Novatsionnoe expansion of representations about personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in 1950 - 1980

To the XX-th century middle in the American pedagogical thought there were serious researches in which teachers, psychologists, historians of formation did courageous attempts to comprehend essence of formation and to develop directions and concepts which would answer inquiries of a society and development of the industry, economy and culture.

Not casually one of the most known historians of formation of the USA Lawrence Kremin (1925-1990) has paid attention to importance of careful studying of history of origin, formation, a development of education on North American continent. The competent analysis of features of formation of educational system of the USA is that tool with which help it is possible to develop new educational programs and to bring up vysokointellektualnyh, legislative and worthy citizens of a society. Lawrence Kremin - the historian of the American pedagogics, the teacher and the scientist, a member of Committee after studying of a role of formation in history of America at Ford's Fund, the professor of pedagogics in Pedagogical college of the Colombian university, underlined importance of the analysis of historical development of formation to which gives answers to numerous questions on essence, problems, efficiency of school education, critical knowledge and development prospects. Studying of history of formation is thought by L.Kreminym as means not to repeat past and comprehension errors both positive, and negative experience without which not to construct new perfect system of school education. Many problems which the American school faced, it would be possible to avoid, according to Kremina if the state leaders had on hand the materials, histories of an American education concerning researches and had possibility seriously and in detail to study experience of formation and development of school and a way of overcoming of difficulties in business of education and training of the multicultural population of the country. Unfortunately, to questions of the analysis of preconditions, strategy of formation, prejudices and

Standard documents till certain time almost it was not given due attention, therefore at some teachers, public and statesmen a little deformed idea is had about school education and its purposes.

Huge merit in business of a recognition of importance of studying «histories of formation as the distsiplinarno-proved sphere of knowledge inseparably linked with the basic currents of a historical science» [140, with. 257] L.Kreminu belongs. In the early fifties Kremin has started to study in details the materials devoted to researches of various stages of development of school education in the USA. Having found out in historical researches the lack of a methodological and theoretical basis of illumination of a material, limitation of a narration and not criticality of the description of approaches and currents of development of educational system, Kremin has incurred responsibility at least partially to fill information vacuum, to study formation history in wide «sotsioekonomicheskom a context defining structure and the maintenance of formal school education» [In the same place]. Some historians of formation aspired to idealise the state formation which was thought by them as means to make all members of a democratic society equal. However in the country there were events which contradicted democracy key rules: collisions of immigrants with radical Americans, infringements of the rights of workers and women, discrimination of ethnic minority and others.

One of representatives idealizirovannogo a sight at formation which, first of all, is directed on the statement of democratic bases of a society, is Ellvud Kabberli (paragraph 2.1 see.) . It and its followers, the so-called "school Kabberli" including professors of pedagogics, poorly owning methodology and receptions of the historical analysis, were «motivirovany ideological obligations... Saw in the propaganda activity fidelity to the glorified professional standards» [140, with. 258]. L.Kremin, nevertheless, has put forward new approaches to the description of history of educational thought in the USA. Kremin has played the big role in a recognition of importance of studying of history of formation and has achieved improvement of quality of its teaching in high schools. L.Kreminym's studying of history of formation and development of pedagogical thought in the USA has allowed it to look at the given problem under a wide corner of sight, including here both social history and problems of development of intelligence. Issue in 1961

L.Kremina's 129 books «school Transformation: progressivizm in an American education, 1876-1957» («The transformation of the school: Progressivism in American Education, 1876-1957») became popular and quoted not only in the USA, but also in other countries.

L.Kremin is the author of many books and articles devoted to problems of formation, among which most known «the American education: colonial experience» (1970), «the American education: national experience» (1980), «the American education: mother country experience» (1988). The remarkable scientist, L.Kremin became the supervisor of studies of the future great researchers in the field of American education and formation history as a whole, among which Patrician Alberg Grem, Ellen Kondliff Lejdzhmen, Mary Ann Dzabek.

L.Kremina's careful intelligent researches and its pupils have lifted on qualitative level of work on history of formation and have included in a content of the analysis science allied industries, namely cultural science, sociology, anthropology, partially a policy and economy. Without understanding of tendencies of development of a society and culture it is impossible to realise importance of a development of education for modern society and for the future generations. The modern history of formation of the USA undergoes innovations, but tries to keep all that best, that it has saved up for the short history of existence. Nevertheless, as marks L.Kremin, «a modern history kontseptualizirovala the state school training as the subordinated formation, capable to strengthen dominating models of a social inequality. It has defined a paramount role of history of formation as researches of a role of formal school training in wider social context» [140, with. 262]. Features of the historical concept of an American education of L.Kremina with reference to concept «the ideal American school teacher» can be generalised in the form of following theses:

1. The future teachers should study in colleges along with program subjects history of formation which gives bases for professionalism of the teacher and understanding to them to a role, purposes and school education problems.

2. The history of formation and a society cultural history are closely connected among themselves, therefore teachers should understand well tendencies of development of a society and use cultural sources in the pedagogical activity, correcting

The purposes and training problems at each concrete historical stage.

3. Pedagogics as the discipline, is the major source of the information and a professional knowledge for the good teacher. Without careful studying of bases of pedagogics not to achieve a learning efficiency.

4. Parents are engaged in training of children not only teachers at schools, but, in bolshej degrees; and parents, in turn, should study at children. Thus, formation is not limited to an educational institution, and to last all life.

5. Throughout all history of development of school education many ideas which have been put forward by progressive teachers, have proved the effectiveness, and some of them have failed, and only time can confirm their validity or unfitness.

6. Formation urged to change a life of people to the best, to develop their talents, to promote self-improvement. Therefore the teacher is that key figure which is capable of much, and the success of pedagogical activity depends on competence of the teacher, its professionalism.

7. The teacher should imagine the pedagogical purposes and problems accurately. In the given context studying and application of taxonomy of B.Bluma (classification of the pedagogical purposes) all teachers will promote by all means to achievement of high quality of teaching, and, hence, and high results obuchennosti schoolboys.

8. One of problems of the ideal school teacher - to learn children to take out own judgements and to be able to prove the made choice.

9. Following components at all times entered into school education problems: human life improvement of quality, perfection, development of competence of the chosen fields of knowledge. Growth in intellectual and other plans should conduct to even bolshemu to growth, there should be a constant perfection. The teacher helps pupils to realise these problems.

10. The meeting of the school teacher with the pupil begins with incessant conversation, an exchange of opinions, disputes and discussions in which result and the teacher, and the pupil open for itself new knowledge and move forward.

11. It is important to ideal teacher to be able to talk in good English language, using correct grammar, lexicon and stylistics. Language - mobile and

131 changing system in which there are new words and expressions. The ideal teacher the first masters new lexicon and intelligibly explains new terms or names of subjects and the validity phenomena.

12. L.Kremin is assured, that if the society wishes to have the best teachers, it is necessary to care of adequate payment of their work, compensation should correspond to professionalism of teachers.

13. Ideal state formation is expressed not in results of tests, and as a life of the graduate of school. If the graduate in the future has reached successes in medicine, engineering, pedagogics, business and so forth it means, that it has received qualitative school education which has allowed it to go further, to be improved and become successful in a life.

14. Unfortunately, the TV renders bolshee influence on modern pupils, than live teachers at schools. At times the TV destroys values of school education. The resolution of conflict of values falls on shoulders of school teachers it is very difficult to them to explain, which values and belief are eternal and have the moral bases.

15. A fundamental question which faces to us - how to adapt pupils for the modern world? The democratic society should support the citizens, but its citizens often criticise this society and have on this all bases. How to resolve this conflict? Search of adequate decisions of difficult social questions also is a problem of the ideal school teacher.

Curriculums of the American high schools which were based on principles of pedagogics of a pragmatism and progressivizma during long time, represented, according to Z.A.Malkovoj: «special, in many respects not similar to schools of other countries style of training» [110, with. 125.]. The main lines of school programs of training consisted in the following: they have been practically deprived theoretical knowledge on the majority of subjects, thus data of applied character have been presented to them, was not given sufficient attention to questions of development of informative abilities of pupils. Practical activities did not meet the requirements of economic development of the USA in scientific and technical revolution. Therefore a question on how really to raise quality of preparation of pupils left on the foreground and demanded the immediate answer.

Global changes in the American society, manufactures occurring in the conditions of complication and its dependence on new opening, scientific workings out dictated carrying out of reforms in an education system, first of all, school education. In 50th years of the XX-th century in the American psychological science there was a change of base directions of researches. If the vector biheviorizma during the given period it has replaced kognitivizm earlier dominated. Adherents kognitivistskogo directions in psychology and pedagogics (Dzherom Bruner, George Miller, Ulrik Najsser, Allen Njuell, Herbert Sajmon, etc.) actively supported updating of the American school.

As development preconditions kognitivizma in the middle of the XX-th century have acted: intensive working out of exact technologies and computer facilities; occurrence of the first electronic computers aimed at the decision of logic problems, programmed to play chess, to distinguish oral and written speech, to translate it on other languages; increased requirements to a labour, namely a superficial knowledge and abilities to carry out the elementary operations have appeared already insufficient, an all-round profound knowledge in different spheres was required. Development of new technologies have forced scientists and researchers in a new fashion to look at processes of thinking, knowledge and understanding. Not casually in the mid-fifties HH centuries in attention focus there was the phenomenon of knowledge including questions of reception, storage, processing, representation of knowledge, both in a head of the person, and in the computer. The marked period many scientists name kognitivnoj revolution. In 1990th years of the XX-th century the known researcher of the theory of an artificial intellect and kognitivnoj linguistics Noam Homsky has stated an estimation kognitivnoj to revolution as to a condition of reason or a brain which cause behaviour of the person and it kognitivnye components, namely knowledge, understanding, interpretation and even beliefs.

The American researchers, analyzing a school situation of first half of XX-th century, come to conclusion, that utilitarian character of school education, absence of interest to development problems in pupils of informative abilities have created at schools atmosphere "antiintellektualizma" [111, with. 100]. Some American analysts of school education, for example L.Kremin, M.Sedler and some other characterised the American high school as mass
Educational institution without the intellectual purposes, without intellectual discipline and insistence. As the reasons of decrease in quality of secondary education in researches listed the following is named: orientation of school to interests of pupils, periodic change of programs of training in which the considerable part of school hours was taken away on subjects for choice, instead of base academic disciplines. One more reason has been connected with decrease in level of criteria to progress of schoolboys, therefore existed so-called «sotsiyoalnyj transfer» the pupil in the following class even if it showed insufficient level of knowledge and abilities for a certain class.

