orthodox culture as object of scientific and pedagogical research

One of the major investigation phases is the choice of the theoretical approach to an explanation of the historical phenomenon, including at the characteristic of concepts. The term interesting us "culture" (cultura) occurs from a Latin verb colo which means «to cultivate soil».

For the first time the given term meets in the antique literature. In this context it is necessary to note the treatise about Mark Portsija Katona Starshego's agriculture «De Agri Cultura» ("Agriculture") (apprx. 160 BC) which has been devoted processing of agricultural culture (earth), to care it, to its cultivation. In the description of the given aspects the antique author mentions a word "culture" which is connected with the relation to the processed earth that has been reflected in such council about ground area acquisition: « It is necessary not to be lazy and bypass a bought site of the earth some times; if the site is good, the more often it to examine, the more it will like. Here this most should "like" to be indispensable. If it is not, there will be no also a good leaving, that is there will be no culture »[131, with. 7-8]. Thus, it is possible to carry semantic concepts to initial sense of a word"culture"« cultivation "," leaving "," processing "," an ornament ».

Hardly later in work «Tuskulansky conversations» of the Roman politician and philosopher Mark Tullija Tsitserona (106-43 BC) attempt to treat "culture" is undertaken, opposing to its barbarity. Characterising philosophy as «soul cultivation», TSitseron wrote: «As the fertile field without cultivation will not give a crop, and a shower. Soul cultivation is and there is a philosophy; it weeds defects in a shower, prepares soul for acceptance of crops and entrusts to it - sows, so to say, only those seeds, which, having ripened,
Bring the most plentiful crop »[250, with. 252]. Thereby the antique philosopher, considering achievements of the Roman state, tries to show distinction between such concepts as« cultus "and" vulgus », carrying to the first the aristocratic environment aspiring to perfection of mind and soul, and to the second - (transfer from an armour.« The people, a common people, crowd ») chaotic, rough crowd with primitive sights and hobbies.

Later in works rannehristianskih seminary students there is a little bit other understanding of "culture" which, in their opinion, is connected with concept of the "cult" based on divine worship, but during too time is somewhat opposed it. So, the theologian and writer Kvint Septimy Florens Tertullian (apprx. 155 - after 220 AD), opposing Athenes as a symbol of an ancient art and Jerusalem as a symbol of Christian religion, noticed, that conducts hobby the for the first to death of soul and only the way of a Christian cult (divine worship) conducts in TSarstvie Bozhie [236, with. 109].

In days of the Education epoch in works of the West European researchers and ideologists (I.K.Adelung, S.Pufendorf, I.Gerder, etc.) appears treatment of concept the "culture" connected with its understanding as activity on "cultivation", "cultivation" and "oblagorazhivaniju" the person and its abilities, otherwise, with education, formation, training which the roots leaves by ancient times: «We can name this genesis of the person somehow...

We can name its culture, i.e. soil cultivation, and we can recollect an image of light and to name its education then the culture and education purpose will be stretched to the earth» [87, with. 230].

The representative of German philosophical thought I.Kant, arguing on a phenomenon "culture", defined in it the transcendental beginning, connecting it with active and creative character of human consciousness [71, with. 57-61]. He mentioned concept "culture" of different contexts, but all of them are connected with a problem of the person - freedom, morals, education etc.

Also the concept "culture" of works of researchers corresponded with concept "civilisation" which, for example, the German historian and the philosopher O.Spengler named inevitable destiny of culture: «That such a civilisation understood as an integrally-logic consequence, how end and a culture outcome? For each culture has an own civilisation. For the first time these both words designating till now vague distinction of an ethical order, are understood here in periodic sense, as expression of strict and necessary organic sequence. A civilisation - inevitable destiny of culture» [265, with. 163-164].

