extended in various kinds of pre-revolutionary educational institutions and assumed preparation, carrying out and participation of pupils in various church and state holidays, that also made a part of familiarising of pupils to studying of "Law Bozhija».

Privnesenie the given form in teaching and educational process it is possible to explain words zakonouchitelja F.Nozera who considered necessary acquaintance of pupils to church year and their familiarising with the important events and Church holidays as «church year in the change of sacred times and holidays is solemn reproduction and a live reminder on secrets of our rescue» [171, s.158-159]. Special value was given to "three main annual holidays»: to a Christmas, Easter (to Revival Christ's) and the Trinity (pjatidesjatnitse, or Soshestviju the Holy Spirit), together with another dvunadesjatym to holidays [3] and to days of memory of especially honoured saints Divine.

Other after-hour forms of training have been connected with honouring of the sacred. It, for example, pilgrimage - travel to sacred places for worship relics. The given form of after-hour activity at pre-revolutionary school has been not so extended, however took place. Its brightest example is the described S.A.Rachinsky a school campaign in Nilov of deserts [see 198] which comprised including a sacral component: joint prays, visiting of a monastery, churches and temples, prayful worship hallows of saints, presence on divine services, familiarising with sacred sacraments of Church etc.; and also very important, according to the author, aspect of "educational travel».

Methods and methodical receptions of training. During studying of methods and the methodical receptions used in teaching of a course «the Law Divine» at pre-revolutionary school, we had been allocated the most interesting and "valuable" from the point of view of possibility of their further studying and use in modern practice of teaching of orthodox culture.

Let's consider in the beginning so-called general methods of a statement (teaching) of orthodox dogma. As the basic methods described for teaching of "Law Bozhija», and also other subjects in
To pre-revolutionary school what concerned the organisation of teaching and educational process in a part prepodnesenija a teaching material were allocated, in particular, akroamatichesky and erotematichesky methods. Initially given methods have been described by I.Kantom with reference to the doctrine about a moral method of education [126, with. 697, 876-883]. Further they have received development in works of various teachers and in student teaching.

Akroamatichesky (povestovovatelnyj) a training method (from grech. akroamatikon - I "listen") consists that the teacher informs pupils a teaching material in the narrative form, the consecutive story, and pupils acquire informed by means of perception and hearing. This method at pre-revolutionary school was considered traditional and was necessary at the message of such data or knowledge which cannot be acquired any leading questions. With reference to «Law Bozhiju» akroamatichesky the method was one of the cores as, according to archpriest Michael Blagonravova, «the maintenance of the Law Divine makes a lot of such to what as it is told, it is impossible to finish pupils any leading questions, what sacred-historical events, bogootkrovennye trues of dogma and a moral Christian and the Church doctrine» [67, with. 45]. As a rule, akroamatichesky the training method was recommended to use at acquaintance to the basic concepts at the first lessons of "Law Bozhija», and also during development of the most difficult for understanding of dogmatic trues. For example, the themes acquainting with concepts about the God as the Trinity, Its unity in the Trinity (Three ipostasjah), sacraments of Church, precepts Divine, precepts of pleasure, etc. at studying of "Law Bozhija» in pre-revolutionary Russia acted as Adherents of the given method archpriest Peter Smirnov and archpriest Michael Blagonravov.

Erotematichesky, or a question-answer method of training (from grech. erotematikos - «I ask, I investigate») assumed studying of a material by means of set questions and answers to the put questions.
The Erotematichesky method, in turn, has some special forms or kinds: katehizicheskuju, heuristic and dialogical.

