preconditions and factors of formation of the maintenance and a technique of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school (end H - the middle of XIX centuries)

Let's consider, how the orthodox culture has been included in the domestic education maintenance during the period from the Christening of Russia (988) to the middle of XIX century. During this period of the subject especially allocated in the school program aimed at studying of orthodox culture, was not; the volume and character of studying of orthodox culture at various schools of Russia underwent a various sort of change.

We will consider them according to the allocated historical periods. The first of them we will designate since time of the Christening of Russia before Peter I reforms (second half XVII century); in history of pedagogics it is named by P.F.Kapterevym by church as the Church at that stage, on expression of the given author, defined an essence and the domestic education maintenance [127, with. 86].

Has traditionally begun developments of orthodox culture in Russia, no less than a domestic education, connect with acceptance by the Kiev prince Vladimir of Christian belief and the Christening of Russia in 988 year. Till this moment as that education system in Russia did not exist, and education and training of children occurred in a family where the basic educational means was work, experience of adults, traditions and customs of a family and a community.

With Christening acceptance by Russia Christian education, book education and formation as a whole began to develop. Many have been assured of it
Pre-revolutionary historians. So, N.M.Karamzin wrote: «Times Vladimirovy were the beginning of true national education in Russia.vladimir has increased this (quantity of competent people - T.S.) an institution of national schools to deliver to church of pastors and the priests understanding the book writing, and thus has opened to Russians a way to science and data which by means of the reading and writing from century to century are informed» [129, with. 122]. S.I.Miropolsky noticed, that «schools in Russia and formation arise together with education of Russia by Christianity» [162, with. 9].

The first steps in a direction of development of universal formation which was one of means of distribution of belief Christian, have been undertaken by prince Vladimir. After command to christen the people «on all cities and villages and everywhere to build churches» it issues the order «to train children in the doctrine book for what and to get schools on the sample Greek» [91, with. 6]. The first schools began to appear in Kiev, it were «schools uchenja book».

The basic educational means at schools were sacred books. According to historian V.V. Grigoriev, they «become sokrovishchnitseju that spiritual property which has laid down in a basis of all religious-moral and cultural life of the people» [91, with. 4]. Through the books of the Scriptus translated into slavic language and the divine service literature there was a training to the reading and writing. «The higher education, - M.I.Demkov,-.sostojalo in studying and thorough knowledge of books of the Scriptus» [97 marked, with. 6].

The list of "subjects" at Old Russian schools in representation of various historians a little raznitsja. So, S.I Miropolsky and M.I.Demkov allocated such subjects as reading, the letter and singing; V.V. Grigoriev the slavic reading and writing and writing (cites data that at Old Russian school were studied Word Bozhie, reading and the letter), singing, the Greek language (necessary for pastors of Church).

Despite some raznjashchiesja the data, almost all authors necessarily specify three basic subjects: reading, the letter and singing. As it was marked above, a training main objective at school was
Mastering by the Christian doctrine, Word Divine, therefore all subjects has been united and, according to S.I.Miropolsky, represented one subject: «As under a book word in an antiquity understood books sacred, reading and gramotoju was understood as reading of the divine writing... So« the book doctrine »was understood under a word spiritual education of the person by reading of sacred books and the fatherlike writing» [162, with. 36].

It is possible to speak and about origin of the first techniques of training to the reading and writing, the letter, singing. So, for example, training at schools, as a rule, began with training to reading because it promoted studying of Word Bozhija. It was made bukvoslagatelnym by way which has been borrowed Greeks. At first pupils got acquainted with the alphabet and learnt it by heart, then studied in folding of syllables and words. And only after that received religious or prayer books on which were improved in reading. One of them up to revolution of 1917 was, for example, Psaltir. Value of this book is rather great not only for development of the Church Slavonic reading and writing, but, first of all, for comprehension of orthodox dogma by each believing Christian. So, P.A.Jungerov noticed, that «not only at sacred meetings, but in ordinary life Psaltir always was in the extreme use at Christians. In Psaltiri critical minutes of the life found to native heart sounds and thoughts and tsars, both philosophers, and poets, both scientists, and plowmen. Ancient Christian martyrs and all who during subsequent times suffered disasters, persecutions and every possible injustice, found a special consolation in psalms »[267, with. 5].