Improvement of quality of formation has forced the American school to refuse from uzkoutilitarnyh the purposes. Now developments of powers of thinking of pupils, formation of those qualities which will be claimed in bystromenjajushchemsja the world become the school main tasks.

The historian of an American education L.Kremin underlined, that influence of theories biheviorizma «within forty years was huge and various» [236, the river 113]. The simple formula "stimulus-reaction" describing bihevioristami essence training, has excluded «from a field of vision of the American teachers questions of intellectual development of the child in all complexity of this problem» [111, with. 103].

Let's consider sights of the visible American scientist, the psychologist and teacher Dzheroma Sejmura Brunera (1915-2016) on an American education, curriculums and a role of the school teacher. J. Bruner was the professor of two famous universities - Harward and Oxford. In spite of the fact that the scientist has received a speciality of the psychologist, the pedagogical component of its person prevails in due course over the psychological. Here that in this occasion the scientist writes: «More half a century studying psychology, I always considered myself, first of all as the intellectual, and already then - the psychologist» [216, the river 230].

The analysis of psihologo-pedagogical researches of the XX-th century allows to draw a conclusion, that J. Bruner was one of the first scientists in the USA which has specified in an urgency of ideas kognitivizma in psychology and pedagogics.

In 1959 at conference in Wood Houle, headed Dzheromom Brunerom, the idea about how Z.Piazhe's theory can help with the decision of psychological problems in connection with movement for revision of curriculums in has been offered

To 134 middle of 50th [the river 1-8] See 217. Z.Piazhe's theory explains principles of the new approach to understanding difficult kognitivnyh abilities. P.Setler allocates two basic approaches in Z.Piazhe's theory - how to learn, and the second - to that to learn. In the relation «how to learn», it is necessary to create a problem situation in which the pupil chooses the task and itself searches for the necessary ways of the decision. The problem of the teacher in the given situation consists in setting to the pupil leading questions, to help it to develop hypotheses and to check up them. The second approach includes the constructive analysis where tasks at first are selected, and are then analyzed kognitivnye requirements to them [the river 328-329] See 279.

The book «Research of process of thinking» («And Study of Thinking») has made considerable impact on growth kognitivnogo movements in the American psychology and pedagogics. Dzherom Bruner and George Miller have based the Harward Center kognitivnyh researches (Garvard Center for Cogninive Studies) which purpose was in granting by scientist of possibility of an exchange by the newest ideas on problems kognitivnoj psychology. In focus of problems kognitivizma also there were also questions of formation with which has become interested in J. Bruner.

Understanding importance first of all to develop mental faculties of pupils, followers kognitivizma are absolutely convinced that working out of a content of educational programs and drawing up of model of functioning of educational process should consider development of motivation, interests, ways of cogitative activity of pupils. At kognitivnom the approach to formation the schoolboy acts not in a role of the passive listener, and admits active, the creative person. Psychologists-kognitivisty are convinced, that only in it the pupil is capable to become the active participant of process of acquisition and application of knowledge. J. Bruner together with the followers specify that the theory of human knowledge should develop the strategy applied by the pupil in the course of thinking, storing, understanding and language use. Thus the school teacher should work over individual approaches to various pupils in various situations to stimulate their intellectual development, considering the previous experience of the pupil [the river 79-85] See 314.

Thus, it is possible to conclude, that the primary goal of formation in a context of researches of scientists-kognitivistov is attention focusing on with what

In the ways pupils use knowledge for that understanding in that them train.

J. Bruner an input of the researches has come to thought that development of human reason gives in to purposeful formation, allows to open its true possibilities. To one of such processes developing reason, J. Bruner carries training process. Key sense of educational reform the scientist sees in showing, how skilful pedagogical influence can lead to intensive development of informative activity of pupils, and, that the problem of a progressive science consists in that, «to give a strong scientific basis for such pedagogical work» [216, the river 181]. The basic pedagogical view of J consists In this statement. Brunera, which peculiar to the present conceiving teacher.

In the book «training Process» (1960) J. Brunerom the hypothesis according to which «any subject can has been formulated is effective and to the full be taught to any child at any stage of development» [31, the river 33]. The analysis of ideas of J. Brunera allows to assume, that it is necessary for teachers to render to the child the timely help in the course of disclosing of the system of representations about the world and the surrounding phenomena. Thus it is important to consider features of development of thinking of the child.

The sights about a culture and formation close connection are presented in the book «Culture of formation» (1996). The training purpose, according to J. Brunera consists «not simply in a transfer of experience, and in understanding deepening. To understand - means to realise a place of a certain fact or a certain idea in more general system of knowledge» [33, with. 8]. Training should be directed in bolshej to degree not at width, and to depth of knowledge, in judgement of principles and concepts, and it should occur gradually, and in due course the understanding of the child will improve and gives the chance to it to return to certain ideas, concepts at more intelligent level. What then the main task of the ideal school teacher in the given context of formation? In treatment of J. Brunera the ideal teacher will play a role of "a conductor facilitating independent search of true» [In the same place]. Besides, the school acts as that place where there is a formation of the emotional party of the person of the child which is very important in educational process. Thereupon it is important to specify in such quality of the ideal school teacher, as an emotionality, empathy. The teacher, sincerely

136 showing the emotions, able them to regulate, positively influences a psychological climate in a class. Besides, any society, and American in particular, represents connection of the different levels of population having own outlooks on life, the culture and the belief which are distinct from opinion of the majority, therefore a base principle of coexistence and development is the tolerance principle.

In the USA formation officially embodies the requirement to bring up young generation «in traditions of dominating culture, to help it with mastering of the ways of interpretation of the natural and social phenomena developed by these society» [33, with. 29]. However the psychologist specifies and that the school is capable to form consciousness at each pupil, own sights and opinions on the phenomena of environment and the mission in the world. Hence, formation, except a role of the tutor, realises also certain model of the world.

J. Bruner will allocate as special function of formation «in every possible way to develop linguistic competence of pupils» [In the same place. With. 34]. Therefore it is necessary for ideal teacher to bring up attentive, thoughtful judgement of language which will help pupils to improve and enrich informative abilities; to pay attention of a reflexion which acts basic making any progressive education system.

The major principle of the organisation of educational activity, according to supporters of cultural psychology, consists that it is necessary to organise educational process in joint activity in which the ideal teacher works as "conductor" [In the same place. With. 37]. Educational activity in which children study each other, in dialogue of adherents has the greatest effect. As marks J. Bruner, «joint activity leads to development of certain unity of representations and estimations» [In the same place. With. 38].

The school education always makes all-round impact on the pupil. At school the pupil to study to communicate, defend the point of view, to be the full member of collective. One of the most important and necessary abilities of the person is «ability competently to build the interpersonal relations» [In the same place. With. 42]. The ideal teacher helps children to adjust good relations among themselves, learns correctly to communicate. Pupils who comfortably feel in

To 137 school, with pleasure communicate with schoolmates, have more chances well to study and have an adequate self-estimation. Teachers should work strongly to provide to pupils comfortable conditions of study. «No education system, any pedagogical theory, any educational policy can execute the mission if will not give due attention to a problem of formation at schoolboys of a positive self-estimation» [33, with. 56]. Thus, one of the main tasks of the ideal teacher - to form a positive and adequate self-estimation of pupils.

J. Bruner notices, that during a globalisation epoch when free moving of people on a measure is faster the ordinary, rather than something especial, before school teachers (and American among them) it is necessary to make a problem special efforts «on active integration of children from various cultures» [In the same place. With. 59]. Recommendations of the psychologist are reduced to that the school teacher has mastered formation tools narrativnyh abilities and has helped pupils to overcome difficulties with occurrence in other culture. Literature studying, judgement read and the material analysis, is the most valuable source of necessary representations about the world and various cultures. Thus, we can conclude, that well prepared teachers of the literature are conductors of children, natives of different cultures, in polycultural society.

Narrativ, differently subjective interpretation of a certain aspect of the world, introduces senses in events, the phenomena and the validity facts. For the teacher it is important to pay sufficient attention to questions of judgement pupils of the validity, therefore J. Bruner insists on inclusion narrativa in much aspects of educational activity, namely: « Reading, the analysis, the composition, discussion, reflexion »[33, with. 60]. All education system, including school education, has the purpose to help youth to find the niche in cultural society and not to test discomfort. The ideal school teacher, according to J. Brunera, is able to generate a polybroad gull with pupils in which individual, original conclusions are sounded, new valuable ideas can be generated, inconsistent statements are critically analyzed. In such dialogue pupils get a habit to think, find the decision independently and to operate with confidence in tomorrow. The school, by means of teachers, should carry out difficult enough problem, more likely

138 abstract, it is rather than simple as a certain mechanism on transfer of knowledge, namely «to adapt culture for requirements of people and to prepare people for performance of useful social functions» [33, with. 62]. To one of productive ways of training is such when the teacher «does not offer the pupil of the ready decision, and brings it gradually to independent opening of the general rule» [In the same place. With. 65].

J. Bruner allocates eksternalnye and internalnye training theories. eksternalnye theories in the course of formation take away the leading part to the teacher. The traditional pedagogical psychology long time developed in this channel. Internalnye theories in the head of a corner put activity of the pupil and those ideas which at it arise concerning training process. The important problem of the teacher consists in that «to consider these subjective factors, accordingly having constructed and process of training» [In the same place. With. 85]. eksternalnye theories consider pupils as mainly as object of training and education. The position of the teacher appears in this case in many respects similar to a position of the biologist-researcher or the tamer of wild animals.

The modern science formation was switched to the child who is the subject of knowledge, instead of by object of pedagogical manipulations. It is necessary to develop such theory of intelligence which would help to solve non-standard, creatively problems and to generate optimum and productive methods of work. The modern theory of training should recognise importance and teaching material selection, and the account of that context in which frameworks there passes its mastering.

For today the most effective mechanism of training at school is presented the cooperation principle is. The school, being guided by this principle, can easily solve a problem of adequate division of functions between various participants of pedagogical process. J. Bruner notices, that «the problem of a finding of balance between an individualization of obrazovatelno-educational process and maintenance of steady advance of each pupil dares by principle realisation« from everyone on abilities ». At such approach the rule operates: if you have succeeded in any approach, help with it to the companions» [In the same place. With. 106]. J. Bruner supports creation of conditions of training in which school teachers can acquaint pupils with structure of a modern society as in it it is necessary to conduct itself, and the main thing to allow children «to do

Corresponding conclusions »[33, with. 106]. The psychologist acts with criticism of the teacher as the subject of educational process and recognises, that only from an active and benevolent position of the teacher it is possible to reach successes in proceeding school reform. The ideal school teacher is thought by the scientist not as usual« urokodatel », and the friend, the assistant, the instructor and the adviser. Convinced that the main mission of formation consists in simplification of access to the culture world, J. Bruner sees the school teacher« the spiritual pastor of youth »[In the same place. With. 108]. Perfection of the maintenance of school education can occur only under condition of increase of pedagogical skill of teachers.« To the teacher in general

The key role in any collective efforts directed on perfection of an education system belongs. Teachers here should act as engines of changes »[In the same place].