The Katehizichesky form of training (from grech. katechesis - «to disclose, orally to edify») assumed the message the teacher of new knowledge the pupil in the question-answer form, however questions were prepared by the teacher and itself they were answered. With reference to studying of "Law Bozhija» at pre-revolutionary school about katehizicheskom a training method it is possible to tell as about such in which «it was long since accepted to make catechisms». Archpriest Michael Blagonravov explained an essence of the given method as follows: « In catechisms a known teaching material, for example, the maintenance of any Creed or a precept is stated not consistently by speech, and in the form of questions and answers. From here katehizicheskaja the teaching form is the form question-answer »[67, with. 40]. Within the limits of studying of" Law Bozhija »the Catechism department, as a rule, was studied under grants which have been made in such form. As an example it is possible to result a fragment of the text for studying of the tenth precept to katehizicheskoj to the form:

«V (the Question - T.S.): What is forbidden desjatoju zapovediju?

O (the Answer - T.S.): the Desires opposite to love to near, and that is unseparable with desires, pomyshlenija, opposite to this love.

To V.Pochemu are forbidden not only thin affairs, but also thin desires and pomyshlenija?

O.Vo-pervyh because when in a shower is thin desires and pomyshlenija it is not so pure before the God, and It is not worthy, as speaks Solomon: nasty thing gospodevi pomysl the injust. Parables. 15, 26. And consequently it is necessary to clear itself and of this internal sewage as the Apostle learns: we will clear to themselves from vsjakija are nasty a flesh and spirit, tvorjashche a relic in strase Bozhii. 2 Barks. 7, 1.

V.Kogda is forbidden to wish something, that is at the near: that what passion chrez this is forbidden?

O.Zavist. »[194, with. 103] etc.

Thus, katehizicheskoj the training form can give the characteristic as to the form in which course there was a studying of a teaching material by means of its hearing, perception and answers to questions from ready, before the presented material which demanded learning. Search interest at pupils in this case, as a rule, was not involved.

The heuristic form of training (from grech. heurisko - «I find, I open») assumes also noegenesis in the question-answer, dialogical form. However the basic feature of the given method was that the teacher did not give to pupils of ready knowledge. Pupils, under preliminary prepared plan of the teacher and its leading questions, should open for themselves new knowledge, passing from positions known for it to another not given by it by directly teacher. At the competent organisation of the given method of training pupils under the guidance of the teacher are capable to generalise the received material, to allocate in it the main thing and to come to necessary conclusions. Search interest at pupils at use of the given method will be involved in bolshej degrees.

Zakonouchitel and priest E.F.Sosuntsov, being the adherent of the given method, wrote: «Reception of new data is reached izyskatelnoj or the heuristic form. At its appropriate statement at a lesson there is no boredom, and the doctrine receives entertaining. This form is most applicable with pervogodnikami, but she demands from learning firm knowledge of the subject, sequence directed by questions and resource at reception of answers from pupils in that kind in what directing to receive them did not expect. Questions should be not prompting, and only directing, giving feasible food to children's mind» [224, with. 24]. As an example it is possible to result a fragment from the lesson abstract under Law Bozhiju on a theme «Necessity of a pray, concept about a pray. A pray explanation« My God, bless »:

«Z (Zakonouchitel - T.S.) you, children, heard, what all on light whose?

U (Pupils - T.S.) Bozhie.

Z.Bog has made all, and we is not present anything. However we take, that it is necessary for us. Whether It is possible to take another's without demand?


Z. And when we wish to take something another's for a while, what we do?

U.Sprashivaem of the owner.

We speak Z.Chto to the owner?

U.My we speak: «Give to us or allow to take your thing».

Z.Vse on light Bozhie, means, to whom we should tell allow at any business?


To Z.Vse on light Bozhie and consequently at any business we should tell to the God allow. Only we speak to the God in another way — bless. How we speak to the God?


Z. Instead of whether know, how we name the God in another way?


Z.My therefore also we speak: My God, bless. Our words with people are called as conversation, and our words to the God are called as a pray. How our words to the God are called?


Z.Chto such a pray?

U.Nashi of a word to the God.

We speak Z.Komu: «My God, bless»?


Z.Kak needs to name these words?

U.Molitvoj... »[224, with. 16] etc.