In Russia the term "culture" in a scientific context meets in first half XIX centuries in work of academician D.M.Vellansky «the basic tracings of the general and private physiology or physics of the organic world» which noticed, that «the Nature cultivated by spirit human, is Culture, corresponding to Nature how concept in compliance with a thing. The Culture subject ideal things, and a subject of Nature make an essence real concepts» [74, with. 196-197].

In second half XIX - the beginning of the XX-th century the question of understanding of "culture" and its value for Russian society, the people, its mentality and traditions starts to occupy minds of visible public figures, writers, publicists, philosophers, seminary students more and more. So, Russian philosopher I.A.Ilyin noticed, that «the culture is the phenomenon internal and organic: it grasps the depth of human soul and develops on ways of live, mysterious expediency. It it also differs from a civilisation which can outwardly acquire and superficially and does not demand all completeness of sincere participation. Therefore the people can have the ancient refined spiritual culture, but in questions of an external civilisation (clothes, dwelling, means of communication, the industrial technics etc.) To show a backwardness and primitiveness picture. And back: the people can stand at last height of technics and a civilisation, and in questions of spiritual culture (morals, a science, art, a policy and the economy) to worry a decline epoch »[121, with. 27].

Thus, throughout many centuries value of concept "culture" varied, and depending on this or that approach or various areas of the scientific knowledge, the given concept had various treatments and definitions. Considering concept "culture" today, it is possible to notice, that from the point of view of the subject approach (E.Tajlor, N.Smelzer, E.Giddens) it treat as set material and cultural wealth, creations of the person; supporters of the remedial approach (E.A.banner, N.S.Zlobin) define culture as process of manufacture, distribution and development of cultural values; adherents dejatelnostnogo the approach (E.S.Markarjan, E.V. The Sokolov, V.M.Mezhuev, V.S.Semenov, V.I.Arnoldov) - as the qualitative characteristic of any forms and results of human activity which sets its borders and defines its possibilities; from positions of the technological approach (Z.Fajnburg. Malinovsky) for culture studying undertakes a basis dejatelnostnyj the approach, but in it the various theories of a functionalism representing culture as certain level of technological manufacture and reproduction of a public life develop.

Thus, uniform definition of a phenomenon of culture does not exist, and at its treatment the studying context is considered. In the most general sense we in our research will understand spiritual sphere of human activity as culture, including meaning all that has been created spiritualised by the person.

Passing to concept consideration «orthodox culture», it is necessary to notice, that in our country it has more than thousand-year history of development, and at its studying in a context of inclusion of the given phenomenon in a domestic education system we will lean, first of all, on the cultural urological approach (E.V.Bondarevsky, B.S.Gershunsky, A.S.Zapesotsky, B.T.Lihachev, N.E.ShChurkova, etc.), considering culture as the socially-anthropological phenomenon and allowing to study it in interrelation with process of formation of the person. Also for our research it is important aksiologichesky the approach (T.I.Vlasova, V.P.Zinchenko, I.F.Isaev,
M.G.Kazakina, A.V.Kirjakova, N.D.Nikandrov, V.A.Slastenin, E.N.Shijanov, G.I.Chizhakova, etc.) from which point of view the culture is considered in interrelation with spiritual components of activity of the person and also as specific system of norms, values and the senses distinguishing one society another. For research of orthodox culture the sociological approach (I.F.Devjatko, B.S.Erasov, G.E.Zborovsky is important. P.A.Sorokin, etc.) Where the culture is a complete system of a human society, and all elements, its components, are connected among themselves. Still P.A.Sorokin noticed, that the unity of culture is expressed that its components are penetrated by one basic valuable principle which, in turn, and forms a basis of any culture [223, with. 429]. The Same author among the several types of culture revealed by it allocated so-called ideatsionalnyj type which is narrowly connected with religion as in such type of culture prevail supersensual, cultural wealth.