After publication in 1983 of the report «A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform» as the main originators of unsatisfactory results of school education teachers who criticised for incompetence, interest in material benefit have acted. In the report maintenance the role of the school teacher which can replace in many respects the computer, but, according to J has been reconsidered. Brunera, «as a result we have pushed away from ourselves the basic our potential allies» [In the same place. With. 109]. The scientist demands to reconsider the relation to the teacher, to its role both in school system, and in a society.

The teacher, according to J. Brunera, should understand, that is useless to train the child in is abstract-conceptual thinking means of formal, logic explanations. The matter is that the internal structure of logic is difficult and inaccessible to a way of thinking of the child. J. Bruner with disappointment notices, that mathematics teaching in average is under construction on formal, logic statements of a material, and the child learn to application of schemes and receptions, not giving sufficient concept about their sense, interrelation of many phenomena, disregarding ways of thinking of the child of certain age. Differently, if the teacher at early stages of training acquainted the pupil with difficult concepts at level accessible to it the child in the future would be intellectually ready to understanding of deep sense of principles of mathematics. What methodical receptions the teacher for achievement of the important purposes of teaching can use? J. Bruner on the first place puts ability to put
Questions of average degree the difficulties stimulating the child to movement from one stage of intellectual development to the following, thereby promoting the best understanding, for example, principles of mathematics or base linguistic, philosophical concepts.

Results of the spent J. Brunerom together with B.Inelder of researches thoughts on possibility of working out of methods of the training have led, allowing to present to pupils the basic scientific concepts and data from mathematics much earlier, than it is provided by the curriculum. The curriculum should be guided by those problems and the values, which knowledge the given society considers necessary for the members. As criterion for an estimation of this or that theme of J. Bruner suggests to use the following: « Whether this theme if it to develop completely, that it was known by the adult person is worthy; whether it promotes increase of moral qualities of the adult person, being acquired since the childhood »[32, with. 374]. If the answer to the brought attention to the question is negative or neoredistributed, J. Bruner considers, that the given material will block up only the program. Features of the concept of J. Brunera and B.Ineldera with reference to area of search of an ideal of the school teacher have intrinsic installations of a direction of rationalism in formation as are directed on practical application of all received knowledge to lives and understanding of their importance for the cultural person.

In the book «training Process» J. Bruner gives recommendations to school teachers for successful realisation of pedagogical activity by them. Teachers and developers of curriculums should develop in details methodical grants in which it is necessary to consider the tasks promoting development of internal educational motivation, to acceleration of understanding of difficult concepts, successful mastering by a subject. One of the most effective ways of prompting of the pupil to overcoming of difficulties of a teaching material, according to J. Brunera is a call to test of own forces.

Proceeding from changes in economy and technology of J. Bruner formulates four problems of updating of school, first of which mentions a question to that to learn. The second problem is connected with a word meaning "curriculum" (curriculum). For any knowledge or ability the corresponding form of its presentation can be found in any age. The subsequent deepening and enrichment of this initial understanding
Becomes a source of the award of intellectual efforts [See 225].

The third problem concerns a question on changes (change). Efficient control arising changes is impossible without development in pupils of so-called "meta language" or "metaability", under which J. Bruner understands the certain general abilities underlying knowledge of an external world, and a certain general language (for example, to the mathematician) to which can express all phenomena of a life.

For development of powers of thinking of pupils the ideal teacher should stimulate their natural internal curiosity and desire to learn the new. J. Bruner names four internal motives: curiosity, competence, motive of identification, motive of interaction. Curiosity, being in the early childhood primitive enough, argues J. Bruner, further gradually gets more and more difficult character when to the pupil like not only games with material objects, but also with ideas, concepts and questions.

Competence. The desire is good to understand this or that subject at children is shown differently. To reach new level of understanding the pupil it is necessary to acquire well previous materil, and new problems demand mastering by more difficult knowledge and, thus, stimulate pupils to move forward.

Motive of identification in treatment of J. Brunera it is connected with aspiration of the pupil «to model itself and the claims on other person» [225, the river 122]. If the sample for imitation possesses a bouquet of merits and the child manages to come nearer to this ideal, it receives huge pleasure and raises the self-estimation. Identification can be shown and concerning the whole social group of people. In quality «competence models» can act parents, training the child to language. Dialogue with parents promotes development in the child of some the productive skills allowing him to create and correct the offers [Ibid. P. 123]. At a substantiation of motive of identification, J. Bruner advises to teachers to act as "competence model» for the pupils. In the given context of J. Bruner so defines a role of the teacher: « The teacher to become effective model of competence, should be the daily working model from which it is possible to co-operate. It should become not so much sample for imitation, how many the participant of internal dialogue of the pupil with someone, whose respect is necessary for it, he wishes to make whose standards own »[Ibid. P.

124]. The given thought on the teacher as «competence models» confirms importance of that pupils co-operated with highly skilled teachers. It is especially important at younger school age when the teacher transfers the relation not only to a separate subject, but also to the doctrine.

J. Bruner marks importance for teachers to develop at pupils intuitive thinking as the traditional school education does not provide it. Besides, psychologists should carry out the researches which results could be used for drawing up of useful recommendations for teachers and methodologists on development of intuitive thinking of schoolboys. Efficiency of educational process in many respects depends and on the decision of the problem, concerning selection of a teaching material which makes school education maintenances. Accentuation of J. Brunerom problems of intellectual development of pupils has denied principles of pedagogics of a pragmatism on which basis during half a century work of the American school and preparation of teachers was under construction.

Progressiveness of pedagogical sights of J. Brunera, concerning main functions of formation consists, first of all, in a recognition of importance of intellectual development of the child, development at pupils of the conscious approach to received knowledge, developments of intuitive thinking, construction of educational process on a problem principle (use of a method of "opening"), giving a powerful impulse to awakening of "thirst of knowledge». The domestic researcher of pedagogical heritage Dzheroma Brunera I.S.Bessarabova notices, that «subjecting to criticism uzkoutilitarnyj character of the purposes of school education, J. Bruner proclaims a formation overall objective - development of intellectual forces of pupils, formation of deep and strong modern scientific knowledge» [23].

About what there lives the American school, and what problems rise before school teachers daily, known American teacher Adam Dreer reflects. In 1979 it has published the book «Problems in Middle And High School Teaching» in which the researcher has described the basic problems which all beginning teachers face, and ways of their overcoming. All questions and the problems mentioned in the book, do not lose the urgency and today. A.Dreer gives a lot of attention to requirements and qualities of the ideal school teacher which help to organise correctly educational process and to avoid

143 widespread errors which are made by young experts in the first years of teaching at schools. Our interest to A.Dreera's book is connected with the major qualities of the ideal school teacher allowing it effectively to teach.

What individual qualities of the teacher can be the reasons of failures in pedagogical activity of the teacher? Adam Dreer names the voice training, unduly complicated dictionary, communicative errors, bad habits, neglect personal hygiene, feeling of the step, insufficient knowledge of pupils, excessive hobby for an individual approach, a professional etiquette, malignancy of the negative approach to pupils, emotional self-checking. [See 64, with. 26-33]. The ideal teacher constantly works over itself, develops in itself better qualities.

It is necessary for teacher to work over the voice, its timbre, to regulate loudness, if necessary to take oratory lessons. The main thing that the teacher realised, that through verbal dialogue occurs the teaching most part, and the pleasant, convincing voice of the teacher is capable to do the present miracles. The trades connected with close dialogue (the journalist, the actor, the teacher, the singer, the announcer, etc.) show increased requirements to speech and a voice, therefore an unpleasant timbre or kartavost speeches should be the main obstacles in a way to the selected trade. The ideal school teacher is the standard of beautiful speech and a pleasant voice. Unduly complicated dictionary of the teacher prevents to understand correctly the pupil a teaching material. At the same time primitiveness of lexicon of the teacher also negatively affects development of speech of schoolboys. The optimum balance of lexicon, an explanation of difficult terms and concepts promotes successful study of schoolboys.

The insufficient knowledge of pupils prevents to open to the teacher in the wards potential possibilities of development. Therefore supervision over pupils, storing of their names and surnames will help the young teacher to gain authority on a class and to adjust friendly and productive relations. In the American science about formation a lot of attention is given individual to the approach to pupils, however individual work with the separate pupil can occupy a lot of time from the teacher, thus other schoolboys will feel a lack of due attention

To their person. The given problem can be solved correct distribution of time for work with each pupil.

The awareness of the teacher in professional etiquette questions will not allow it to be familiar or «to pass ‘ for a cracker ’» [64, with. 32]. At the same time, successful work of the teacher is influenced also by conditions in which the teacher carries out the pedagogical activity. Cleanliness and an order in an educational premise, good illumination, comfortable temperature and good ventilation, presence of a qualitative distributing material and accurate system of its storage and distribution are good conditions of qualitative work of the teacher.

At lessons the young teacher can have problems with discipline. The reasons of the given problems can be the following. The teacher has not designated accurate rules and norms of behaviour of pupils, and also system of encouragements and punishments. Knowledge in the field of a technique of work with a class and systems of maintenance of discipline can not suffice the teacher. Problems with discipline can proceed long enough if the teacher himself does not carry out the accepted rules and norms of behaviour, especially, if does not punish pupils for infringement of class rules.

The young teacher is inclined with value judgment of activity of the pupils or change of already exposed estimations, that negatively affects the relation to pupils and causes weight of disputes.

On purpose to avoid many problems and negative situations in the future many teachers should show consideration for studying of the pedagogical theory. A.Dreer regretfully notices, that in practice of the teacher forget the theory and are guided exclusively by the pedagogical experience. Nevertheless, many major problems of pedagogics are reflected for a long time in great pedagogical theories of known philosophers and psychologists and teachers. Therefore the ideal teacher understands importance of studying of the is professional-pedagogical literature and researches of a development of education as they help to raise efficiency of the activity.