The dialogical form of training (from grech. dialogos - «conversation, conversation») assumes live conversation between pupils and the teacher in which course questions are set by the teacher, and also pupils, but any more under the planned scenario of the teacher, and proceeding from features of the perception and understanding
Material. As a rule, practically any method of training can pass in the dialogical form, especially at specification and a material explanation.

Zakonouchitel archpriest Michael Blagonravov defined dialogical training forms so: «It is live conversation of the teacher with pupils when also the teacher asks pupils, and the last from the party address to the teacher with the puzzled questions» [67, with. 42]. However the given form of carrying out of employment can develop only in that case, «when relations of the teacher to pupils purely fatherlike, and pupils concern the teacher with love, trust and full frankness» [67, with. 42].

The given form of training cannot be completely registered in advance in the abstract, and can be designated only in general concerning a theme and some basic moments of its discussion.

For erotematichesky a method (in all its kinds) at studying «the Law Divine» at pre-revolutionary school many acted zakonouchiteli and priests: archpriest Athanasius Sokolov, priests E.F.Sosuntsov and V.Tikhomirov, N.N.fear, etc. they considered as the Basic advantages of the given method the following: stronger mastering of got knowledge, their educational value, development of informative abilities and interest at pupils etc.

However some zakonouchiteli acted as opponents of the given method, explaining the position that «this tiresome katehizatsija the most simple and cogitable children of trues which so confuses them in a labyrinth of different questions and answers, what even to the adult person are not present possibility them to notice and acquire» [216, with. 45]. Really, use erotematicheskogo demands a method not only high level of preparation of the teacher, but also certain individual qualities of the person which assume presence of ability of the organisation of such methods at a lesson.

In practice at pre-revolutionary school within the limits of studying of "Law Bozhija» any of the specified methods of training has not been sustained in the pure state. Use of the given methods in aggregate brought the best
Results in training about what archpriest Michael Blagonravov wrote: «Zakonouchitel during each lesson can use various forms of teaching» [67, with. 50]. However, as noticed zakonouchitel, on advantage «akromaticheskaja the form, then katehizicheskaja the form at first should follow, and heuristic can be applied only in some, rare cases» [67, with. 50]. So, at studying of a new material, the most important and difficult themes it was most pertinent to use akroamatichesky a method of training for the purpose of the greatest understanding and mastering of a teaching material by pupils. The Erotematichesky method of training was most effective and, undoubtedly, yielded the results at fastening or repetition of the studied material.

Let's consider further the methods of training applied at pre-revolutionary school it is exclusive in course teaching «the Law Divine».

Appendix method verouchitelnyh trues by a moral life of pupils (a moral conclusion). The moral component during studying verouchitelnyh disciplines, in particular «Law Bozhija», paid the big attention, in particular, in F.Nozera's works, martyr Faddeja (Uspensky), V.Davydenko, E.F.Sosuntsova and others zakonouchitelej. Last noticed, that, since the very first lessons, zakonouchitel should is moral to influence pupils and as the basic way suggested to do in the end of each employment a moral conclusion which would help pupils to apply the received knowledge in their own life. All teaching material of a course «the Law Divine», according to E.F.Sosuntsova, is a fine material for moral conclusions as «dogmatic trues are in the close connection with trues moral» [224, with. 8].

The basic means with which help it would be possible to draw a moral conclusion in the end of employment, martyr Faddej (Uspensky) considered the frequent reference to experience of the child. Addressing to own experience of the child through trues of Christian belief which are close to heart, it is possible to explain «their vital value», thereby bringing to the moral
To the conclusion [243, with. 22]. F.Nozer marked: «that teaching of the Christian doctrine was really practical, i.e. is fruitful for a life», zakonouchitel should apply it «to the phenomena and requirements of a life and to do for them clear, that the deduced morals concern their own behaviour and demand steady execution» [171, with. 92].