Many other things researchers, opening concept culture, speak about indissoluble, its close communication with concept "religion". So, the Russian philosopher and culturologist E.V.Spektorsky in the middle of XIX century noticed, that «where culture, there and belief. And where belief, there and religion» [227, with. 41].sovremennye researchers, for example, A.V.Savvin, write that the culture and religion can be considered in various planes, but it, undoubtedly, planes of interaction, interosculation [201, with. 6]. V.N.Katasonov, arguing on culture genesis, underlines its fundamental religious basis: «the Religion always is in a sense immanent to culture, and in culture, generally speaking, there is nothing, that would not have religious sense...» [130, with. 43­44]. S.J.Divnogortseva specifies, that "concept" culture ”is impossible without concept“ religion ”and starting with last as from its essence of concept“ spiritual ”» [105, with. 6].takzhe J.E.Kobina writes that «among set of definitions of culture, definition through concept“ spiritual ”still is present as one of the most productive» [137, with. 3]. Such communication
Cultures and religions it is not casual, and goes from the most ancient times where the religion was the first basic human culture. About this communication and sopodchinennosti (hierarchies) of the given two concepts are written by seminary students and some theologians. So, one of the most influential German-American theologians of the XX-th century of P.J.Tillih wrote what the religion feeds culture and gives it sense, proving it to that the religion is some kind of «a culture substance», and culture in turn - «the religion form» [183, with. 13].

Revealing of interrelation of religion and culture allows to allocate in culture such component, as religious culture. Arguing on treatment of the given concept, it is important to notice, that the word "religion" (religare or religio) in a translation from Latin is understood in value «to connect, reunite» or in value «conscientiousness, devotion, a cult subject». A mention of the term "cult" (from an armour. - cultus - worship, honouring) in this case is not casual, as it is connected with concept of religion and during too time has a close connection with concept of culture. At level of the origin (etymology) terms "cult" and "culture" have in the basis the general basis - a word colo. About this interrelation the Russian philosopher, the seminary student and scientist P.A.Florensky wrote: the culture is «that from a cult prisno otshchepljaetsja, - as though cult germinations, its runaways, its lateral stalks. The relic is a primary creativity of the person, cultural values are derivatives of a cult »[249, with. 117]. About communication of these two concepts the known Russian philosopher and publicist N.A.Berdjaev adhered to similar sights, considering in the concept the nature of a cult and its communication with a culture and religion phenomenon:« the Culture was born from a cult. Its sources - are sacral. Round a temple it was conceived and during integrally period has been connected with a life religious »[63, with. 524]. About interrelation of religion and culture modern researchers adhere to similar sights also. So, S.A.Lebedev treats religious culture as a component of culture and defines it as the system arisen both developed under the influence of religion and"serving"the sacral relation last [151, with. 152]. After S.A.Lebedev we will accept such treatment of religious culture.

Thus, it is lawful to speak about existence of religious type of culture. In a broad sense religious culture, according to I.V.Metlika, it is necessary to understand as «a religious cultural heritage which is made by all phenomena of culture caused by influence of religious outlook, - specific to each religion a world picture, morals system, and also set of corresponding is material-subject culture (household culture, art, the literature etc.)» [161, with. 18]. A kernel of religious culture of I.V.Metlik names divine service culture, «which it is carried out for an establishment and maintenance of communication of the person with the higher spiritual beginning how it is understood in each separate religion» [161, with. 18-19].

Each culture, including religious culture, grows in certain conditions of a life, develops, developing the language, history, outlook, traditions. As marked I.A.Ilyin, «the culture is created not by one person. It is property of many people spiritually united among themselves. this communication is fixed by the tradition which is passing from father to son. So gradually there is uniform and the general all a culture» [121, with. 53]. Considering concept of culture, I.A.Ilyin wrote about the deepest unification of people in its frameworks which arises «from spiritual uniformity, from similar spiritually-sincere way, from similar love to uniform and to the general, from the uniform destiny binding people in a life and death, from identical contemplation, from uniform language, from homogeneous belief and from a joint pray», - it allows to judge all presence of special national and religious culture at each people [121, with. 53-54]. In the countries of orthodox creed including in Russia, there was an orthodox culture as a version of the religious.