One more problem of the young teacher at school is the motivation, to be exact ways of increase of educational motivation of pupils. For creation of corresponding motivation the teacher uses various methods and receptions. A.Dreer recommends to teachers to explain accurately the purposes of employment, and also «to be the enthusiast of the subject» [64, with. 100] to work over value of a studied material, its importance in a life

145 children to develop correct rate of a lesson for each class, to use bright bright examples from a life, to change a training technique, to remember approval and encouragement of pupils, to stir up informative activity, using internal motivational resources of the person and psychological features of teenagers. The command kinds of work organised by the teacher help development of educational motivation of schoolboys. «Within the precincts of the American school individual or group rivalry is in every possible way encouraged. In it finds the reflexion spirit of the competitive struggle inherent in the American way of life» [64, with. 107].

In a class environment the teacher should solve emotional problems of pupils, psychoses and neurosises. In such situations the ideal teacher should not only possess knowledge of feature of mentality of teenagers, but also apply correct behavioural steps. First, it is impossible to do hasty conclusions. Some pause and supervision allows to understand a source of problems and to choose adequate mechanisms of the permission of a problem. Secondly, the reference to additional sources of the information, direct talk carrying out, objectivity of estimations helps to find correct variants of an exit from a problem situation.

Various structure of pupils of the American schools including pupils with specific features, with physical defects and the mental faculties presented with schoolboys, etc. demands from the teacher of special knowledge and work techniques. The ideal school teacher is ready to meet in the class of absolutely different children, and he is able to find the correct approach to the person of everyone as it possesses the best personal and professional qualities.

Along with existing theories of formation the philosophical direction "neotomizm", an event on behalf of Catholic priest Fomy (Tomy) Akvinsky (1225-1274) especially is allocated. neotomisty do not deny presence of an objective reality, but connect it with the Divine will. The life on the earth is under influence of "Divine reason». The theology allows to touch the higher, absolute knowledge. The essence of life, in opinion neotomistov, is inexplicable from the scientific point of view. The knowledge of this essence can be carried out only addressing to the god. Zealous adherents neotomizma - Z.Mariten, U.Kannimgam, U.Mahgagen, M.Kazotti and R.Hatchinz, M.Adler, etc.

The main ideas of pedagogics neotomizma are under construction around «the double nature»

146 persons. The person unites spiritual and material components. From especially scientific, objective point of view it is difficult to allocate the true purposes of education. Thus religious doctrines can introduce additional knowledge of mission of the person and sense of his life. neotomisty allocate a spiritual component of education from all other educational purposes. What virtues, according to followers neotomizma, should stand in priorities in education questions? Kindness, ideas of humanism, truthfulness, love to near, altruistic to self-sacrifice and some other.

The American followers of ideas neotomizma Robert Hatchinz, Mortimer Adler after Jacque Maritenom have enriched pedagogical thought of the USA with valuable positions which partially resisted to the settled pragmatical pedagogics. It is necessary to allocate educational program perennialistov, partially dividing ideas neotomistov. Over the given direction in the the president of the Chicago university R.Hatchinz supervised. Robert Hatchinz (1899-1977) with rigid criticism responded about an American education of the middle of the XX-th century. The pedagogics of a pragmatism with its accurately fixed set of practical knowledge to the detriment of the classical academic subjects, comprehensively developing the person of the child has undergone to criticism. The orientation on practicalness and empiricism practically has not left a place to intellectual development of the child, to ability development to think. As a call to existing school programs of the River Hatchinz proves the vision of the general education which main task is development of a mental potential of the person, first of all, fastening of mental skills. R.Hatchinz aspires to formulate eternal values, ideals and the major knowledge which has been saved up by mankind which would become the prepotent maintenance of training. Eternal, not passing universal values, trues are described in great books of all times and, according to R.Hatchinza, they are accessible to people and accompany them throughout all history of mankind. Studying of these great products should become the main task of educational institutions. R.Hatchinz also urges to study grammar which will help to read, understand and make comments on great books, Latin and Greek languages, rhetoric, logic and mathematics. The logician and the mathematician not only develop mind and serve as means of the decision of concrete practical problems, but also help development of the logic and organised thinking.

Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), the adherent and the follower R.Hatchinza in questions of reforming of formation, has brought the contribution to development of mental abilities of people and has developed valuable managements for perfection of the ideal school teacher. M.Adler - the American scientist, the philosopher, the teacher, the expert in the field of arts education, with 1930 for 1952 worked at the Chicago university where in a tandem from R.Hatchinzom updated curriculums on purpose to enrich their maintenance with the major knowledge of humanitarian sphere. Both scientists worked on the edition of a 54-languid series of books under the name «Great Books of the Western World» (1945-1952). Each volume of this invaluable collection represented the product which has conceived influence on the western culture. Also it was «the editor-in-chief of 20-languid edition The Annals of America (1969). With 1974 for 1995 Mortimer Adler was the chairman of editorial council «Encyclopedia Britannika» and, since 15th edition (1974) has made together with R.Hatchinzom full audit of its maintenance »[See 3, with. 332]. Mortimer Adler has organised« two scientific institutes: in 1952 Institute of philosophical researches, and in 1990 together with Max Vajsmanom - the Center of studying of great ideas in Chicago »[In the same place. With. 332].

Interest Mortimera of Adler to pedagogical questions speaks that he has started to teach at university after the college termination. Still, being the undergraduate of the Colombian university of the USA, M.Adler visited course General Honors («the General course for honours pupils»). On this course listeners read and discussed the maintenance and senses of great books of all times and the people. Soon M.Adler has agreed to conduct that special course after the university termination. But teaching of this course has changed outlook Mortimera of Adler and has forced it to look in another way at an essence of teaching and questions of that understanding, on what wish to tell to the listeners.

M.Adlera's basic pedagogical and philosophical ideas are formulated in its books «How to Read a Book, And Guidance to Reading Great Books», 1966 (the Russian edition «How to read books. A management on reading of great products» (2011)); «How to Speak How to Listen», 1983 (to the Russian edition «Art to speak and listen», 2013) and «Six Great Ideas. Truth, Goodness, Beauty Ideas We Judge By Liberty, Equality, Justice Ideas We Act On», 1981 (the Russian edition «Six great ideas», 2015).

M.Adler criticises a school education system as at school do not learn to read books in a broad sense this word. At school pupils «stop movement» [3, with. 25]. He considers, what exactly the school education has made us «people, not able to read and receive from it advantage and pleasure» [In the same place. Adler repeatedly repeated, that process of reception of formation does not stop with leaving school or university. To accuse only school of we have received what formation, it is not absolutely correct. If the got education does not arrange someone, and «educational institutions remain such as today, one more diploma» [In the same place schools of the USA hardly will help there were changes in school programs when the important subjects became facultative, and minor left on the foreground. And there was it to introduction at schools of an independent choice of subjects pupils, and this process «has come to the end with excesses pedotsentrizma» [In the same place. With. 82].

M.Adler in the work «How to read books» explains the reasons of an inconsistency of the American schools and tries to give answers to questions as it is necessary to reform school education that it became effective; as it is necessary to prepare the school teachers, capable to realise reforms of formation and to improve quality of preparation of schoolboys. At schools, according to M.Adlera, badly learn children to write and speak. Why English language, being prepotent in programs of average both senior school and an obligatory subject in each American college so it is badly taught? Why teachers of colleges are compelled to repeat the program on English language at first though it should be mastered schoolboys in the senior classes of high school? M.Adler notices, that «examination works of these students in other subjects visually showed extremely clumsy and incoherent English language» [In the same place. With. 69]. As arguments the scientist cites data that many candidates for the doctor of sciences are not able to write the dissertation not because they badly understand the theme chosen by them that is why, that are not able to write simple, competent and clear English language. Also teachers of faculties of law cannot often define, whether their students understand jurisprudence questions, because of inability clearly to state thoughts on the set theme. So, the first reason of an inconsistency American (and whether only the American?) schools consists that in them badly develop written and oral speech of pupils.

The second reason of unsatisfactory school preparation is covered that «at school badly learn not only to write and speak, but also to read» [3, with. 70]. M.Adler considered, that in college of students automatically pump up knowledge, forgetting about the main task - comprehensively to develop the person. The success of a passing examinations here depends not on possession of a subject, and from the person of the instructor. The more a material from lectures and textbooks the student has gathered and it has thus appeared among favourites of the teacher, the is easier it will pass the examination. But thus it misses possibility of the development.

The third reason of an inconsistency of schools is connected with the standardised tests. Results of study are measured in the American schools by the system of testing accepted at the state level which checks, the pupil has how much succeeded in standard branches of knowledge, and it has reached what level of necessary skills. It is reading, arithmetics and the letter. Results of tests testify that is frequent graduates of the senior school «do not own practical skills and thus show catastrophic ignorance» [In the same place. With. 71]. M.Adler urges the public to focus attention to scarcity of abilities in the field of reading. Among tasks of testing is not present such which would estimate ability to read for the sake of understanding. M.Adler results argument that the average teenager almost in a condition to designate the main thought of the read fragment of the text or to define the key moments in discussion. It comes to conclusion, that development of the schoolboy stops at level of the pupil of the sixth class.

M.Adler considers, that at schools or other educational institutions of students should learn not be able to retell texts, but also to criticise, namely to distinguish true thoughts from the erroneous. Pupils should learn to prove own positions, gradually to come to conclusions, not to hurry up to do conclusions if there is no confidence. Unfortunately, as marks M.Adler, tests do not contain tasks for check of these abilities. M.Adler underlines necessity to distinguish two important things. «To have the information - means to know a certain fact. To understand - means to realise additional nuances: why so there is, what a communication with other facts, than they differ, in what coincide and so on» [In the same place. With. 45]. Long years at schools students read and read, concentrating the attention only on successfully to write examinations, tests and to pass examinations. They did not put to themselves a problem to compare a true plan of a work of art with

150 own opinion and practical experience.

«I am assured - the one who badly reads, cannot well read. Besides, very much I doubt, that not able to study it is capable to learn» [3, with. 51]. As art to study and art to learn are closely connected, that, according to M.Adlera, the teacher, the high school professor (by preparation of the text of the lectures) should count and visualise forthcoming process of training as a unit. «At least he should be able to read that itself writes, or to listen to that itself speaks so as if too studies on the same level with the students. If teachers are not able to study, they are doomed to failure» [In the same place. With. 70].

