orthodox culture in the maintenance of formation of various types of the Russian school in second half XIX - beginnings HH centuries

In the middle of XIX century with the beginning of an emancipating policy (serfdom cancellation in 1861) the new epoch in a life of Russia begins. During this period there is a formation of the main and obligatory subject entering schoolboys in the world of orthodox culture - «Law Bozhija».

The order of the minister of national education of P.A.Shirinskogo-Shihmatova about introduction of "Law Bozhija» in grammar schools, under the decree of emperor Nikolay I where in this occasion the following was marked became one of the first documents: «the Law Divine is the unique firm basis to any useful doctrine» [TSit. On: 199, with. 226-227].

First of all, the attention in this context has been given system of initial national education. «Position about initial national schools» 1864 (and after its edition - «Position about initial national schools» 1874) has united all initial schools of different departments the general for them a curriculum and the uniform purpose - «the statement in the people of religious both moral concepts and distribution of initial useful knowledge» and has established studying of "Law Bozhija» as obligatory subject in the program of elementary schools. The curriculum in all initial schools assumed studying of following subjects: the Law Divine; reading and the letter (on the civil and church press); arithmetics (four basic actions); church singing [31, with. 614].

Besides, given Position defined elementary education system in Russia which included following schools [31, with. 614; 33, with. 836]:

1) schools «Departments spiritual» - the tserkovno-parish schools opened by orthodox clergy in cities, posadah and villages (tserkovno-parish schools);

2) schools of Department of the Ministry of National education, at them two types of schools: parish schools in cities, posadah and villages and city schools (zemskie and city schools);

3) other rural schools of different names (rural schools);

4) all Sunday schools established by the Government, societies, city and private persons, for formation of handicraftsmen and working estate (Sunday schools - secular and orthodox; reading and writing schools).

The subsequent reforms to a certain extent changed the given structure regarding submission of schools to different departments and expanded some types of schools to higher level a little. We will consider each type of schools concerning the maintenance of orthodox culture in teaching and educational in process. However before we will tell about the subject which has developed by then «the Law Divine» in which maintenance there were considerable changes.

If in the end of XVIII - the beginning of XIX century within the limits of studying of orthodox dogma «the Short catechism» with fragments from the Scriptus from the middle of XIX century at first in some educational institutions was taught, and then everywhere in a course of "Law Bozhija» has been established to study Sacred history Shabby and the New testament, a catechism, prays, the doctrine about divine service, church history (in two-class and more a high rank initial educational institutions). Besides, from now on «the Law Divine» starts to develop as a subject with the registered plan, the program, methodical recommendations for teaching etc.

The first mentions of carrying out of lessons of "Law Bozhija» under the curriculum with the specified list of sections are dated 1851.

The given plan has been prepared by archpriest Stefanom Rajkovsky and confirmed by the Sacred Synod. Officially the subject program «the Law Divine» has been confirmed in 1884 «Rules about tserkovno-parish schools». It included studying
Prays, Sacred history and a divine service explanation (in common), a short catechism [40, with. 4]. In practice the given sections of a course «Law Bozhija» in this or that kind and an order existed in programs of initial educational institutions even earlier. Developed uchilishchnym council of the Most holy Synod the program was uniform for all church schools and had recommendatory character. Curricula were made diocesan uchilishchnymi by councils taking into account specificity of development of each concrete school, age features of various categories of pupils etc.

On course studying «Law Bozhija» in elementary schools with week training (except for Sunday schools) it was taken away six class periods in a week, and the beginning of employment at school began with «Law Bozhija» which has always been established by the first lesson. On the first year of training the basic prays were studied: the shortest, simple and the basic, and also the prays entering into a morning and evening rule. Besides it, at studying of prays by the pupil explained value of a sign of the cross, bows and kolenoprikloneny during prays, «when it is necessary to bend a head as it is necessary to accept svjashchennicheskoe blessing» etc. [40, with. 45].

In some elementary schools on the first year of training studied events from Sacred history Shabby and the New testament, and also the most important themes from Church history (Soshestvie the Holy Spirit on apostles, Assumption Bozhiej of Mother and finding of Cross gospodnja).

On the second year studied a short catechism and the doctrine about divine service. The catechism was taught, as before, on «Rudiments of Christian morals» (to "the Short catechism») which maintenance practically has not changed from the beginning of XIX century. And the doctrine about divine service included data on features of orthodox divine service, on sacred images, vessels and other subjects used at divine service, on the persons making divine service and their vestments, on the major holidays, posts, features of a liturgy and nightlong vigil, church sacraments, etc. [40, with. 46]. At two-class schools on the third year were added not studied

Events from Sacred history and initial data from Church history, on the fourth - profound studying of a catechism and the doctrine about divine service.