Example of use of the given methodical reception during studying of "Law Bozhija» are methodical workings out zakonouchitelej. As a rule, lessons were under construction so that in the end of them pupils could draw a moral conclusion: in the senior branch - it is independent, on the average - with the help zakonouchitelja, in younger - as a rule, the moral conclusion zakonouchitel did at the beginning itself, and then pupils by means of leading questions to them. So, in the end of a lesson devoted to acquaintance with concept of a pray and the most simple pray «My God, bless», E.F.Sosuntsov offers such conclusion for pupils of younger branch: «Before the beginning of any business we by all means should ask blessings for the God because all on light Bozhie, should tell a pray:« My God, bless ». Never forget it, children, and the God to you with affairs will help. You heard, that we ordinary speak« allow », and in a pray —“ bless ”» [224, with. 16]. Cвященномученик Faddej (Uspensky) suggests pupils to draw a conclusion during a theme «Sacrament of Sacred Communicating» for which explanation connects it with a parable «about the prodigal son» and concept «about a life eternal»: «Children do a conclusion of a parable that is spoken in it about death not bodies, and souls from sins; eternal the teacher compares the life to eternal stay good luck and pleasure from this stay (as it was good to live to the prodigal son with the father in its house). Likening of this dialogue with the Christ of a close connection of branches with a trunk is reminded also, Jesus Christ words about a grapevine and branches (Ин.15 gl are given again.)» [243, with. 120].

Studying of Sacred history, after all «each sacred-historical event was the most"fertile"material for extraction of moral conclusions, according to many zakonouchitelej, each bible person gives a material
For edification, and this edification should be never lowered »[224, with. 8]. V.Davydenko specified that« there is no need to take from each history the moral doctrine in the form of any certain manual. One word is enough to tell sometimes to make deep and strong impression upon heart of children. It is useful to finish also primenitelnyj conversation by any text of the St. writing, singing of the church song concerning explained history, a corresponding place from a catechism, instructions on a temptation and experiences from own life of children, etc. »[92, with. 147].

Introductory conversations as a method of actualisation of knowledge of children. Introductory conversations in many methodical grants pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej were the necessary stage anticipating the beginning of studying of a course «the Law Divine». So, about necessity of introductory conversations wrote V.Davydenko and martyr Faddej (Uspensky). Last noticed, that «before to begin training to Law Bozhiju, it is necessary to know, what religious concepts children have, and, thus, to begin training, passing from known to the unknown person. Besides it, to the teacher it is necessary to correct much in concepts of children (for example, different superstitions) and to add», to prepare for the further studying of a subject [243, with. 11]. Otherwise, marked Century Davydenko, the lacks of knowledge left without check and corrections, «could be reflected adversely in all subsequent employment of pupils, could lead to abnormality and discrepancy of that mastering that has been informed them at regular training» [92, with. 129]. Thus, introductory conversations represented a stage of diagnostic revealing of available initial knowledge of orthodox dogma and their updatings at wrong understanding of the basic concepts.

Martyr Faddej (Uspensky) offered such variant of carrying out of introductory conversation on «to Law Bozhiju":"the Teacher means first of all to find out, that children of younger branch know, and with etoju the purpose asks them, that they know about Jesus Christ Spasitele. It approaches to a subject of conversation, however, gradually. Wishing to raise in children the Christian
The consciousness as studying of Law Bozhija should be attached to it by live threads at school, the teacher reminds at first to children, that everyone or each of them carries a special name (Peter, Vasily, Nikolay, Maria, Olga etc.)... »[243, with. 125]. Then the concept"Christians"which is to derivatives on behalf of Jesus Christ spoke. After that zakonouchitel passed to the short story about Jesus Christ as Son Bozhiem, accompanying explanations questions to children for revealing of level of their knowledge (the Full variant of introductory conversation see in the Appendix 4). But at carrying out of such conversations martyr Faddej (Uspensky) considered as one of the most important and productive moments their informal character if they in bolshej degrees« do not resemble an educational lesson, but to represent live conversation »[243, with. 11].