Speaking about religious (orthodox) culture, should note its ontologic communication with concept "spirituality" as «religiousness is a condition spiritual» [121, with. 92] and, under the remark of the professor, archpriest V.V. Zenkovsky, they are closely interconnected and co-ordinated each other: «All force and value of a religious life, however, act that in
Religious experiences spiritual needs receive the fullest and fruitful expression as the religious life, including moral, aesthetic and informative work of soul, connects them with the Deity as the Absolute Basis of good, beauty and true »[117, with. 374-375]. Besides, under N.A.Berdjaeva's remark, one of three rigid criteria of culture along with originality and hierarchy spirituality [203 is, with. 115].

According to definition of the dictionary of S.I.Ozhegova and N.J.Shvedovoj, spirituality is understood as "the property of soul consisting in prevalence of spiritual, moral and intellectual interests over material» [109, with. 159]. Somewhat to accept the made definition it is possible, however important to understand, that special value gets concept "spirituality" in orthodox religious culture, and, according to A.L.Gorbachev, it is not reduced neither to religiousness, nor to creativity, to intellectuality, and is much wider and deeper [90, with. 78].

It speaks an origin of the term the "spirituality", etymologically connected with base for it concept "spirit". Russian philosopher N.A.Berdjaev connects the given concept good luck: «the God is spirit, and it opens in intuitive contemplation of spirit» [62, with. 82]. Already modern researcher, the seminary student, the professor and teacher A.I.Osipov writes in this occasion: «In absolute sense spirit is the God. The Christianity has the concept about the God. And, according to Christian understanding, the one who has most assimilated to the God is spiritual, that is became bogopodoben. The god has opened itself to the person in the maximum completeness - in Jesus Christ. Therefore Its image, Its Word embodied in the Gospel, also is expression of that spirituality which the Christianity confirms as norm as an ideal of a human life» [177, with. 18-19]. Thus, it is possible to speak about special understanding of spirituality in the light of orthodox Christianity.

Arguing on Christian spirituality, N.A.Berdjaev defined its such criteria as affirming in it «the person, freedom and love», and also hristotsentrichnost or bogochelovechnost. In the work «Existential
Dialectics divine and human »he wrote:« Bogochelovechesky spirituality can begin with consciousness of sinfulness and nedostoinstva the person shipped in elements of the world, but she should confirm advantage of the person as godlike the beings, intended to eternity »[64, with. 164].

After N.A.Berdjaevym the modern seminary student archimandrite Ierofej (Vlahos), investigating a phenomenon of orthodox spirituality, defines its following characteristics: hristotsentrichnost (the centre of spiritual human life the Christ is), triadotsentrichnost (the Christ is always connected to the Father and the Holy Spirit - Presvjataja the Trinity), tserkovnotsentrichnost (the spiritual life is impossible without participation in a sacral life of Church), and also makes of it following definition: « Orthodox spirituality is an experience of a life in the Christ, atmosphere of the new person revived by good fortune Bozhiej. It is a question not of an abstract emotional and psychological condition, but about a unification of the person good luck »[119, with. 25]. Arguing on concept of spirituality of orthodox tradition, it is necessary to mention and morals which in aggregate define internal and an outer side of motivational sphere of the person that is why it is possible to say that the morals are inseparable from a spiritual life. The morals are the important display of spirituality. The morals maintenance is that higher, that it is possible to characterise words« true "," good "," beauty ». It is one of the most universal forms of public and personal outlook, set of the general principles and norms of behaviour of people under the relation to each other and to a society.« The morals, - write S.J.Divnogortseva, - it is possible to define as a way of practical orientation of behaviour of the person to which there corresponds an internal orientation on Absolute values [102, с.114].