Also the significant amount of data has been included in a course of "Law Bozhija» from area of church art. Agiografiju - the description of lives sacred as one of branches of the church literature - partially studied in section «Church History», the external furniture of a temple and feature of temple architecture, art ikonopisi - in section «the Doctrine about Divine service» etc. Besides, many data from area of church art have been included in a course of Church Slavonic language and church singing which along with «Law Bozhiim» were included into the obligatory program of initial church schools.

Studying of orthodox culture at schools it was not limited only to "Law Bozhiim». Along with it one more subject has been included in the maintenance of formation for studying of orthodox culture - Church Slavonic language. Preconditions to studying of Church Slavonic language as separate discipline have started to develop gradually since time of reform of a literary language at Peter I. But only in second half XIX centuries it was issued in the separate subject included in the obligatory program of elementary schools.

Necessity of studying of Church Slavonic language has been connected by that it helped with studying of orthodox culture. K.P.pobedonostsev noticed, that through knowledge of Church Slavonic language occurs "vpityvanie" spiritual bases of Russian culture [190, with. 503]. S.A.Rachinsky also marked great value of Church Slavonic language and its close connection with teaching of the Law Divine: «Tserkovno-slavic language is language of Church, language of our prays, language sacred, and to inform skill and ability is correct, is sensible to read tserkovno-slavic books makes also an elementary school debt» [TSit. On: 84, with. 6.].

In an explanatory note to programs of the Church Slavonic reading and writing at tserkovno-parish schools it was noticed, that «on the problem and spirit,
The Church Slavonic reading and writing should adjoin Law Bozhiju as the nearest grant for it and to matter directly after it »[40, with. 67].

For development of Church Slavonic language to pupils on the first year of training letters and reading rules spoke, and then they received texts «often upotrebimyh» prays, on the second year for reading texts from CHasoslova and Psaltiri were used. At two-class church schools on the third year studied the Gospel from Matfeja, on the fourth - the Gospel from Mark, Onions and John, and also texts from Educational Oktoiha (eight-public singing during divine service). Many texts on hearing were familiar, because regularly sounded on divine services.

Also in a course of Church Slavonic language pupils studied agiografiju (the description of lives sacred) as one of branches of the church literature. Reading of lives sacred in Church Slavonic language promoted perfection of skills of reading. Lives from Cheti-Minei prelate Dimitrija Rostov usually undertook and were used as for reading in a class, and «for house reading in the families» [40, with. 69]. On studying of Church Slavonic language it was taken away four lessons in a week.

One more subject directed on studying of orthodox culture, church singing was. Church singing also has been closely connected with subject studying «the Law Divine», in particular with its section «the Doctrine about divine service», that was marked in an explanatory note to the program of church singing at tserkovno-parish schools [40, with. 62]. S.A.Rachinsky, leaning against experience of rural school, wrote, that «training to church singing receives immediately practical appendix, ennobling beauty and solemnity of church service» [84, with. 6].

On training to church singing it was taken away two hour lessons in a week and four half-hour upon termination of lessons in other subjects. In the first year of training at lessons of church singing pupils mastered preparatory vocal exercises and studied simple church chanting and prays "by ear" (i.e. reproduced heard, not knowing a musical notation), gradually approaching to
To more difficult both important prays and church chanting. Then got acquainted with a musical notation, studied to sing under notes. In end of the first year of training studied John Zlatoustogo's all liturgy. On the second year of training studied the elementary church chanting of nightlong divine service, Easter irmosy, tropari dvunadesjatyh holidays [40, with. 60-61].

Practical application of church singing was singing during services in a temple. Ability to sing was appreciated rather highly, therefore capable pupils sang in church chorus. Besides, texts of church church chanting were familiar to pupils still because in the majority were studied earlier at lessons of Church Slavonic language.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that Church Slavonic language and church singing has been closely connected with the basic subject «the Law Divine» and served for it some kind of complementary with subjects.

Coming back to an education system for laymen of the pre-revolutionary period, it is necessary to notice, that subject studying «the Law Divine» in the maintenance uchebnoyovospitatelnogo process, behind some exception, in each type of schools was practically similar. However nevertheless there were some distinctive features of its studying.

Tserkovno-parish schools were in conducting the Sacred Synod. Initially they existed as the lowest spiritual schools, and in 1884 after Rules about tserkovno-parish schools »have been accepted«, they have received the status of official initial educational institutions [31, with. 614; 32, with. 836]. Later, in 1902, Position about church schools of department of orthodox confession »according to which church schools, besides tserkovno-parish, began to include schools of the reading and writing and Sunday schools was accepted« and to be in conducting the Most holy Synod.