Methods of a bible narration (statement of Sacred history). In pre-revolutionary practice of teaching of "Law Bozhija» some methods of a statement of events of Sacred history were allocated: the statement of Sacred history Bible words, a free narration in «bible spirit» and a narration of Sacred history is close to spirit and the Scriptus text. The first method was difficult for applying in practice for the following reason: « If zakonouchitel has not developed in itself bible speech by long practice also its story will differ artificiality why it and will not make on pupils of vital impression »[92, with. 1 43]. The second method too has appeared insolvent as« using free speech at the story of sacred-historical events can lead to that stories can take the form of ordinary wordly conversations and even the form of fairy tales »[92, with. 143]. Therefore an optimum method, according to« to the Explanatory note to the program of teaching of Law Bozhija at tserkovno-parish schools », has been defined to consider studying of Sacred history when« in own stories the instructor should as it is possible to keep more close not only spirit, but also the text of sacred narrations », thereby finding a golden mean between the two first methods [40, with. 55].

At use of the given method of explanation zakonouchitel has not been constrained"by the narration form, i.e. has not been obliged to tell precisely words of the Bible. The explanatory note to the program of teaching of Law Bozhija at tserkovno-parish schools only suggested zakonouchitelju to develop in itself such speech at a narration of sacred-historical stories which, being free own speech zakonouchitelja, would be as it is possible more close to the bible text and spirit of its narration:« That its speech flew itself, without special efforts, and furthermore without predvaritelnago mastering for memory of the bible text of a known narration; that thus its story was really live word, able to influence a children's soul »[92, with. 144]. Such speech, under the remark of archpriest Michael Blagonravova, zakonouchitelju followed develop gradually. For this purpose the best means was frequent reading of the Word Divine and preparation for lessons in which frameworks« before each lesson zakonouchitel should read under sacred books that he assumes to tell to pupils »[67, with. 142].

Method of the thorough proof. The given method has been offered zakonouchitelem to F.Nozerom «for belief awakening in a shower of the child» at lessons of "Law Bozhija» [171, with. 81]. The author considered as the basis of use of the given method that each young Christian should be capable «to resist to doubts and objections which rise from within and otvne» concerning orthodox belief and it dushespasitelnyh trues [171, with. 81]. These trues should be strongly acquired and embodied"in heart and a shower of the pupil that is possible only when they will be based« on belief sources, the Holy Writ and the legend, or on reason arguments », - wrote F.Nozer [171, with. 81]. It has allocated the basic properties of a method of the proof:

• validity when proofs can be considered as those if they are incontestable, "victorious" and, in a certain degree, compulsory;

• fruitfulness when the proof induces to full belief in prepodavaemoj to true, declines heart to saving chuvstvovanijam, and will - to the validity respective them;

• clearness (availability) when the proof is easily clear, and the statement of the bases of considered true is explained at such level, «what not understand it only unusual degree of intellectual limitation» [171 can, with. 82].

The sources used during a method of the thorough proof, proofs from Divine Revelation [4] and proofs from area of natural knowledge (so-called «proofs from reason») can serve.

F.Nozer has given following methodical recommendations for realisation of the given method:

1) to prove is necessary only that requires the proof;

2) for the main trues of Christian belief children should be informed the most suitable facts and the most important texts of the Scriptus to which their careful explanation precedes;

3) it is necessary to pay attention not on quantity of the bases furnished for the proof, and on their "evidential effect" and "udoboponjatnost": «the Unique corresponding text from the Holy Writ, comprehensibly explained, makes on believing listeners incomparably bolshee influences, than all objections and dodges» [171, with. 84].

So, we had been considered some general both private methods and the methodical receptions used at pre-revolutionary school for studying of orthodox culture. The general feature of all specified methods was their orientation on disclosing of orthodox dogma to the full,
Aspiration to inform dushespasitelnye trues to minds, the shower and hearts of pupils that they did not remain only luggage of theoretical knowledge, and has been enclosed during a real moral and spiritual life of pupils.