Besides, Psaltir was one of the first books on whom were trained in church singing. Training to church singing in Russia has begun with times of occurrence of schools. Bulgarians were one of the first teachers of church singing along with Greeks. Thanking their activity church singing quickly enough has extended in Russia and after a while there were own masters of church singing.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the Old Russian school was school church, the orthodox culture became also the studying purpose in it, and the basic maintenance of training. As M.I.Demkov marked, «the school was for children a threshold of temple Bozhija» [97, with. 10]. However, despite it, it was not highly specialised, had not for an object cultivation and education is exclusive persons of spiritual estate. On the contrary, in it children of all estates studied.

The period of the tataro-Mongolian gain has slowed down distribution of orthodox culture in Russia. Certainly, it has concerned also education spheres: «.postepenno the intellectual acquisitions made before were lost, the next world of formation which so has brightly lighted up Russian earth during the previous epoch» [91 went out, with. 21]. M.I.Demkov wrote that formation has stopped in the development, in many places has weakened and has absolutely disappeared [97, with. 5]. However it was not gone definitively.

Monasteries became special keepers of formation of that time. «In a heavy time of national disasters educational value of monasteries was put forward with especial force» - M.I.Demkov [97 wrote, with. 5]. Against the general decline of level of literacy of the population only monasteries in those districts in which have not been destroyed, «kept and supported love to book business and uchenju» [91, with. 22]. At monasteries schools continued to exist, inoki were engaged in reading and copying of books.

After the Tatar invasion time of "collecting" of Russian earths has come. During this period questions of formation have faded into the background. However already after a while there is a comprehension of necessity of renewal, formation and training restoration. So, in 1551 it was accepted decision Stoglavogo of the Cathedral: «.v reigning hailstones to Moscow and on all gradam. izbrati kind spiritual priests and deacons, and clerks married and pious, imushchih in heart fear Divine, able others polzovati, and the reading and writing, both peti, and pisati gorazdi; and at those priests, both at deacons and at clerks uchiniti in domeh schools, that all svjashchennitsy and diakony and all orthodox

Christians in koemzhdo [each] hailstones betrayed it the children in nauchenie to the reading and writing and on the doctrine of the book letter and tserkovnago petija [singing], psaltirnago and readings nalojnago... »[229, with. 59]. Thus, training questions

Rising generation become care of the state.

The formation maintenance at Old Russian schools after clearing of the tataro-Mongolian gain has changed slightly: studied to read under Scriptus books, on them «navykali to the reading and writing», were engaged in church singing. As and during this period the school practically was one organism with Church, most likely, its learning and pupils actively participated in a practical life of Church, namely: in divine services, molebnah, children and their parents listened to sermons in temples, etc.

Church art has been apprehended together with Orthodox dogma from Byzantium and gradually, being based on the Byzantian tradition, began to develop and find the characteristic lines inherent in Russian orthodox tradition. Have appeared architectural, ikonopisnye schools, vyshivalnye the workshops, which distances a development direction to separate branches of church art. But within the limits of existing parish schools and elementary schools church art as a separate subject was not studied, and pupils got acquainted with it in a course «book uchenja» or by means of visiting of a temple, presence and participation on divine services.

The exception makes only divine service (church) singing, training to which has begun in schools with times of their occurrence in Russia. In more details about it it was spoken above.