Main objective of all church schools was «to extend in the people formation in the spirit of Orthodox Belief and Church» [33, with. 2]. The management of schools was carried out specially created uchilishchnym council of the Most holy Synod through diocesan uchilishchnye councils. Under the maintenance
Training such schools have been confirmed as verouchitelnye and educational institutions. Tserkovno-parish schools were subdivided on one-class and two-class. Training term at such schools made 2 and 4 years accordingly. Later, in the XX-th century beginning, duration of training both in those, and at other schools has been increased for one year and made 3 years and 5 years accordingly. The training program consisted of following subjects: «the Law Divine» (studying of prays, Sacred history and a divine service explanation, a short catechism), reading of the church and civil press, the letter, arithmetics, church singing. At two-class schools teaching of the basic data from history of church and domestic history, geography, plotting and drawing was added. Priests or graduates of spiritual educational institutions and female schools of spiritual department were teachers of tserkovno-parish schools.

Knowledge in a subject «the Law Divine» at tserkovno-parish schools, according to «to the Program of teaching of law Bozhija at tserkovno-parish schools», was rather extensive and assumed on the first year of training (at one-class school) [40, with. 42-51]: studying of the basic data from Sacred history of the Old testament - 21 lesson; studying of the basic events from Sacred history of the New testament - 26 lessons, and also 3 lessons devoted to History of Church (Soshestvie the Holy Spirit on Apostles, Assumption Bozhiej of Mother, Finding of Life-giving Cross gospodnja). Besides in the first year of training studied the basic, most simple and important prays («For the sake of the Father and the Son and Svjatago Spirit», «My God Jesus Christ, the Son Divine», «Glory to You, My God ours, glory to You», «My God, pardon», «My God, bless», «to the Tsar Heavenly», «Otche ours», «to Virgin Devo, rejoice», prays to Angela Hranitelju, etc.) . In the second year of training (at one-class school) studied the short catechism stated in «Rudiments of the Christian doctrine», and the doctrine about divine service on which 10 lessons were taken away.

At two-class tserkovno-parish schools the program under «Law Bozhiju» has been expanded. In first two years studied all the same, as in
To one-class school, and on the third year the program was supplemented: «repetition of sacred history with inclusion of new articles» (Antiquated and Novozavetnoj) - on 22 and 25 lessons, and also initial data from Church history, with addition of data on a life of saints Bozhiih - 18 lessons. On the fourth year of training - repetition of the Catechism with more detailed explanation «doctrines about fulfilment of our Rescue by Lord Jesus Christ, about Church and sacraments» [40, with. 50] and doctrine repetition about divine service which was supplemented with data about Passionate sedmitse, kinds of church services, the general religious rites at divine service etc. (the Full list that of a course «the Law Divine» for one-class and two-class tserkovno-parish schools see in the Appendix 1).

Studying of orthodox culture at tserkovno-parish schools was not limited only to studying of "Law Bozhija» and others verouchitelnymi subjects (Church Slavonic language, church singing). All way of an educational and nonlearning life of such schools has been organised in such a manner that promoted inclusion during a practical life of Church and to studying of orthodox culture by familiarising with it. Therefore one of the problems specified in «Rules about parish schools», is formulated as follows: « Unseparably with Church... To inspire to children love to Church and Divine service that visiting of Church and participation in Divine service has become to skills and requirement of heart of pupils »[40, with. 4]. Besides, the organisation of teaching and educational process ordered in Sunday and holidays the pupil« to be present at Divine service », and capable, on appropriate preparation,« to participate in church reading and singing ». Daily studies began and terminated in a pray. Each separate lesson began with a pray« to the Tsar Heavenly »and came to an end molitvoju« Adequately is ». In each class room in a red corner there should be an icon and, whenever possible, an icon lamp or a candle before sacred image.

Special value had participation of pupils in the Church life. For this purpose they should be present on the Divine liturgy and nightlong vigil in
Holidays. Some of pupils, "most well-behaved", were supposed in an altar «for podavanija warmth, a censer and carrying out svech», readings of hours, shestopsalmija and the Apostle, «children possessing voices sing on a choir» [40, with. 41].

Besides, on comprehension of orthodox culture after-hour activity of pupils at church schools has been directed also. In solemn conditions holidays of Christmas Christ's, day of memory of the first slavic teachers of sacred Cyril and Mefodija, memoirs on war of 1812 both other church and state holidays were celebrated.

Reading and writing schools opened, as a rule, at arrivals with the permission of local priests at the initiative of members prichta, monasteries, charitable establishments rural and city societies, zemstvoes [41, with. 7]. Training term made 2 (sometimes 3) year. The training program included following subjects: «the Law Divine» (short Sacred history New and the Old testament and a short catechism), church singing "by ear", reading Church Slavonic and Russian, the letter and initial notation [41, with. 9].