The fourth reason of an inconsistency of schools is cut that schools have lost humanitarian arts, namely: grammar, logic and rhetoric as «they operate our actions in the course of communications» [In the same place. With. 84]. M.Adler states idea about an effective education program: «If it was possible to list bases of a qualitative education program, I would tell, that the skills of communications doing people competent, - our priority

Duty in the conditions of a democratic society which directly depends on competent electorate »[In the same place. With. 81]. Further M.Adler specifies that« art of reading and a research technique - the basic tools of training and opening new. For this reason they should be a main objective of a reasonable education system »M.Adler urges to begin formation reform in an elementary school, and then cardinally to reconsider all system of training in a higher educational institution,« if we want, that by the moment of delivery of the bachelor's degree the student to the full owned art of reading and had taste to the qualitative literature »[In the same place. With. 89].

Thus M.Adler brings to thought that the ideal teacher should so to construct the activity to learn students to acquire knowledge, to interpret the received knowledge, to understand about what they read. It is impossible for itself to present certainly, any formation without reading of a considerable quantity of books. Only we often see, that some pupils at all do not understand that they study and about what they read. The reasons of this phenomenon a little. First, teachers do not own skills of analytical reading, and therefore they cannot learn to read and understand the wards texts and other sources. Secondly, in educational programs do not put a problem to develop in pupils germenevticheskie and

Analytical abilities. At least, it anywhere plainly is not registered. In - the third, pupils should have a proof motivation to acquisition of knowledge which will help them to be guided with a life, to find good work on their abilities and requirements, and also there should be a motivation constantly to be improved and develop. And that all it to reach, it is necessary to work over motivation of formation. Only motivirovannyj the teacher can bring up motivirovannyh pupils. Thus, all goes from the teacher and its person. To develop kontsept the ideal teacher it is necessary to consider many facts, and the main thing, it is necessary to know the purposes of formation, requirement of the given society. Without an accurate formulation of the purposes of formation it is impossible to imagine that ideal of the school teacher which will correspond to time and conditions.

What methods of training are the most productive for high schools? How the ideal teacher should plan the pedagogical activity, by what professional and personal qualities the good teacher should be allocated - all these questions are mentioned in M.Adlera's book «Art to speak and listen». The basic ideas of concept Mortimera of Adler concerning the ideal school teacher can be generalised in the form of following theses.

1. As the main tools of teaching of the teacher is an explanation of a material, carrying out of discussions and interrogation of pupils in various forms, first of all, it is necessary for ideal teacher to seize a technique of convincing speech and ability attentively to listen to the interlocutor.

2. The important quality of the ideal school teacher is ability to present the pupil the competent, professional teacher possessing corresponding character.

3. The sense of humour of the teacher not only gains pupils, but also serves as fine means of the beginning of discussion or introduction of a new material.

4. The ideal school teacher is able to motivate the pupils.

5. The ideal school teacher - the master of the argument and a substantiation of any concepts.

6. The convincing argument of the teacher is often accompanied by rhetorical questions which, being «formulated in such a manner that the answer looks unequivocal for listeners. In this sense they remind the lowered preconditions
In the reduced proofs which can to be mentioned as standard »[4, with. 51].

7. During lessons-lectures the ideal school teacher aspires «to keep constantly attention of an audience» [4, with. 57]. For this purpose he tries so to organise the lecture that pupils easily watched a train of thought of the teacher, easily remembered a new material, therefore a lesson-explanation is under construction consistently, logically, from one point to another.

8. The ideal school teacher knows, that efficiency of its lesson depends and on discussion of pupils on the passed material, active discussion of a theme by questions and answers.

9. On a practical training the ideal school teacher uses the artistic abilities which help pupils to be involved in process completely.

10. Emotional force distinguishes the ideal school teacher from the average teacher.

11. At an explanation of abstract concepts, difficult concepts the ideal school teacher resorts to additional auxiliary means: uses possibilities of the voice, movement of hands, heads, moderate gesticulation; puts special energy in words, uses a rich lexicon and beautiful speech, etc.

12. The ideal school teacher understands, that repetitions of important points is necessary at an explanation of a new material, and thus tries to give the same thought in the different ways, strengthening its influence on pupils. The ideal teacher knows, that «behind the careful and developed argument which is often necessary, the short resume - the reduced statement of the basic thought in several short and effective offers» [In the same place should follow. With. 65].

13. The major quality of the ideal school teacher - ability attentively silently to listen to the pupil (or other interlocutor). Unfortunately, many teachers (especially extroverts) sin with that, having asked a question, do not give to the pupil of sufficient time for the answer, interrupt it, force down from thought. As a result the pupil loses a course of own thoughts, becomes silent and is upset.

Special interest from a position of search of the ideal American school teacher
Represents one more product Mortimera of Adler «Six great ideas» (2015) in which the major postulates which mankind throughout all history passes check by time contain, are exposed to criticism, are challenged, but leave nobody indifferent. Eternal ideas, according to Adler represent «an original universal lexicon of sights» [5, with. 15]. How the major concepts equality, freedom, justice, true, the blessing and beauty adjoin to the theory and formation practice? For the answer to this question it is necessary to specify, why Mortimer Adler has chosen these six ideas. First, they are mentioned in the Independence Declaration (from July, 4th, 1776), behind an exception kontsepta "beauty". Secondly, in a preamble of the Constitution of the USA (from September, 17th, 1787) objects in view of the state which coincide with the chosen ideas, namely «a justice and public order guarantee, general welfare and freedom maintenance; thus the concept« well-being »again demands from us understanding of idea of the blessing» [In the same place. With. 34]. We will consider, how the listed ideas are realised in educational process.

- Equality corresponds with equality of educational possibilities of the child; the ideal school teacher tries to keep with pupils on equal, it concerns the pupil as to the subject of educational process;

- Freedom assumes as well a free choice of educational institution, a trade, the destiny;

- Justice - one of the major qualities of the ideal school teacher who assumes the fair relation to pupils, to otsenivaniju their academic successes, etc.;

«The understanding of these three great ideas shines to us a way to many other things to philosophical concepts, namely: the citizen, the constitution, democracy, a family, board, the law, development, slavery, the state, tyranny, violence, war and peace, well-being» [In the same place. With. 37].

- The true, to be exact true search is one of problems of the ideal school teacher at training of teenagers. The joint intellectual activity constructed on principles of cooperation, respect of another's opinion allows the teacher and pupils to come nearer to an essence of things, to find true, to comprehend experience, imagination, language, memory religion, etc.;

- The blessing. Formation in itself is the blessing for the person, helping it to learn the world and itself. Knowledge, the understanding of concepts and ideas brings the big advantage for the person, giving to it possibility to find the place in the world to benefit a society, to provide itself in the material and spiritual plan;

- The beauty is necessary for the person. World contemplation, admiration of beauty of the nature, aspiration to the fine improves the person, promotes its aesthetic education. The aspiration to beauty external and internal is value of the person. The ideal school teacher helps children to see beauty in many things, and the main thing imparts taste to beautiful, to harmony, to internal beauty of the person.

«Having passed from sphere of true of the blessing to idea of beauty, we should add only, that formation leads to formation of good taste which allows to take pleasure in objects, worthy admiration» [5, with. 129]. We should understand, and first of all the teacher, that beauty - subjective kontsept, and it depends on culture, education of the person, and even its temperament. Representatives of various cultural traditions have different opinions that they consider beautiful.

Unfortunately, the described ideas not always are realised in practice. Equality of educational possibilities is not realised till now in practice, but widely declared in mass media and in documents of standard character. Thus to a quality education all American teenagers have access far not. The USA which have proclaimed with the democratic state and not one hundred of years standing up for personal freedom, a freedom in choosing, a freedom of speech, freedom of possibilities for each citizen of the country, often break the principles, and the person, freely expressed the opinion, can easily get into prison. Understanding and realising importance and eternity of the presented ideas, the ideal school teacher will always follow them, to open their values, the intrinsic maintenance in student teaching.

Among visible researchers of the American school the special place is occupied with Filip Jackson (1929-2015). The honourable professor of the Chicago university investigated the American school as it has begun a habitat, the supervision of school in 1955 and has finished in 2014 before the death. Within long years F.Dzhekson observed, being in classes, behind activity of teachers and pupils,

155 spent timing, talked to teachers. As a result F.Jackson has saved up the huge data file allowing it to draw conclusions that actually occurs in a class how the analysis of the received data can improve quality of teaching, and will give answers to questions on how teachers can consult is better with the classes. The first edition of the book of F.Jackson «the Life in a class» in English was published in 1968, Russian book versions has appeared more recently, in 2016. We will consider F.Jackson's conclusions concerning a school role in a society and the person of the ideal American school teacher.

F.Jackson has noticed, that «teachers, as well as parents, seldom reflect on the importance of thousand events which in aggregate form life routine in a class» [58, with. 26]. The professor has allocated three basic characteristics of school is «crowd, a praise and the power» [In the same place. With. 34]. We will consider influence of school, its environment on pupils and teachers.

School influence on pupils

Children who in a random way have got to an average class, are compelled to study many years in it, and also to study «to live in crowd» [In the same place]. As a matter of fact, the child studies to live in collective, to get on with different people, to find the place in a society. As F.Jackson fairly notices, since a kindergarten and continuing to go to school «the child studies in that the life generally is connected with an accessory to corporation» [In the same place. With. 69]. Besides, children at school constantly estimate. Therefore each child wishes to receive a praise. Years of stay in an educational institution force children to adapt for school atmosphere and lead to understanding of that any activity, acts, statements are constantly estimated by schoolmates and teachers. «The power at school it is valid

Belongs to teachers in the sense that the event depends on them in bolshej degrees in a class. And such sharp distinction in statuses - one more feature of a school life from which schoolboys should learn to consult »[In the same place. With. 35]. Institutsionalnye rules of school demand from pupils of submission and following to rules. The society requires workers who will carry out the functions and will obey to the heads. If children can adapt for the power of the teacher at school they become good and exemplary pupils. Advantage of the given adaptation consists that the future employees will reckon with the power, with the heads, with

156 ease will change a work place, knowing key rules of chiefs and subordinates. Lacks of the given adaptation contradicts democratic ideals. The pupil is in rare instances capable to express the opinion, is distinct from opinions of the majority and adults, and thus to oppose itself to teachers.