In the literature studied by us it was revealed much more methods, than it is specified above. However they had narrower specialisation concerning studying of various departments of a course «the Law Divine», for example, methods and methodical receptions of studying of prays or the doctrine about divine service. In this case we did not begin to stop on them attention, and have described only the general methods applied in studying of orthodox dogma.

Tutorials. At lessons of "Law Bozhija» the great value as thanking it studying of Christian trues was more thorough was given to evident tutorials rather. Martyr Faddej (Uspensky) wrote in this occasion, that «it would be wrong to think, that only and presentation is peculiar to subjects of the external, visible world. It is possible to make nagljadnoju and religious true, and besides not resorting by all means to supervision over the external nature» [243, with. 38-39].

In pre-revolutionary school at lessons of "Law Bozhija» zakonouchiteli rather actively tried to involve various evident tutorials. The carried out analysis has allowed us to reveal following basic used evident tutorials:

1) it is sacred-map are maps with an arrangement of the ancient cities characterising district of the Sacred Earth and it vsemirnoyoistoricheskoe value. It is sacred-map were used at studying of Sacred history and gave fuller representation about its events; modern maps and atlases (the example of the given evident tutorial in the manual see in the Appendix 5) were thus used also;

2) sacred-historical pictures - the images illustrating events of Sacred bible history which, under the remark zakonouchitelja V.Davydenko, already from an antiquity served as «the outstanding grant for the religious
Formations »[92, with. 147]. Application of sacred-historical pictures should correspond to the certain requirements stated, in particular, in« to the Explanatory note to teaching of "Law Bozhija” »[40, with. 55];

3) sacred images (icon) and wall lists in temples - their evident studying occurred, as a rule, at visiting of temples, churches or monasteries. Icons in a sense were evident "grants" for acquaintance to images of saints of flatterers Bozhiih, and wall lists could contain images of events of sacred history. Besides, specified «evident means» were a part of the church art which studying attached pupils to orthodox ikonopisnoj traditions. It is important to notice, that at acquaintance to sacred images pupils could receive spiritual experience of divine worship through honouring of sacred icons;

4) divine service subjects (or their images). As a rule, the given kind of presentation could be seen in a temple during divine service. Divine service subjects and their value were studied within the limits of department «the Doctrine about Divine service». Preliminary the pupil gave theoretical knowledge concerning studied divine service subjects then they could see these subjects in a temple visually (sometimes occurred on the contrary: zakonouchitel focused attention of pupils on a divine service subject in a temple then gave them theoretical knowledge of it in a class). In some cases at impossibility of consideration of divine service subjects visually in a temple their images in manuals were used;

5) sacred and prayer books, molitvoslovy were used zakonouchiteljami as one of presentation means at studying of separate themes, however in whole their studying carried deeper spiritually-moral value in teaching and educational process;

6) temple architecture, internal and external furniture. As the orthodox temple is sosredotochie orthodox culture and tradition, studying of its device, internal and external furniture was obligatory within the limits of a course «the Law Divine», and the best evident means
The temple (church or a monastery) is. Visiting of a temple by pupils had, first of all, religious-spiritual value, simultaneously serving as evident means for studying of features of its device.

As a rule, on class employment used following evident tutorials: it is sacred-map, sacred-historical pictures, sacred and prayer books, molitvoslovy. And within the limits of after-hour employment, in particular at temple visiting, as presentation means sacred images (icon) and wall lists served in temples, divine service subjects, temple architecture, internally temple furniture.

Check and estimation of knowledge of pupils. Check and an estimation of knowledge of pupils within the limits of a course «the Law Divine» at pre-revolutionary school was an obligatory part of a lesson though strictly documentary it was not regulated, except for total tests (examinations) in a subject.

About current examination of pupils in Programs and Positions to teaching of "Law Bozhija» practically it is spoken nothing. But in works pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej enough attention is given to the given question. In some methodical grants it is possible to see recommendations how it is necessary to spend current examination of pupils depending on specificity of studied department of a course «the Law Divine». Very often in such grants it is underlined independent character of performance of works (including house).