Accepting such treatment of concept of spirituality and morals, it is necessary to have it in a kind at disclosing and the phenomenon «orthodox culture».

In our country it is possible to consider as a starting point of occurrence and development of orthodox culture the fact of the Christening of Russia. Prince Vladimir, having made in 988 year tsivilizatsionnyj a choice and having chosen Orthodoxy as the state
Religions, for many centuries has predetermined development of Russian society and formation in a context of orthodox culture.

Considering a phenomenon «orthodox culture» from the moment of its origin in Russia (the Christening of Russia) from the point of view tsivilizatsionnogo the approach, N.JA.Danilevsky defines basic aspects of the concept of cultural-historical types which distinguish these types from each other in independent, original plans «religious, social, household, industrial, political, scientific, art - in a word, historical, developments» [93, with. 71]. In this case it is a question of the slavic cultural-historical type which basis are Russian people and its culture. It is necessary to pay attention, that the Russian philosopher takes away taking priority position of a religious component. Also the British historian, the culturologist and sociologist A.D.Toynbee, investigating civilisations, marked: «... Universal church (world religions - T.S.) is the basic sign allowing preliminary to classify a society of one kind» [238, with. 77].

Thus, it is possible to speak about special religious tradition, religious culture within the limits of each cultural-historical type, within the limits of each civilisation. For slavic cultural-historical type, for Russian that civilisation there was the Christian culture based on orthodox dogma and traditions of the Eastern Church.

The orthodox culture in Russia developed centuries and "sprouted" in a life, a way of life, traditions and foundations of Russian people. However studying of orthodox culture out of a context of Christian culture as initial for it, would be not full. Works of many Russian philosophers, seminary students and researchers, in particular representatives slavjanofilstva which in many respects considered it in a context istoriosofii and cultural histories, Christianities have been devoted studying of Christian culture. «Jesus phenomenon and Its law comprises the beginning of all latest life of the world.», - wrote A.S.hamster [251, with. 411]. Dividing sights of Slavophiles, I.A.Ilyin noticed, that the Christianity «has brought in
Culture of mankind the certain new, fertile spirit, that spirit which should recover and has recovered the substance of culture, its original nature, its live soul »[121, with. 27]. The philosopher made of Christian culture such definition:« the Christian culture is great and pretrudnoe, obliging both responsible business; and its essence in that to the extent of the forces to acquire Spirit of the Christ and to create from it terrestrial culture of mankind »[121, with. 26]. In its opinion, the Spirit of the Christ as centre of Christian culture and tradition is necessary to create Christian culture. And the essence can be defined it following components (on I.A.Ilyin):

1) internally oduhotvorenie («the Culture is created from within, it is soul and spirit creation; the strengthened soul» [121 can create Christian culture only hristianski, with. 28]);

2) acceptance of spirit of Christianity which spirit of love (love is is «last and unconditional primary source of any creativity, and, hence, and any culture» [121, with. 29]);

3) spirit of Christianity which spirit of the contemplation is, giving the chance to look in sensually invisible heart («the Christianity bequeathed to people to build culture, proceeding from prayful contemplation and stay in it» [121, with. 31]);

4) acceptance of spirit of Christianity which spirit of the live creative maintenance is, instead of forms («Formalization and culture mechanisation - contradicts Christian spirit and testifies to its degeneration. The Christian searches not the empty form, and filled; he searches not the dead mechanism, and an organic life in all its mystery, in all its sacraments; he thirsts the form born from the deep, spiritually sated maintenance» [121, with. 32]);

5) spirit of Christianity which spirit of perfection is - vision before the spiritual look of the Divine perfection which criterion of all everyday affairs and vital circumstances («Spirit of Christianity is turns the person to the God in heavens and to the Divine business on the earth. This Divine business on the earth
Becomes the Subject of its service; and its life, and its affairs become thereof subject. This spirit of Christian concreteness brings Christianity in culture of mankind, - in home life, in education, in service, in the public, in an economy, in a policy, in art and in a science »[121, with. 33]).