F.Jackson has noticed, that pupils spend a lot of time in expectation of the next kind of educational activity. It can be formings in turn during change, before a lunch break, before drinking fontanchikami, etc. Expectations pursue children constantly. Fast pupils expect, while their slow schoolmates will finish exercise performance or while others will answer questions of the teacher. The pupils who have lifted hands, expect, when to them will pay attention and will ask. F.Jackson has come to conclusion, that «four not recognised features of a school life are expectation, refusal from wished, interruption of interest and social destruktsija» [58, with. 43]. Pupils sharply feel an inequality in a class, and they should get used to it. They sharply realise the power of adults, and understand, that they need to learn «to accept orders from adults who not too well know them and with anybody closely are not connected. For the first time in a life of the child the power over them allocates person a little familiar to it »[In the same place. With. 59]. The estimation of stay of pupils at school is connected with those feelings with which they come to school, with successes or failures in study, with mutual relations in a class, with the relation to teachers and the teacher to them, etc. F.Jackson allocates average answers of children concerning their relation to school. Among answers it is found the following: boredom; indifference; the school is pleasant more likely, than it is not pleasant; the school is necessary, because the school education will help them with the future. Girls, unlike boys, appear happier with a school life. Boys do not show enthusiasm at answers to questions on school. The relation of children to teachers, as a whole, the satisfactory. Interpretation of answers of schoolboys has allowed F.Jackson to come to conclusion, that« at school it is good, but could be and it is better »[In the same place. With. 92]. The majority of pupils admitted, that feel fear to fail on total testing.

School influence on teachers

Work of the teacher in a class is connected with set of kinds of activity. F.Jackson, for example, has noticed, that the teacher of initial classes daily enters more than 1000 interpersonal interactions. In what principal views of activity it is included

157 teacher? The researcher marks high speed of actions of the teacher and, as a rule, high speed of reaction to set razdrazhitelej. F.Jackson compares the teacher with «the dispatcher who operates dialogue in a class» [58, with. 36]. The teacher is a lot of time spends for distribution of teaching materials or other resources of a class. Also work of the teacher includes distribution of duties among pupils of its class. Time which has been taken away on a concrete lesson, and problems of a lesson demands from the teacher of accurate planning. The teacher solves what is the time will be spent for performance of this or that task and watches regulations observance. The teacher also is engaged in various kinds of the control of activity of schoolboys.

Researches of school by F.Jackson from within has revealed the whole list of kinds of activity in which the teacher is absorbed all day long and of which strongly gets tired and to which researchers of school education do not pay the steadfast attention. The teacher uses the power, basically, for realisation of the purposes and training problems, to a lesser degree for restraint of undesirable behaviour of pupils. The ideal teacher is able so to construct the lessons, that all pupils appear involved in process and a discipline question does not rise on the first place. F.Jackson asserts, that «there are no more urgent educational purposes, than care of involving of the child in study» [In the same place. With. 125]. It is a lot of forces and energy the teacher spends for deduction of attention of pupils, on discipline maintenance in a class, on observance of rituals and performance of routine kinds of activity. Ambiguity and variability of behaviour of children at lessons demand from the teacher «constant pressure of forces and return» [In the same place. With. 127]. The teacher should carry out the visual, written control over activity of pupils, thus to combine all it with training. Most difficultly to the teacher to support motivation of children to study. If the teacher manages to keep the necessary level of motivation problems with an involvement, discipline, progress dare by itself. Besides, it is necessary for teacher of initial classes to learn to prevent excessive noise in a class. The ideal teacher realises importance of possession of administrative skills, knows and successfully applies in practice of strategy of management by a class.

«The teacher - not the compere interested in bewitching an audience, but also not the supervisor. At the teacher more worthy purpose - training for the sake of improvement of quality of a life of the pupils» [In the same place. With. 149]. The ideal teacher knows

The paramount problem - to learn, instead of to entertain the pupils, and in final, the account to learn them.

During research F.Jackson has revealed, that senior pupils are disturbed by a look of the teacher, and also its shouts and voice increase. Quite objectively, what not all teachers cause delight and admiration in pupils. Research has shown, that business not in a subject or a concrete teaching material, and in the teacher, in its person, in a manner to present a material and to communicate with children. The ideal teacher receives satisfaction from the work. One of sources of its satisfaction and pleasure from work performance are successes and progress of pupils. The main task of teachers of initial classes consists in learning small children to take pleasure in study. The ideal teacher always has a desire and conditions for improvisation, spontaneity, reasonable informal conversations and creativity.

Often best, ideal school teachers are instructors of the younger colleagues and willingly help them to adapt with school collective, successfully to work in a class. F.Jackson as a result of the research has spent interrogation of teachers about their vision of ideal model of relations "teacher-pupil" in which teachers would prefer to work in a class consisting of 20-25 pupils. One of teachers has noticed, that «if in a class there will be few pupils, enthusiasm» [58 will leave, with. 194]. F.Jackson at dialogue with teachers has noticed full absence in their speech of professional lexicon, has noticed, that their speech is simple, clear and expressive. Teachers give a lot of time to a teaching material explanation, at times very difficult. To present the most complicated material to the teacher it is necessary to think over, as in the accessible both clear form and a simple language to tell about difficult concepts and abstract concepts. Among demanded qualities of ideal school teacher F. Jackson has allocated tolerance, an emotionality and vigour. Teachers are distinguished by special outlook about which F.Jackson speaks as about «romantiko-idealistic and their sight at children, undoubtedly, idealistichen and gravitates to kvazimisticheskoj to belief in human ability of perfection» [In the same place. With. 204].

In F.Jackson's research two different aspects of work of the teacher «« interactive »(interactive) and« preaktivnyj "(preactive)" [In the same place are designated. With. 206]. Interactive training in the filled class is characterised by the raised

Activity of the teacher in which are inherent spontaneity, irrationality,

Unpredictability together with the accurate planned actions.

Preaktivnoe the training occurring in an empty class when the teacher sits at the table and is engaged in the analysis, planning of the lessons on which the certain time necessary for the further effective pedagogical activity leaves. F.Jackson specifies in a certain paradox concerning personal characteristics of teachers. On the one hand, rational teachers with their excellent ability to put pedagogical problems and to select adequate methods of their realisation, should approach school more than their irrational emotional colleagues. On the other hand, these irrational teachers from them «can make viscous sentimentality the work better, than army of experts in so-called human engineering» [58, with. 207]. To resist to the formal

institutsionalnoj the school life, not differing the rational approach to work and not always following certain rules and techniques in relations with pupils, the teacher «is capable to soften influence of impersonal establishment. Humanity of the teacher, whose behaviour izmenchivo also depends on mood, and also reminds something idealism of the boy scout, is contrast to the world the schedule, problems, tests and routine work» [In the same place].

F.Jackson concludes, that the ideal school teacher is not the present teacher, if it only an educational institution part. Teachers should develop and support in themselves the best human qualities which, as a rule, leave for official frameworks of its official duties. Unfortunately, not all teachers understand it.

Interpretation of the book of Filipa Jackson «the Life in a class» allows to reveal features of the ideal American school teacher. So, the ideal teacher understands importance of planning and statement of the purposes of training, however can depart from the plan if it is required to comment on a serious error or to spend for the important discussion of more time, than the Main thing in focus of the ideal teacher - the pupil, its achievements, successes has been planned etc., therefore the teacher all means promotes development of the child. The ideal teacher appreciates process of training more, than result as in process it is unpredictable, full of surprises, improvisations, deviations from accurate instructions, but live, active,
The present. The teacher tries to choose those methods and procedures which in the shortest way can lead to the planned results. Therefore at the good teacher as much as possible accurately the lesson purposes also are particularly registered. Besides, the ideal school teacher has criteria on which it defines, how much it and pupils have come nearer to the purposes. It appreciates time and tries to use it with peak efficiency. Actions of the ideal school teacher are defined «more by intuition, than reason, but he considers and feels, that uses the most suitable decision in the given situation» [58, with. 222]. The ideal teacher works over style of the teaching, understanding, it is how much important to gain pupils. The good teacher critically concerns various pedagogical theories as understands, that only some of them can bring real advantage in teaching. Dynamism of daily work of the teacher does not leave a free time to go deep into studying of the theories which have been often torn off from real practice. Uniqueness of a problem of the teacher consists in learning the wards to co-operate with their social, ideological and physical environment. Accordingly it «in bolshej degrees, than the psychiatrist is anxious by skills of human dialogue» [In the same place. With. 227].

The ideal of the American school teacher is accurately traced in the concept of types of person Myers-Briggs where psychological qualities of the teacher are mainly analyzed.

The typology Myers-Briggs is based on many works of Swiss psychiatrist Charles Gustav Junga, especially on its research «Psychological types», for the first time published in 1921 and repeatedly republished all over the world. The scientist has proved idea that the behaviour of the person as a whole predictedly and can be structured and resulted in system. K.G. Ship's boys asserted, that the differentiation of behaviour speaks the various preferences which are distinctive lines of each individual person. Preferences influence our actions, relations to people, work etc. Ship's boys were not lonely in search of criteria for classification of behaviour of people. Interest to the specified problem was shown also by two Americans who did not have diplomas in the field of psychology of the person.

Katarina Briggs in the beginning of the XX-th century irrespective of the Swiss psychiatrist has started to develop classification of people, analyzing their usual behaviour and a way of life.

After an exit of work the Ship's boy «Psychological types» in English, K.Briggs has suspended work on the classification and the beginnings in detail to study the concept of the Swiss scientist. Together with the daughter, Izabel Briggs Myers, K.Briggs within the thirtieth years of XX century tried to improve the methods of studying of types of the person offered K.G.Jungom. Being pragmatically adjusted, Americans wished to describe clearly, precisely and extremely simply criteria, on which they built the classification to have the unique and simple tool of definition of types of the person of people, to describe probable types of mutual relations of different types of the person with each other. The overall objective has been reached - I.Briggs and K.Briggs have created the tool which explained individual distinctions of people in accurate, scientific formulations. The Indicator of types Myers-Briggs »(MBTI) has been as a result published«. The main output of research Myers-Briggs consisted that experts and inhabitants had an opportunity to define the type of the person from 16 possible variants (the quantity of types of the person has been deduced from typology the Ship's boy), advantages and lacks of the psychotype and to learn mechanisms of productive interaction of various types of the person. One of missions «the Indicator...» Was to reveal those trades in which the person of certain type of the person in the best way realises itself and will be the valuable employee for a certain field of activity. Some decades In the USA at employment of employees experts of a staff department test competitors for certain posts, using «the Indicator of types Myers-Briggs» (MBTI). The given testing helps to find the best candidates on vacant posts.

For the answer to a question that represents an ideal of the school teacher from positions of the American typology of types of the person, it is necessary to specify is very short criteria which make a classification basis. Thus we will make the reservation that the ideal school teacher can belong to any type of the person; each person is in own way unique and unique. However, special interest represents the analysis of criteria on which it is possible to allocate a certain ideal - the standard of the school teacher both for a cycle of the exact sciences, and for a cycle humanitarian.

We name and will decipher abbreviations which will be used at the description of types of the person, and further we will give them the short characteristic.