So, within the limits of studying of department of Sacred history it was offered to inspect, for example, as follows: «to read that children heard already in a class, under the Gospel, to state in writing slyshannoe earlier in a class - at first on detailed, then more to the general questions, under the given plan, at last, without the aid of questions and the plan» [243, with. 71]; to execute drawings antiquated «skinii and its accessories and a Christian temple», to write answers to questions zakonouchitelja, in writing to state data of sacred-historical stories, to write reasonings on known themes, etc. [148, with. 103-104]. Similar type of the task concerned and department of studying of history of Church.

Examination on a catechism, as a rule, represented learning and reproduction of bases of orthodox belief. This requirement has been designated in the Explanatory note to the program of teaching of Law Bozhija: «It is necessary to accustom children to that they were able to transfer in the coherent form learnt by them by means of questions and distinctly knew, what doctrine contains in this or that member of the Creed or a precept Dominical» [40, with. 57]. Archpriest Michael Blagonravov explains specified in «the Explanatory note» requirements so: « At first pupils answer on questions zakonouchitelja, and then they should transfer the doctrine containing in this or that member the Creed or precepts in the coherent form. Pupils should answer with the words, not learning it is literally questions and the answers which have been put in pawn in a catechism. Itself it is clear, that the text of the Creed and precepts Shabby and the New testament, and texts of the Scriptus equally meeting in a catechism should be learnt pupils literally »[67, with. 169].

Within the limits of department of studying of prays such tasks could be examination: «to learn earlier explained pray or tropar» [243, with. 71] or to give an explanation, to explain their sense. However, under the remark of archpriest Michael Blagonravova, it is important to remember a main objective of studying of prays which in the basis assumes «not mastering of the text of prays with ought understanding of their sense, but schooling of pupils to fulfilment of a pray and the statement in them of prayful mood» [67, with. 130].

Concerning department of studying of divine service, and, accordingly, examinations on the given department, «the Explanatory note to programs of teaching of Law Bozhija» ordered studying of divine service from semantic studying and understanding of religious rites, ceremonies, divine service subjects, molitvoslovy, church chanting etc., a part of divine service: «It is necessary, that they (pupils - T.S.) understood Church language, value of church religious rites, have entered as much as possible for them as laymen and on degree of the got education, in their spirit and felt requirement more and more to acquire to the heart edification from temple Bozhija and everything, that in it
It is made »[40, with. 59]. Therefore some zakonouchiteli noticed, that mastering of knowledge on the given department should be reached« by itself, in process of mastering by pupils of other parties of divine service, and so, how much each pupil can acquire, demand from them it does not follow »[67, with. 173]. However some tasks for examination of pupils on doctrine department about divine services nevertheless existed. For example, there were such grants which contained pictures with images of the internal and external form of a temple, sacred vessels, clothes and other subjects necessary for divine service [see 207]. On these pictures theoretical knowledge was given to pupils and their check which also could include the tasks assuming the image (drawing) of specified subjects, forms, the external and internal device of churches and temples was spent.

Besides, meaning the subject status «the Law Divine» which was obligatory along with other subjects entering into the program of elementary schools, the total system of an estimation of knowledge of pupils also necessarily was present and has been presented as total and translation tests - examinations.

Translation and total (final) examinations have been designated as «the control over success of teaching or as the basis for delivery of certificates on the course termination» which «are necessary and should be made in each school in the end of an academic year in May» [214, with. 52]. Data on features of carrying out of such tests in all subjects of a course including Law Bozhija, have remained in «Rules for delivery of certificates on knowledge of a course of initial schools to pupils of tserkovno-parish schools» [40, with. 9] which at reception of certificates on knowledge them of a course of elementary schools of Spiritual department or the Ministry of national education could take advantage of the right to a period of service of the reduced terms of military service.