However it is important to notice, that the Christian culture is considered here in Orthodoxy context (orthodox tradition). It has defining value at its disclosing that is not compared in any way with other Christian traditions, in particular with Catholicism and protestantizmom.

In this occasion in works of researchers it is possible to meet reasonings and theses about distinctions of Christianity West Catholic (Catholicism, protestantizm) and is orthodox-east (orthodox). So, And. V.Kireevsky wrote about church as about the live, active organism consisting of many and various members, connected by the union of commonwealth and the love, actively making the rescue with assistance of good fortune. In orthodox culture and tradition «creation of each person creates all and a life of all everyone breathes» the person. Catholicism distinguishes «external, dead unity», so-called external unity without freedom, and in Protestantism - freedom external without unity »[135, with. 278]. The Russian religious thinker, the philosopher and teacher N. F. Feodors wrote that «Orthodoxy is a temple of collecting, reunions separated» (collecting of Russian people), and also some kind of «a debt of revival of ancestors», memories of them - «this debt for sons human are for everyone, native, and together and the general with all others; it is that only and can them, sons human, to make brothers» [245, with. 8]. This idea of freedom and unity in Orthodoxy has been opposed Catholicism recognising «papal authority, that is why not requiring in any proofs, denying discussion, and consequently, both reason, and knowledge, as the tool as expiation means, or the rescue, not recognising and necessities of one general for all sons human has put» [245, with. 7]; and also protestantizmu as «to the free
To research (or to discussion), not passing in the business, limited mental, verbal only expression »[245, with. 7].

Thus, it is possible to speak about understanding of east (orthodox) Christianity as special type of culture, the special religious experience considerably differing from western (Catholic and Protestant) and bearing in itself idea sobornosti, unifications at a creative personal freedom of each person. On these postulates the orthodox culture and tradition in many respects developed.

So it is understood as orthodox culture, and what components are included by it?

Abbot George (SHestun) and M.V.Zaharchenko notice, that «intentsionalno the orthodox culture can be defined as culture which develops there where tsivilizatsionnyj historical process tests influence of tradition orthodox tserkovnosti» [86, with. 109]. K.V.Vodenko, describing orthodox culture, characterises it as «the specific organic world in which the outlook recognising a hristiansko-orthodox doctrine as a vital basis» [81] dominates. In both cases the orthodox culture is treated as concept which is based on key aspect for it - traditions of orthodox church and dogma. Under the influence of orthodox Church and spirit tserkovnosti there was a unique Russian orthodox culture. It never was culture uzkotserkovnoj, but also not to synonymous culture national as substantially always was more widely.

Let's consider concept «orthodox culture» from the point of view of its structural components.

Orthodox culture we will present as the system formation including a number of components and having own organisation, selectively co-operating with an education system. Known Russian religioved, the sociologist of religion and Doctor of Philosophy I.N.Yablokov, describing components of any religious culture, marked
Obligatory presence of following components: on the one hand, sacral texts, theology, various elements of a cult etc., directly turned to the sacral supernatural beginning (God); with another - the phenomena from area of philosophy, art etc. which are historically involved in a religious life and retseptirujutsja by corresponding religion. The first party it characterised as "constant" to a component, representing «a rigid kernel» religious culture, not subject in its borders of qualitative transformation, and the second - as "variable" to a component which can vary in a wide range in respect of volume, density and level of structural complexity of its semantic structures [269, with. 213].

If to accept the given treatment of religious culture in the given context the orthodox culture will have also two parties: constant and variable. As constant components will act the Divine Revelation which ways of expression are: the Scriptus including the books Shabby and the New testament and the Sacred Legend in sense of set of oral and written sources.