The program «Law Bozhija» at reading and writing schools corresponded to the program of one-class tserkovno-parish school. However more exact data on a course of "Law Bozhija» at schools of the given type has remained slightly. We can judge its more detailed maintenance under the remained data on the Program of tests for a rank of the teacher one-class tserkovnoyoprihodskoj schools and reading and writing schools in which it is designated, that the teacher should know [41, with. 19]: the short prayful appeals specified in «Rudiments of the Christian doctrine»; prays: «to the Tsar Heavenly... Svjatyj My God... Presvjataja to the Trinity. Otche ours... From a dream vostav... Priidite we will bow. Pardon mja, My God. To Svjatyj Angela. Presvjataja to the Empress mine. To virgin Devo. Rescue, My God, people Yours. Adequately is.) from the evening: Pardon us, My God, pardon us. Mercies of a door. My God the eternal. My God My God ours. Blagago the Tsar. To Angela Hristov. Yes the God will revive.» ; Also data from Sacred history Shabby and the New testament; the Short catechism under the book
«Rudiments of the Christian doctrine»; the doctrine about divine service under the book «the Short doctrine about Divine service of orthodox church in volume of city schools» under the textbook of an archpriest D. of the Sokolov or other textbook approved for city schools; church history under the book «Short church history» P.Smirnova's of archpriest or other textbook approved for city schools.

Certificate presence on a rank of "the initial teacher» or the teacher of tserkovno-parish schools was the basic requirement to teachers of schools of the reading and writing. If that was not available, the priest preliminary should make sure «of knowledge it of prays, sacred history, a short catechism and other subjects of training at reading and writing school» [41, with. 8] as teachers in reading and writing schools were employed at the discretion of the priest of that arrival at whom the school opened, or at the initiative of founders of school. Manuals were managements and the books specified by the Most holy Synod and uchilishchnym by council at the Most holy Synod. Grants concerned them with lessons under «Law Bozhiju», the abc-book of Church Slavonic language, the Gospel, CHasoslov, Psaltyr etc.

Reading and writing schools were the most simple educational institutions for reception of elementary knowledge. All maintenance of training has been directed to them on studying of bases of literacy, studying of "Law Bozhija» and was the basic component. At teaching and educational process of schools of the reading and writing also there was a sacral component. Like tserkovno-parish schools, in them it was recommended to begin and finish employment by a pray, before the beginning of academic year and in the end of it were made "molebstvija" (molebny). In celebratory and Sundays to pupils followed be present on Divine service. As presence of pupils on Divine service was rather significant for their spiritually-moral education, the care of it was assigned to trustees together with parish priests that affirmed rules: «about probably serviceable visiting of temple Bozhija
Pupils, with kakovoju tseliju in the villages kept away from church the voluntary dress next a supply »[41 can be founded, with. 9].

For the greatest successes in training the priest was recommended to visit often schools of the reading and writing and «to test pupils in passed»: to observe of teaching of the teacher, to conduct conversations on themes of "Law Bozhija». But the special attention should be turned on «the tserkovno-educational party of training» (a sacral component): «reverential reading of prays at school, visiting by pupils of temple Bozhija in Sunday and holidays, home reading of books and brochures of the instructive maintenance» [41, with. 11]. Also possibility in Sunday was given to the teacher and holidays «to arrange evening readings at school for pupils and their parents» [41, with. 11]. Readings, as a rule, were accompanied by singing of prays and church church chanting under the instructions and a management of the parish priest.

Sunday schools, leaning against point 7 «Rules about tserkovno-parish schools» 1884, opened with the permission of diocesan uchilishchnogo council, and also about the permission of the heads of provinces. As founders of Sunday schools the government, city and rural societies, private persons could act. These schools have been focused on training of illiterate adults, handicraftsmen, working, and also the poorest children who do not have possibilities to visit daily lessons. Sunday schools were divided on female and man's. Employment in them, as a rule, passed on Sundays (and in some schools and in celebratory) till some hours per day (in morning or a day time).

In regulating documents it was noticed, that Sunday schools «more, than any other schools, should have tserkovno-orthodox character what is inherent in tserkovno-parish schools» [180, with. 12]. In effect, it also has been reflected in the maintenance of training of Sunday schools which subsequently «have entered and in system of tserkovno-parish schools» (before Sunday schools could be secular and spiritual) [48, with. 84].

The training program at Sunday schools corresponded to the program of one-class tserkovno-parish school. Over it at schools classes on needlework (for girls) have been opened, and also lessons on plotting, drawing are entered, etc. As teaching structure at Sunday schools was established to have the priest or zakonouchitelja which should teach «the Law Divine», and teachers for teaching of other subjects.