For passage of total or translation tests special examination boards which could be organised on spiritual department or department of the Ministry of national education were made and
Should consist without fail of the chairman of the commission (as a rule, it was the priest-observer, a member of Diocesan Council or the honourable trustee) and members of the commission (the priests managing tserkovno-parish schools, zakonouchiteli and teachers, the honourable observer or the trustee of school).

The regulations of carrying out of tests assumed, that they «open and terminate molitvoju», and supposed to presence of parents and relatives of pupils [40, with. 14]. Questions entered Into tests within the installed program »[40«, with. 15] which the teacher should prepare before examination, and before «give to pupils quarter marks in the general annual sheet» [214, with. 52]. Examination in «Law Bozhiju» concerned oral test that is why assumed such order: «Examinees in examination boards are asked at first by the zakonouchitelem and the teacher if they are present at examination», and then all other members of the commission. Otsenivanie the answer learning occurred by means of vyschityvanija a mean score exposed by each examiner. The five-point system otsenivanija [40 was thus used, with. 15].

Whereas inclusion of Law Bozhija in the obligatory curriculum of educational institutions in the form of a subject with the registered plan and the program has begun only with the middle of XIX century, there was a gradual development and formation of a technique of its teaching. There were more zakonouchitelej which offered all new methodical approaches and receptions in studying of "Law Bozhija», and also uchebno-methodical grants. In the XX-th century beginning when sufficient experience of teaching of "Law Bozhija» has already collected, zakonouchiteljami problems and difficulties within the limits of subject teaching were actively discussed, measures on its improvement that testifies to aspiration to perfection of available experience were undertaken.

However to the full the teaching technique of "Law Bozhija» has not had time to develop. Available data specify in many imperfections and lacks, for example, in questions of methodical preparation zakonouchitelej.

Most likely, they could be overcome and corrected, but known events of 1917 have finished a stage of development and formation of studying of orthodox culture at the Russian schools up to the XX-th century end.

Thus, generalising the characteristic of features of methodical system of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginnings, we will notice, that, besides lessons as traditional form of training, after-hour forms of the activity directly connected with a practical life of Church were widely enough used a various sort: a pray (the general and private); presence on divine service and at other religious rites (a liturgy, the sermon, an explanation of Sunday and celebratory readings from Gospel and Apostle books, various molitvoslovija - molebny etc.); participation in sacraments of Church (a confession, communicating, etc.) ; Honouring sacred (reading zhitijnoj literatures, worship hallows and icons of saints, pilgrimage); church church chanting (their listening, participation in church singing, rehearsal of church chorus); familiarising with the important events and Church holidays. Thus, the variable component of orthodox culture (an aesthetic component) has been taken out basically in after-hour and out-of-school activity.

Among the most widespread methods of teaching of a course «the Law Divine» it is possible to allocate the general and private. To the general methods by us are carried: akroamatichesky (narrative) method and erotematichesky (voprosnoyootvetnyj) a method which, in turn, assumed various variants of construction of conversation: katehizicheskaja, heuristic, dialogical. Among private methods of training to Law Bozhiju introductory conversations as a method of actualisation of knowledge of children, methods of a bible narration (a statement of Sacred history), a method of the thorough proof have been most extended an appendix method verouchitelnyh trues by a moral life of pupils (a moral conclusion).

Giving great value to use of presentation during course studying «the Law Divine», pre-revolutionary zakonouchiteli suggested to use
At lessons following basic evident tutorials: svjashchennoyogeograficheskie cards, sacred-historical pictures, sacred images (icon) and wall lists in temples, divine service subjects (or their images), sacred and prayer books, molitvoslovy, temple architecture, internal and external furniture of a temple, etc.

The system otsenivanija and examinations assumed the current check of the received knowledge having especial tasks within the limits of each department of a course, and also total - carrying out under «Law Bozhiju» translation or final examinations in the oral form on five-point system along with other examinations of a course of initial school or school.


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A source: Stanovskaya Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017. 2017

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