At Old Russian school one more direction of Russian church art which has originated from divine service singing - gimnografija also starts to develop. Gimnografija (from grech. hymno - a hymn, a song and graphein - to write) is the section studying divine service church chanting of a liturgy. The basic concepts here are forms of divine service church chanting: antifony, Ipakoi, Tropar, Kondak, the Acathistus, Stihira, the Canon, Irmos, Sedalen, Svetilen, prokimen, Alliluary, Is involved, Polyfur-trees, etc. These church chanting
Forgot pupils in Old Russian schools within the limits of training to church singing already after pupils had been acquired initial bases of singing. After studying gimnograficheskih church chanting by the most capable pupil was permitted to sing them as a part of church chorus on a liturgy. Besides, the maintenance gimnograficheskih texts was some kind of the grant on studying of Law Bozhija as contained knowledge of church holidays, events from Sacred history, lives of saints and other knowledge of bases of Christian belief. Sacred in church tradition other special scientific discipline - agiografija (from grech was engaged in studying of a life also. hagios - sacred and grapho - to write) which has arisen in Byzantium and has continued the development in orthodox Russian tradition.

«Lives sacred were favourite reading of our ancestors», - G.P.Fedotov [246 wrote, with. 14]. On the one hand, lives belonged to the church literature as their authors were people from a tserkovno-religious part of a society and according to the destination life had religious character, and on the other hand, they have been focused on the simple people. Therefore, as V.P.Zavalnikov marks, Old Russian agiografija occupied intermediate position between a genre national and religious [112, with. 17]. Laymen aspired to write off or get for themselves zhitijnye collections and read their houses.

Also it is necessary to note one more version of church art for which started to prepare children, as a rule, girls, from the earliest age - church sewing. Skill of church sewing was considered as business charitable, therefore to needlework accustomed since the childhood and when girls became more senior and developed skill of sewing, they could work in vyshivalnyh workshops or "front rooms". The first workshops have started to appear in the Kiev Russia in XII century in female monasteries, and after already and in rich houses. So, the first sewing workshop knjazhny the Yankee, sisters Vladimir Monomaha who, «having collected maidens, trained in their writing, also crafts, singing and shveniju» [208 is known, with. 7]. Church sewing, as a rule,
Meant embroidery of icons, this art was called as obverse sewing: sacred faces of Lord Jesus Christ, the Mother of god, sacred, angels, event from Sacred and church history were represented; embroidery of divine service fabrics which was called as ornamental church sewing besides, practised. Performance such vyshivalnyh works, as well as in work of icon painters, demanded from the master of cleanliness of spirit. It was made a feat if the woman «on all noshchi stayed in entreaties. And in pjalichnom business» [208, with. 8].

A little the formation maintenance at so-called brotherly schools on the southwest earths of the Russia which has entered in XIV century in structure of the Lithuanian state, and then Poland varies. «The further development of education in our country, - considers S.J.Divnogortseva, - has received the direction from these schools». In the research it specifies, that «the history of occurrence of brotherly schools is connected with existence so-called“ the Magdebourg right ”which many cities of the southwest of Russia used: craft and merchant shops made communities, and each community had the special device, the court, management. These communities also have received the name of" brotherhoods ”, they were grouped about known monasteries and churches, accepting them in the department» [105, with. 22]. From the end of XVI century of a brotherhood began to undertake various measures to paralyse successes of Latin propagation. Among especially important steps - development of an education system by creation of a wide network of brotherly schools.

Education of children and young men in the spirit of the nationality, an eminence of religious-moral value of Orthodox Church, nauchenie to convince and defend in a scientifically-theological discourse of true of the belief - the primary goals of brotherly schools. But to us the organisation of teaching and educational process at brotherly schools which in all has been directed to an overall objective - to religious-moral education and training of pupils is represented to the most interesting. As a rule, the order was such: «In celebratory and Sundays value of holidays and the readings put on those days evangelical and apostolic spoke to pupils. On Saturday after vespers learnt children to fear Bozhiju and strict morals; it was inspired neopustitelno
To visit on holidays and Sundays divine service, to stand there with fear Bozhiim, with every possible silence, to listen to all read and poemoe; also it was made a duty to execute a Christian debt of a confession and a St. participle, to respect the places devoted to the God, somehow: tserkvam, to monasteries, schools to render to parents and teachers obedience and humility and so forth »[91, with. 40]. Besides, remained charter of one of brotherly schools in Lutsk (1624), the resulted D.L.Mordovtsevym, opens to us following devices of a life of school:« to Gather in school it was necessary by 9 o'clock. Having gathered in a class, pupils did not start to study until then, prays have not been read yet and forewords are usual »[91, with. 107]. Thus, on an example of this Charter we see, that children to the full participated, going to school, in a church life. They joined a sacral component of orthodox culture.