And the majority of seminary students are inclined to consider the Scriptus as a part of the Sacred Legend, noticing, that in orthodox understanding the Writing is one of forms of the Legend and it is impossible out of the Legend. It means also that out of Church, out of the Legend the correct understanding of the Writing is impossible. Besides the Scriptus of Shabby and New Precepts, the structure of the Legend of Orthodox Church includes other written sources, including divine service texts, chinoposledovanija sacraments, the decision Universal and pomestnyh Cathedrals, creation of Fathers and teachers of ancient Church. We will notice, that Divine revelation is a source of moral knowledge in orthodox culture, generally in sense of an establishment and introduction in consciousness of main principles of a moral life.

Mastering of trues of Divine Revelation through the Sacred Legend, one of which forms is also the Scriptus, including, mastering of norms of a moral life, we will carry to so-called znanievomu to a component
Orthodox culture, meaning its studying in the course of formation. Disclosing znanievogo a component of orthodox culture covers so-called sphere rational, differently and that it is possible to transfer what can learn during studying (training), and somewhat to analyse, predict.

«The being of a life Christian, - was written by prelate Feofan the Hermit, - consists in Bogoobshchenii about our Christ Jesus Gospode» [248, with. 9]. Reception of this experience Bogoobshchenija is possible, according to Orthodoxy "installations", through mastering, opening of trues of Divine Revelation, visible image shown in church Sacraments, in divine services, in a cathedral and personal pray, etc. - in a word, participation in a liturgical life of Church. It is accepted to believe, that through such participation in a church life in the invisible image of a shower of the person gets experience Bogoobshchenija, awe and honouring of relics in heart of the person (a sacral component). Research of influence of this component of orthodox culture is not obviously possible by scientific, empirical approaches and methods as concerns sphere sacral, spiritual, hidden that is why allows to estimate exclusively external (visible) party of display of the given component.

To variable components we will carry, first of all, art area (gimnografiju, ikonopis, architecture, music), the literature (spiritual works, compositions of religious philosophers, spiritual poetry), and also culture of a life of the people, generated under the influence of orthodox dogma. It it is possible to name all an aesthetic component of orthodox culture. It is fair to allocate with a separate component orthodox pedagogical culture [1].

Thus, the orthodox culture is a version of religious culture, sphere of the cultural wealth which is based on doctrines of orthodox dogma, including as constant making znanievyj a component - the Sacred Legend (the Scriptus Shabby and the New testament,

Divine service texts, chinoposledovanija sacraments, the decision Universal and pomestnyh Cathedrals, creation of Fathers and teachers of ancient Church) and a sacral component - aspects of divine service practice and participation in it; as developing - an aesthetic component - church art, the spiritual literature, culture of a life, and also pedagogical culture.


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A source: Stanovskaya Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017. 2017

More on topic orthodox culture as object of scientific and pedagogical research:

  1. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  2. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. TEACHING of ORTHODOX CULTURE At SCHOOLS of Russia IN SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNING of XX CENTURIES the dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  4. USOLTSEVA ELENA VIKTOROVNA. PEDAGOGICAL MAINTENANCE of FORMATION of ETHNOPEDAGOGICAL CULTURE of LOGOPEDISTS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2017, 2017
  5. Usoltseva Elena Viktorovna. PEDAGOGICAL MAINTENANCE of FORMATION of ETHNOPEDAGOGICAL CULTURE of LOGOPEDISTS. The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2017, 2017
  6. actualisation of domestic experience of teaching of orthodox culture in modern educational practice
  7. methods and means of teaching of orthodox culture
  8. the purpose of studying, feature of construction of the maintenance and principles of teaching of orthodox culture in a context of introduction of a subject «the Law Divine»
  9. preconditions and factors of formation of the maintenance and a technique of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school (end H - the middle of XIX centuries)
  10. orthodox culture in the maintenance of formation of various types of the Russian school in second half XIX - beginnings HH centuries