E - Extraverted - the extrovert; I - Introverted - the introvert; S - Sensing - sensorik; N
- Intuition - intuitik; T - Thinking - thinking or logic type; further under the text - the logician. F - Feeling - feeling or emotional type; further under the text - emotional. J - Judging - solving or rational type; further under the text - ratsional. P - Perceiving - perceiving or irrational type; further under the text - irratsional.

The first characteristic: the Extrovert or the Introvert (English E - I). The main characteristic lines of these types the following. The extrovert - is charged by energy, being with other people; like to be the focus of attention; are more inclined to actions, than reflexions; often think aloud; are inclined to speak more, than to listen to others; easily share the personal information; communicate with enthusiasm; answer quickly, not reflecting; prefer to develop at width, instead of depth.

The introvert - fills the spent energy in silence and loneliness; avoids more often to be the focus of attention; at first thinks, and then does; it seems closed, stores another's secrets, shares the personal information only with several people to whom trusts; is not inclined to show enthusiasm in dialogue; to answer the brought attention to the question requires some time for considering; prefers to develop in depth, instead of width.

The second characteristic: Sensorik or Intuitik (English S - N). Sensorik - trusts accurate, concrete real things; loves new ideas only when they have practical application; appreciates realism and common sense; likes to use and improve the got skills; is inclined to be exact and literal; gives detailed descriptions; represents the information consistently, step by step; it is focused on the present.

Intuitik - trusts inspiration and the assumption; loves new ideas and concepts in itself; appreciates imagination and innovations; likes to get new skills, tests boredom after will master skills; is inclined to give generalisations and to be expressed figuratively, often uses metaphors and analogies; represents the information inconsistently, in an allegoric manner; it is focused on the future.

The third characteristic: the Logician or Emotional type (English T - F). The logician - is inclined to the impartial analysis of problems; appreciates logic, justice, honesty; uses one standard for all; easily sees lacks, defects, to be inclined
The critical; can seem heartless, insensible and indifferent; that feelings are proved believes if they give in to logic; motivirovan desire to reach something and to finish something.

The emotional type - takes into consideration influence of acts on others; appreciates empathy and harmony; sees an exception to the rules; it likes to do pleasant to people; easily shows gratitude and gratitude; can seem too emotional, illogical and weak; considers, that also it is important to be tactful, as well as truthful; believes, that any feelings take place to be, without dependence, they have common sense or not; motivirovan desire to be estimated.

The fourth characteristic: Ratsional or Irratsional (English J - P). Ratsional - it is happy, when decisions are accepted; observes working ethics - «has made business - walk safely» (if time allows); puts the purposes and all does to reach them by appointed time; prefers to know, where is and for what; it is focused on result (accent on problem end); receives satisfaction from end of projects; concerns time as to the limited resource and seriously concerns promptness of problems.

Irratsional - it is happy, when has a choice and it is not limited in a choice of problems; adheres to a principle - «enjoy now, and work will wait» (if time allows); changes the purposes if the new information becomes actual; likes to adapt for new situations; it is focused on process (places emphasis on how the problem will be finished); receives satisfaction from start of new projects; concerns time as to a filled resource and stretches terms of performance of problems. Now we will pass to the description of types of the person of the American teachers, we will reveal the best representatives of this trade and we will prove, why certain types are ideal teachers.

Teachers-logicians differ analytical mentality, objectivity and impartiality. They make of the decision on the basis of the reflexions. Teachers - of logic appreciate in children (and adults) logic, validity of answers and statements, justice, they are not inclined to mix the emotions with the purposes and consequences. As teachers-logicians supervise over a head, appreciate and search in all for the logic, common sense, love justice they more «are inclined to rigidity and inflexibility, can, that not having noticed, to hurt another» [72, with. 41]. The teacher the logician can
To chide the child, not giving in to superfluous emotions.

Teachers of emotional type are characterised by gratitude, an involvement and subjectivity. Unlike teachers-logicians emotional teachers make of the decision, being based on the feelings, in surrounding people they appreciate harmony, kindness and empathy. Feeling teachers easily define an emotional condition of children and try on it on itself. The emotional teacher supervises over heart, appreciates and searches in all for harmony, loves a praise and use any chance to praise others. Thus it is inclined to care of children, empathizes them, sometimes can perceive too close to heart events. If it is necessary for emotional type of the teacher to express negative remarks to the pupil, he will test sincere discomfort.

On system Myers-Briggs (MBTI) all population of the USA in 2000 has been distributed on 40 % of Logicians, and 60 % of Emotional types of the person. Thus among the female population - 24,5 % of types of the person of a logic warehouse of character and 75,5 % emotional. Among the man's population we find 56,5 % of Thinking and 43,5 % Feeling [See 213].

Intuitively-emotional (INFP, INFJ, ENFP, ENFJ) persons are considered «as inspired, natural teachers, and their rather big share chooses to itself this trade that allows them to take advantage of the abilities. They believe, that teaching represents process of disclosing of the person, they like to participate in this process» [191, c. 195]. Training, communications and education of schoolboys by teachers of intuitively-emotional type is characterised by close personal contact (for it function F a-emotionality answers). The majority of pupils reach for such teachers basically thanking their warm, attentive, sympathising manner of behaviour.

Teachers of intuitively-emotional character are inclined to specialise on teaching of such subjects, as languages, the literature, music, drama art. To this type the considerable quantity of psychologists and logopedists belongs. In them the deep understanding of these subjects is put by nature in pawn, and they with ease explain to their another, infecting pupils the enthusiasm. They encourage pupils to personal contact among themselves and often translate the relations with pupils on level personal, creating in a class warm, friendly atmosphere. The teacher of the such

165 types love, that at a lesson in work each present took part. They arrange class discussions where all can express, and start the small projects demanding the general work on them (F - the emotionality is the person of the teacher predominating for given type). Enthusiasm of the teacher and its fidelity to pupils takes away weight of energy and vital forces from the teacher, therefore teachers of the given type of the person often feel congestion as physically, and emotionally. Sometimes they simply incur a trouble of the pupil, feeling connected with it. Intuitively-emotional types consider formation by the important stage in a life and in every possible way promote personal development of children.

Teachers of intuitively-logic type (INTJ; INTP; ENTP; ENTJ) «pulls to higher education more, and we meet them mainly at universities and colleges, instead of in an elementary school» [191, with. 196]. It is not enough representatives of these types choose to itself teaching, and some chosen are compelled to leave this trade when understand that are not entered in system. As they highly appreciate mind and a science they are inclined to teaching of the exact and natural sciences, for example all kinds of mathematics. Prevalence of logic (T) easily explains this fact. Sometimes they can be met among teachers of languages and philosophy. «One of the reasons of shortage of teachers on the exact sciences in the USA is the small share of people with temperament of intuitively-logic type among the country population» [212, the river 35].

Intuitively-logic types do not love verbosity, therefore teachers of such temperament try to communicate with pupils and students, not pressing in excessive explanations. Personal dialogue with a class, an audience is often complicated. Especially difficult happens to come into contact to an audience at introverts - INTP and INTJ. Teachers - representatives of these types - «talk to a board», looking over goals of pupils or students. Thus these teachers are considered among colleagues and students as authoritative persons, as they very clever and betrayed to the science. From all kinds of the control they prefer the written. Dialogue with pupils often occurs through written contact. For pupils intuitivnoyologicheskogo type it is good, but often it seems to representatives of other types of the person, that the teacher goes forward too quickly and almost does not tell about details which are very important in understanding of a subject. Teachers of intuitively-logic type can conduct a class all further and further on road of knowledge, not having found out, and whether pupils are ready to it.

Teachers of the specified type usually support very high level and expect the same from the pupils, but are not especially generous on a praise and approval (in it logic influence - T). They teach a subject through individual projects (the separate project for the concrete pupil), lectures, control and a practical training. Among teachers of this type there are many good supervisors of studies in colleges and universities (leading function - intuition - N). Their own love to study, to a subject which they teach, is usually transferred also to a class. They love brilliant students, and on sluggish they do not have not enough patience. These teachers encourage in children desire to study and develop the mind.

«Teachers sensorno-solving (rational) (ESFJ, ESTJ, ISTJ, ISFJ) type make stanovoj a ridge of a teacher's trade in the USA, bear with itself in school social responsibility» [191, with. 197]. At them the feeling of history and traditions is strongly developed, and they aspire to make the feasible contribution to training system, supporting and improving rules and installations.

These teachers are well entered in accurately planned system - programs, pourochnoe planning, execution, the documentation, the reporting, the control (rationality is responsible for it - J).

Sensorno-solving teachers are inclined to teaching of the practical subjects connected with the facts, such as history, geography and housekeeping conducting. Also they can be met among teachers of an elementary school, trainers on athletics. They happen brilliant teachers of practical economy and commercial practice, directors of schools [303, the river 233, 248, 264]. Sensorno-solving types like to prepare pupils for a life in the real world to make of them exemplary legislative citizens. They encourage children to a choice of such stable trades (according to the majority of Americans), as accounting, bank, insurance business and teaching. Their method of training - the stage-by-stage, well organised mastering of a material. They watch, that children were trained through performance of examinations and regular repetition of a material. Considering a considerable quantity of teachers with temperament of sensorno-solving type pupils of the same type of the person feel at school as at home. Teachers of sensorno-solving type are patient with those who makes efforts studying. Pupils at dialogue with them have a feeling of stability, encourages in them desire to be useful and reliable.

Representatives sensorno-irrational (ISFP, ISTP, ESFP, ESTP) type infrequently meet among teachers, both in the USA, and in other countries. These teachers require an environment which would allow them to be active and to improvise in the work (P). Very much few of them go to the teacher, whose work is based on the schedule and well planned lessons. The fast material result of the work is necessary to them, therefore it is difficult to them to wait returns. Extroverts - the outstanding personalities, appreciable teachers (ESFP, ESTP). Introverts - good methodologists and tutors, patient, inclined to unconditional contact, do not love dislike for conflicts, rigidity, therefore they in the best way approach for work with a younger link (ISFP, ISTP).

But from representatives of this type magnificent teachers who bring active activity and entertainment in a class turn out. They usually teach such subjects, as art, music, a drama and sports. It is improbable, that they have achieved the diploma in subjects of more abstract. They like to work with children, to show them pictures and films, they bring with themselves in a class game and competition. The ordered plan of a lesson can be ignored in an anticipation of any employment raising general interest. The homework can be not checked up, and is not set (in it irrationality - P) is guilty.