Studying and familiarising with traditions of orthodox culture also were present at teaching and educational process of Sunday schools. First, it is a moral aspect of life of pupils of which was made to observe to the priest; it should be put to each Sunday school that «it was not supposed anything opposite to rules of orthodox belief and the morals beginnings» [155, with. 16]. Secondly, the organisation of a nonlearning life of Sunday schools, in particular, school holidays, as a rule, the most important - a Christmas and Easter, etc.

The following two types of schools which are in Department of the Ministry of National Education, - zemskie schools and city schools.

Zemsky schools. The training purpose in zemskih schools, as well as in all other elementary schools, was «to confirm in the people religious and moral concepts and to extend initial useful knowledge» [32, with. 836]. Training in zemskih schools was free and vsesoslovnym, children of both floors studied in them, training term made three years (one-class schools). Later, in the end of XIX - the XX-th century beginning, schools with four-year-old training (two-class schools) gradually began to extend. Zemsky schools have been rather extended on village, therefore often were called as rural schools.

As studying subjects in one-class zemskih schools «Position about initial national schools» had been confirmed 1874 the following: «the Law Divine» (a short catechism and Sacred history), Russian with calligraphy, arithmetics in the elementary statement, Church Slavonic language and church singing. For two-class rural schools by the Ministry of national education for studying have been confirmed «the Law
Divine », Russian, arithmetics, initial data from geography, histories Russian (including some themes from Church history), some data from natural sciences, Church Slavonic language and church singing [32, with. 836].

The studying purpose of "Law Bozhija» was «to bring up children in a Christian pious life, under the law of orthodox church» [24, with. 115]. In the first class in frameworks of "Law Bozhija» began to study the prays, the first concepts «about the God, the Creator and the Prothinker as Spirit ubiquitous and omniscient» [24, with. 116]. In the second class studied detailed history of the New testament with Gospel reading, reading and an explanation of some heads from apostolic messages and some psalms, the doctrine "by heart" liturgies and an explanation of other major services church and sacraments, a catechism [24, with. 116]. Orthodox culture studied also within the limits of a history course which included data from Church history, for example, such as «acceptance Olgoju of a St. christening, Vladimir's christening and Russian people, basis Kievo-Pecherskoj of monastery, Alexander Nevsky», etc. [24, with. 118]. Besides, the visible public figure and the publicist baron N.A. Korf noticed, that because of insufficient quantity taken away on «the Law Divine» hours (4 hours per week) the teacher «should take any case for religious-moral conversations with the pupils» [144, with. 297]. Thus, the program of studying of orthodox dogma has been considerably expanded.

Zemsky schools on spirit were rather close to schools tserkovno-parish. This communication was expressed not only in a similar curriculum, but also in the device of schools. About it F.Samarin in «the Report of an establishment of possible communication between zemskoj an elementary school and school tserkovnoyoprihodskoj» wrote: «the Tserkovno-parish school, on the primary goal, on spirit and a teaching direction does not differ essentially from zemskoj schools», the exception is made by only administrative party [204, with. 65-66].

N.A.Korf, describing the internal device zemskih schools, wrote: «Any day, before the beginning uchenja, immediately after an input of the teacher in a class, all pupils
Sing a pray and molitvoju educational day terminates; it brings up in pupils any business to begin with a pray »[144, with. 114]. Also the special attention was given to church singing, the purpose of these employment was singing of pupils behind divine service or if it appears impossible, knowledge and singing of the major prays:« I Believe "," to You we sing "," Otche we "," Adequately is », and also reading during Divine service shestopsalmija and other prays on a choir [20, with. 6].

The rules defined on district zemskih meetings in some zemstvoes or district cities, ordered also the relation of pupils to a sacral component of familiarising to orthodox culture. For example, in the Pskov district followed, that «pupils in zemskih schools children in holidays accurately visited church» and started sacred sacraments of Church [20, with. 6].

City schools. Initially city schools were called as one-class. Training in them was mainly free, vsesoslovnym and made three years. Later, in 1872, Position about city schools »which has defined their main purpose« dostavlenie to children of all estates initial intellectual and religioznoyonravstvennogo formations »[30 was accepted«, with. 728]. By the given position city schools became paid and vsesoslovnymi. They were subdivided on one-class, two-class, three-class, four-class. In all city schools the curriculum was identical, but schools with a considerable quantity of classes worked under the expanded programme. Following subjects were taught: « The law Divine », reading and the letter, Russian and Church Slavonic reading with a translation into Russian, arithmetics, geometry, geography and the Fatherland history, natural history and physics, plotting and drawing, singing, gymnastics. Moreover, could train in crafts [30, with. 728].