The person of sensorno-irrational type often throws a trade of the teacher as it is oppressed with rules and system. «It cannot find in it a corner where could be oneself. This very unpleasant circumstance because many children of this temperament lose a role model in the childhood» [191, c. 199]. Children sensorno - perceiving type are not often entered in school system, and one of the reasons of it is the insufficient quantity of teachers with temperament sensorno - perceiving type (by data about typology of the American population, resulted in the book I.Briggz Myers and P.Briggz Myers). At bolshem quantity of teachers with such temperament children of sensorno-perceiving type could be happier and would study better. Teachers of this type of the person learn children to live, improvising to reach true most.

In an education sphere of the USA representatives sensorno emotional (SF) and intuitively emotional type of the person (NF) in comparison with others - 42 % and 39 % [212, the river 151] work mainly.

The carried out analysis allows to make a portrait of the ideal American school teacher for a cycle of humanitarian disciplines and for a cycle of the exact sciences.

So, the ideal teacher for a humanitarian cycle of disciplines is an Extrovert (E), the enthusiast of the business, emotional type (F). He is a master of organisation, i.e. rational type (J). Two types - ENFJ and ESFJ Also turn out.

The ideal teacher for a cycle of the exact sciences is an Extrovert (E), logic type (T), rational type (J). And again we see two types - ESTJ and ENTJ.

Why ENFJ (the intuitively-emotional extrovert, ratsional) and ESFJ (the sensorno-emotional extrovert, ratsional) are ideal teachers of humanitarian disciplines? The strengths of these persons are concluded in the following: they «promote harmony, are able to build cooperation, respect variety of opinions, can be fine orators and story-tellers, are able to organise group discussions, they organizovanny and are able to make of the decision, and also are born leaders» [303, the rivers 248, 166].

Why ESTJ (the sensorno-logic extrovert, ratsional) and ENTJ (the intuitively-logic extrovert, ratsional) are ideal teachers for a cycle of the exact sciences? It is easy to these representatives to be in a role «the present leaders (they almost always them are), they are arrogant and hardworking, fair and frank. They approach to the decision of any problems in a complex and creatively, logic decisions» [Ibid are capable to make quickly. P. 166, 211]. Ability to solve current pedagogical problems is the important condition of the successful teacher. These teachers «always put before themselves short-term and long-term objectives and achieve them» [Ibid.] . They transfer the vital principles, methods, technicians to a class and demand from pupils of performance of all instructions, receptions and accurately watch results of work. They very much «well see, that is illogical, impractical, inefficient» [Ibid. P. 219], therefore in the work apply only the checked up technologies, rational methods in work, that for mathematics teachers, for example, is very important.

As generalisation Myers-Briggs in refraction to the person of the ideal school teacher is obviously important to list following elements of the concept.

1. All teachers share on introverts and extroverts that defines their interaction with external both private world and energy distribution. The teacher -
The extrovert is more inclined to actions, than reflexions, likes to be the focus of attention, is inclined to communicate with enthusiasm, very sociable. The teacher - the introvert is inclined to reflexions, the intellectual activity demanding concentration, silence, prefers to develop in depth.

2. Following characteristics of types of the person concerns how people receive the information on the world and as they process it. Teachers-sensoriki trust concrete material things, appreciate realism and common sense, love a practicality, take a great interest in details. Teachers-intuitiki trust inspiration, intuition more than to the facts. They love new concepts, ideas, often use metaphors and analogies in speech, are inclined to read between lines.

3. Division into logicians and emotional types defines different ways of decision-making in a life and on work. Teachers-logicians impartially analyze problems, are critical in estimations, and the decision make, being based on objectivity, logicality and justice. The teacher of Emotional type is inclined to empathy, tactfulness, compassion, understands position of other person, is illogical. Feelings supervise over emotional types in acceptance of the important decisions.

4. The important characteristic of types of the person is connected with statement and realisation of problems, with the relation to the world. Teachers of Rational type differ resoluteness, sequence, to performance of all problems in time, love, when the purposes, problems, projects, etc. Are finished, and results are reached. Unlike them irrational teachers like to have a choice, change problems and the purposes, being arranged to new circumstances, take pleasure in new projects, but affairs often do not finish in time and stretch terms of performance of problems. At irrational teachers often plans of employment mismatch real lessons, often are not conducted at all, but lessons thus differ raznoobraznostju and unpredictability. As work of the school teacher demands performance of concrete pedagogical and organizational problems under the plan and in time criterion rationality approaches for the person of the ideal American teacher is better. The rational teacher is always consecutive, responsible, carries out all problems in time, in time hands over the reporting, fills magazine, etc.

6. The logician / an emotionality is opened by features of the teacher of an exact and humanitarian cycle of disciplines. It is difficult to present the teacher of emotional type,

170 teaching bases algebra and the analysis beginnings. Also will be improbable to look the teacher-logician, trying to tell to pupils about feature of poetry of U.Shakespeare or emotional experiences of heroes of "War and peace". Only the emotional teacher is capable to describe and analyze brightly, pathetically spiritual and moral searches of heroes or to tell about value of music for the person.

The short conclusion under the paragraph

The historian of an American education Lawrence Kremin has made the big impact on increase of interest of the public and professional community to questions of history of the American pedagogical thought. L.Kreminym's studying and other historians of formation of origin, formation and a development of education in the USA has allowed to comprehend traditions, to plan prospects of development school and higher education, to explain problems which school teachers faced, to prove tendencies and formation concepts, possible ways of reforming of system of school and higher North American formation. Thanks to persistence of the scientist discipline «the formation history» was included into the curriculum of pedagogical colleges and faculties on preparation of school teachers, having improved quality of preparation and retraining of teachers. Interpretation of sights of L.Kremina in educational process allows to allocate the important qualities of the ideal American school teacher for formation and a role of the teacher. Professional characteristics: good vocational training with obligatory studying of history of formation; studying of tendencies of development of a society and culture for updating of the purposes and training problems; studying of fundamental concepts and concepts of world pedagogics; development of talents and abilities of pupils, motivation to self-improvement; studying and application in pedagogical activity of taxonomy of B.Bluma; ability to learn children to take out own judgements and to be able to prove the made choice; development of mental abilities of pupils. Personal characteristics: high culture, possession of competent literary English language, understanding of values of a society; morals, tolerance, readiness to assist in the decision of difficult social questions.

In numerous articles and books the historian of formation L.Kremin

Has mentioned weight of questions on which till now there are no adequate answers, however discussions about the school education improvement of quality, initiated by such progressive scientists, as L.Kremin, J. Bruner, G.Gardner, J. Gudled and others forces progressively conceiving teachers and reformers of formation to comprehend a problem and to find corresponding ways of their decision.

The important positions of the concept of formation of J. Brunera in the tideway of an investigated problem we will sum up in the form of short theses. The teacher and the psychologist insisted that the understanding of any school subject or the difficult concept cannot achieve without flexible and close interaction of the teacher with pupils as «formation process will not be started» [172, with. 127]. Quality obuchennosti is influenced by ability of the teacher well to teach, be able to state clearly and accurately a material, resorting to various methodical means. In a priority problem there is an idea how to teach instead of what to teach. The good teacher will accurately not follow the program, and to be arranged under pupils, coming back from time to time to base concepts and concepts.

The ideal school teacher knows and applies in the student teaching narrativnye structures which are developed in children by various cogitative technicians, for example, guesses, the hypotheses, unusual ideas, an insight. J. Bruner marks importance for the school teacher to realise that fact, that pupils should wish to study for the sake of the process of training, but not for the sake of estimations or success at examinations. And again we come in a conclusion that increase of educational motivation - is one of priority problems of any teacher.

The major professionally significant characteristics of the ideal school teacher in Adam Dreera's concept reveal the following: enthusiasm; excellent communicative skills; beautiful competent speech; a professional etiquette; ability to hold discipline; objective otsenivanie; knowledge of the theory of pedagogics; ability to develop educational motivation; use of the best techniques; knowledge of psychology of teenagers; tolerance.

Filipa Jackson's concept opens problems of modern American schools, their latent curriculum, and also problems which teachers in their daily work face. Interpretation of the book of F.Jackson «the Life in a class» has revealed the major professional and personal characteristics of the ideal American
The school teacher. Professional qualities: understanding of importance of planning of lessons and statement of the purposes of training, comprehension of importance of the person of the pupil in educational process, assistance to an all-around development of the child, value of process of training more, than result, activity, a choice of the most effective methods of training, as much as possible accurate and concrete propisyvanie the purposes of each lesson; the teacher has criteria on which it defines, how much it and pupils have come nearer to the purposes. Priority personal qualities of the ideal teacher are: understanding of value of working hours and its effective use, pedagogical intuition, respect of the person of the child, work on style of teaching, congenital psychological competence.

Interpretation of works Mortimera of Adler («to Art to speak and listen», «How to read books. A management on reading of great products», «Six great ideas») from the point of view of priority personal and professional qualities of the ideal American school teacher has revealed the major characteristics of the ideal teacher, the reason of an inconsistency of North American schools, and also possible ways of the decision of the designated problems. The major professional characteristics are: possession of a technique of convincing speech, ability attentively to listen to the interlocutor, the argument, a substantiation of concepts, ability to motivate others, ability to set correct questions, attention keeping, ability to conduct active discussion, sequence, logicality.

Priority personal qualities: ability to present the pupil the competent, professional teacher possessing corresponding character, sense of humour, virtuosity, emotional force, energy.

In the given paragraph characteristics of ideal American school teachers from typology Myers-Briggs also are revealed and proved. The Sensorno-logic extrovert, ratsional; and the Intuitively-logic extrovert, ratsional are ideal teachers for a cycle of the exact sciences. For area of the humanities ideal teachers are: the Intuitively-emotional extrovert, ratsional; and the Sensorno-emotional extrovert, ratsional.


<< | >>
A source: ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019. 2019

More on topic Novatsionnoe expansion of representations about personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in 1950 - 1980:

  1. ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019, 2019
  2. Astapenko Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
  3. Personal qualities in system of professional skill of shots of management and a problem of their perfection
  4. Self-educational activity of the teacher of an elementary school and its feature
  6. 2.2 Pedagogical technology of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity
  7. Creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school as pedagogiyocheskaja a problem
  8. 2.1 Pedagogical model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity and pedagogical conditions of its realisation
  9. Structure, criteria and levels sformirovannosti creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school of self-educational activity
  10. § 1.1 Evolution drevneegipetskih representations about maat: from an imperial prerogative to ethics of personal virtue
  11. the Chapter II Empirical check of model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity
  12. 1.4.1. Features diskursivnoj persons of the teacher-language and literature teacher
  13. KAZANTSEV Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Voronezh - 2013, 2013