According to the training Program «Law Bozhija» in city schools, in the first year of training (in the first branch of the first class) studied: «the Story on pictures. Prinarovlennye to age and a life of children of conversation about the God - the Creator and the Prothinker, about a pray: slavoslovija, gratitudes and applications, on the Godfather
Sign, about icons and a temple of events, vospominaemyh pravoslavnoju church in dvunadesjatye holidays and on Easter holiday »; together with these conversations and stories studying of prays according to the teacher:« 1). For the sake of the Father and the Son and St. Spirit; 2). Glory to You, My God ours.; 3). Glory to the Father and the Son.; 4). My God pardon.; 5). Svjatyj My God.; 6). Presvjataja to the Trinity.; 7). My God Jesus Christ.; 8). Otche ours.; 9). To virgin Devo.; 10). Rescue, My God, people Yours. And if there will be time 11). To the tsar Heavenly.; 12). To Angela Hranitelju (short); 13). Before food acceptance; 14). After food acceptance; 15). Before the doctrine and 16). After the doctrine »[36, with. 14].

On the second year of training (in the second class) studied «stories from St. History at the grant of pictures», «prays, members of the Creed and the Precept» in common with sacred-historical stories, acquainted pupils «with evangelical the text» in parallel reading the Sunday gospel in Church Slavonic language [36, with. 22-23].

On the third year of training (in the third class) studied a course of Antiquated history, getting acquainted with the basic books of the Scriptus of the Old testament. Thus zakonouchitel should do «dogmatic and moral conclusions of historical stories, showing thus St. Histories with Christian dogma and a moral», and also acquainted pupils «with kartoju and the pivotal data of chronology» Sacred history [36, with. 25-26].

On the fourth year of training (in the fourth class) got acquainted with novozavetnoj history, already «with the Gospel text in Church Slavonic language, a card of Palestin and chronology data» [36, with. 37]. Thus of the studied facts zakonouchitel should do «moral and dogmatic conclusions, showing communication of evangelical history with Christian dogma and a moral» [36, with. 37].

On the fifth year of training (in the fifth class) it was taught the doctrine about divine service, were thus read (together with zakonouchitelem) «in tserkovno-slavic language those places from St. books of the Old testament which it is frequent
Are used at divine service », for example, prednachinatelnye psalms and shestopsalmie, paremii and the songs put at the heart of canons [36, with. 45-46].

On the sixth year of training (in the sixth class) within the limits of a course of "Law Bozhija» studied a short Catechism with the message of data «about sources of divine revelation» and «structure of books of the St. Writing» [36, with. 51]. At an explanation katehizicheskogo doctrines to pupils it was reminded «of those events of Sacred and Church History which can help to understanding of this doctrine» [36, with. 51].

It is necessary to notice, that according to time definition in city schools from 132 class periods 22 it was taken away on studying of "Law Bozhija», 36 - on studying of Church Slavonic language together with the letter, reading and Russian [22, with. 14]. In a percentage parity it is an order of 30 % and more time for studying verouchitelnyh disciplines from all school hours. Such distribution of school hours testified that verouchitelnym to the disciplines directed on studying of orthodox culture in city schools, the considerable attention was paid.

However studying of orthodox culture in city schools has been presented not only studying of "Law Bozhija» and Church Slavonic reading, but also its presence at an after-hour life of schools, since the receipt moment to school. So, according to the Instruction for city schools by Position from the March, 31st, 1872, all reception tests in schools came to an end «molebstvijami in the presence of the employees learning, pupils and parents of the last» [26, with. 17]. Also within the limits of disciplinary rules pupils for a quarter of hour prior to the beginning of employment were recommended to gather in school «for the general pray and to be established as it should be before St. ikonoju» [26, with. 22]. Prays followed read on molitvoslovu, «it is distinct and reverential, by turns, in an order specified in molitvoslove»: «For the sake of the Father and the Son and Svjatago Spirit...», «My God Jesus Christ...», «Glory to You, My God ours...», «to the Tsar Heavenly.» (The given pray was recommended to be sung), «Svjatyj My God.» (3 times) etc. [26, with. 22-23].

In days dvunadesjatyh church holidays to the specified prays singing celebratory troparej, and also an explanation the teacher of the Gospel of a holiday and holiday events [26 was added, with. 23]. During the Great Post before the beginning and upon termination of the doctrine it was recommended to read pokajannuju pray Efrema Sirina with bows to the ground [38, with. 22]. After lessons pupils also gathered for the general pray. When it could not be organised for all pupils, followed sing or read a pray «in each class separately, under supervision of the teacher» [26, with. 25].

Teachers had to undertake «every possible measures to drawing up of chorus of pupils for singing on church services», in particular on the Divine liturgy, on vespers services, utreni, hours velikopostnyh and easter, povecherija, molebna, requiems [38, with. 24]. All pupils of schools and schools were trained in church singing. The most capable, possessing good musical data, were selected for singing in uchilishchnom church chorus.

Besides, points 54-56 of the Instruction for city schools defined some rules of a Christian life of pupils (a sacral component), participation in Sacraments of a confession, communicating, govenie in days of the Great post etc.: pupils «annually in passionate sedmitsu the Great post confess and prichashchajutsja St. Secrets... And pupils are obliged to represent to the chief of school of the certificate on familiarising of St. Secrets» [26, with. 22]. In the note the wish that pupils "fasted" in one church at the zakonouchitelja expressed.

Visiting by pupils of temple Bozhija in Sunday and holidays also was obligatory point of the Instruction: «it is desirable, that all pupils gathered in one church under supervision of teachers (at least in days solemn); if local inconvenience pupils should visit the church under supervision of parents» [26 is represented to that, with. 22].

Thus, participation in a practical life of Church was an obligatory component in a life of pupils of city schools which not only demanded
Observance from pupils under the guidance of parents or teachers, but also it began to be regulated documentary and demanded the reporting in its observance.

It is necessary to notice, that inclusion of orthodox dogma in the training program has concerned also secondary education. So, in a gymnasia course «the Charter of grammar schools and programmar schools» from 1864 (and then its edition from 1874) along with other disciplines had been included «the Law Divine». Training in a grammar school made seven years, and since 1872 - eight years; throughout all this time prays, Sacred history Shabby and the New testament, a divine service explanation, Church history, a vast Catechism [47 were studied, with. 2-14]. On an example remained «Programs of lessons for I, II, III, IV and V classes of I th Moscow grammar school for 1870-1871» It is possible to track, that in 1 class there was a studying of "History of Church of the Old testament», assuming 29 lessons in a year [3, l. 1-2]; in the second class - data from «the Sacred history chosen from four Evangelists», 35 lessons in a year [4, l. 3-4]; in the third year of training - the studying of the Catechism designated in the program as lessons on «Law Bozhiju», as a management to which teaching «the Orthodox Christian Catechism», 32 lessons in a year [5, l served. 5-8]; in 4 class - continuation of studying of a catechism with an explanation of precepts of pleasure, sacraments of the church, remained not studied members of the Creed, on what took away 30 lessons in a year [6, l. 9-12]; in 5 class - doctrine studying about Divine service, «histories of Christian Church in first three centuries», всего30 lessons in a year [7, l. 13-14]; in 6 class - data «from Church history» the next centuries, 28 lessons in a year.

Concerning training process in grammar schools and presence at it of an orthodox component it is possible to note the following: before the beginning of employment to pupils followed read a pray «Preblagy My God.», in it, according to Rules, the main objective of training which pupils always should mean was expressed: «to increase (intellectually and it is moral) to our Founder in glory, to our parents on a consolation, to Church and Fatherland on advantage» [34, with. 3]. Thereby, like «more and more spirit Christ's
Doctrines, they (pupils - T.S.) should aspire in every way the soul to the perfection in every respect »[34, with. 3].

Besides it, in grammar schools rules concerning religious duties were established. So, Rules for pupils of grammar schools and programmar schools of department of the Ministry of national education from May, 4th, 1874 recommended «in Sunday and holidays, together with on the eve of these days to visit public Divine service», in a temple «to behave with awe appropriate to a relic», «annually in passionate sedmitsu to happen at a confession and a St. participle», the pupils participating in church chorus, should be in time for practise under the guidance of the regent or the singing-master [34, with. 3-4]. Besides, all pupils «should, how much can, promote grandeur of Divine service in gymnasia or appointed for visiting by pupils of a grammar school of church» [34, with. 4].

Thus, studying of orthodox culture in grammar schools has been presented by different ways and forms of training and pupils of grammar schools in full studied it not only at lessons, but also in after-hour activity.

In higher educational institutions in comparison with last period there were considerable changes that has concerned including some aspects of studying of orthodox culture. So, on faculty of law the basis of church jurisprudence (the church right), and on istorikoyofilologicheskom faculty - church history, with the chairs with the same name [27 has been put in pawn, with. 26]. The general chairs of divinity for all faculties continued to exist [27, with. 25-26]. As a rule, duties of the prior of university church were assigned to the priest-professor of divinity.

The sacral component began to be present at a life of the pupil of students to a lesser degree in comparison with the previous period. The autonomy given to universities before, has somewhat affected internal moods of the students, therefore the new University charter of 1884 had the overall objective «to put trained in such position that all their forces and attention were
Are concentrated exclusively to educational process »[169, with. 27] for the purpose of the prevention of student's disorders and distribution of antigovernmental propagation.

The system of spiritual formation during this period also has undergone changes: it began to include spiritual academies, theological seminaries, and also spiritual schools of an average, initial and lowest step (Sunday schools, reading and writing schools, tserkovno-parish schools). The last have been considered by us above within the limits of elementary education system. A subject of our further research is the technique of teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia; in detail to stop on studying of orthodox culture in the middle of XIX - the XX-th century beginning in the establishments concerning system of spiritual formation we we will not be.

Thus, in reforms and returning to conservatism (second half XIX - beginning HH centuries) is observed returning to the developed and profound studying of orthodox culture at all steps of a Russian education which has been presented by subject studying «the Law Divine» and others verouchitelnymi disciplines - «Church Slavonic language» and «Church singing». It were subjects which acquainted not only with dogma, but also other components of orthodox culture, for example, church art to which it is possible to carry agiografiju (lives sacred), gimnografiju (liturgical church chanting), the church fine arts (studying of frescos, mosaics, icons in temple lists), church music (singing), etc.

The subject «the Law Divine» in second half XIX centuries has been confirmed as obligatory for initial and average educational institutions, with the registered program and the curriculum and included following sections: Sacred history, a catechism, studying of prays and the doctrine about divine service. However, meaning branched out enough system initial and secondary education, it is important to note some features of studying «Law Bozhija» in each type of schools, at available similar lines in
Studying of the given course. At tserkovno-parish schools «the Law Divine» had the most extensive and full program, especially it concerned two-class tserkovno-parish schools. But under «Law Bozhiju» the program of one-class tserkovno-parish schools calculated for two years of training was considered as an optimum minimum level of knowledge. At reading and writing schools - the most simple educational institutions - the program «Law Bozhija» was a little simplified and as a whole corresponded to the program of one-class tserkovno-parish schools. At Sunday schools - educational institutions where employment passed on Sunday or to the days off, - the program «Law Bozhija» also corresponded to the program of one-class tserkovno-parish schools and included short, but the basic data in a subject. In zemskih the schools rather close on the organisation and the device with tserkovno-parish schools, the training program under «Law Bozhiju» also had similarity to the program tserkovnoyoprihodskih schools, being enough full and extensive, especially in two-class zemskih schools with four-year-old training. In city schools the program «Law Bozhija» was standard and "was stretched" for all years of training (from 2 till 6 years depending on quantity of classes), and under the maintenance corresponded to the program «Law Bozhija» one-class tserkovnoyoprihodskoj schools or has been expanded to the program two-class tserkovnoyoprihodskoj schools at longer term training. In establishments of system of secondary education - grammar schools - studying of "Law Bozhija» also lasted throughout all years of training and under the maintenance corresponded to the program of two-class tserkovno-parish schools. In theological seminaries of a separate subject «the Law Divine» did not study, but the majority of subjects, as a matter of fact, was more thorough and deep on degree of acquaintance with orthodox culture. In higher educational institutions «the Law Divine» as a separate subject did not study, however everywhere in them there were divinity chairs.

It is important to notice, that studying of orthodox culture in all types of the specified educational institutions was not limited to a subject «the Law Divine».
Organisation of an intraschool and out-of-school life promoted that pupils joined studying of orthodox culture in practice, by inclusion during the Church life (a sacral component): participation in the general prays in the beginning and the end of employment, prays before food intake and after, molebny on the beginning of academic year and in days of special school festivals, participation in divine services as parishioners, and also as singers of church chorus or readers of prayer books, observance of church posts and govenie in days of especially strict post, participation in sacraments of Church (a confession, communicating), etc.

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A source: Stanovskaya Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017. 2017

More on topic orthodox culture in the maintenance of formation of various types of the Russian school in second half XIX - beginnings HH centuries:

  1. preconditions and factors of formation of the maintenance and a technique of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school (end H - the middle of XIX centuries)
  2. Chapter 2. Perfection of the maintenance of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries and its value in a present context
  3. 2.2. Evolution of the maintenance of historical study of local lore as a condition of formation of historical consciousness in classical gymnasia formation of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  4. Chapter 1. Value of humanitarian subject matters in the maintenance of domestic classical gymnasia formation for formation of historical consciousness of pupils of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  5. ZUBAREV Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  6. MEZENTSEV YAROSLAV VLADIMIROVNA. PROBLEMS of FORMATION of the RUSSIAN SENSE of justice In TREATMENT of RUSSIAN LAWYERS of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the XX-th centuries (ISTORIKO-LEGAL ASPECT). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. St.-Petersburg - 2004, 2004
  7. Zubarev Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the dissertation Author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  8. § 2. Term application «destructive religious association» to the Russian legislation of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  9. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  11. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. TEACHING of ORTHODOX CULTURE At SCHOOLS of Russia IN SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNING of XX CENTURIES the dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017