Besides books of the Scriptus and works of sacred fathers of Church, at schools of Ancient Russia special educational books for elementary education to reading - alphabets (soon become printing) which maintenance has been directly connected with orthodox dogma and culture began to appear. The first domestic printing abc-books have been made and published by Ivan Fedorovym the son: its "Alphabet" left in Lvov in 1574, the second, essentially added edition was issued in the Jail in 1578. It is considered to be one more of the first printing abc-books also the alphabet published by Vasily Burtsovym in 1634 in Moscow. In the foreword this alphabet is named "Lestvitseju" ("Lestnitseju") to studying CHasoslova, Psaltiri, the Gospel and other books; and the title before studying of letters in Vasily Burtsova's alphabet, no less than in Ivan Fedorova's alphabet says: « The initial doctrine the person wanting razumeti the divine writing »[73, with. 21]. The alphabet structure has been presented so: letters, names of letters, numbers, nadstrochnye signs, punctuation marks, forms of change of verbs and declination of names. Then there was a part which has been designated as the alphabet sensible, including some sayings from Jesus Christ doctrine, a precept, short katehizicheskoe the doctrine about belief, extracts from the Scriptus, some parables and manuals. Similarly were
Other alphabets which had «the maintenance various, in some abc-books extending with even more different articles» [127 are made also, with. 163].

Since XVII century, in addition to alphabets appear azbukovniki which include some articles for reading by pupils, and also a management for teachers. Besides a training part, in azbukovnikah the rules ordering strictly to watch religious behaviour of pupils as the school discipline closely contacted the doctrine about belief have been designated. V.V. Grigoriev, describing azbukovniki XVII centuries, characterises their orientation so: «the Maintenance azbukovnikov corresponds to character of then formation, carrying on itself the press of a moral-religious direction of mind of our ancestors» [91, with. 88-89].

Also since time of occurrence of brotherly schools the textbooks made by teachers of these schools began to extend. It were the abc-books training to the slavic alphabet and representing similarity of children's encyclopaedias, and also textbooks, for example: «the Greek grammar», published in 1591 in Lvov in parallel in two languages (Greek and slavic), «Slavic grammar» Lavrentija Zizanija, published in 1596 in Vilno, «Grammar slavic» Meletija Smotritsky, published in 1619, etc. All these textbooks, besides a subject teaching department, had the appendix connected with bases of Christian belief: in the Greek grammar there was a Creed statement, in Slavic grammar - pray interpretation «Otche ours», in Grammar slavic Meletija Smotritsky - the foreword about advantage and necessity of reading of the Scriptus and «dushepoleznye manuals» fathers of Church.

From time of joining of the Southwest earths to the Moscow Russia natives of brotherly schools began to influence development in it of formation. Speech, including, went about creation in the Moscow Russia of schools of higher order, rather than all existing earlier. Such school has been created in Moscow and has received the name Slavjano-Greek-Ellinsky (later - Slavjano - Greek-Latin) academies. Initially slavjano-Greek-Latin academy based by brothers Lihudami still in 1685, had the status of the spiritual
Schools. S.I.Smirnov, describing Academy history, specified what to study in it it was recommended following sciences: grammar, piitiku, rhetoric, dialectics, philosophy razumitelnuju (speculative), physics, the civil and church right, divinity contemplate (learning to divine things) and active (learning to conscience clarification), etc. [217, with. 12]. But in a basis uchebnoyovospitatelnogo process in Slavjano-Greek-Latin academy the religious-orthodox orientation which was in close interrelation with other sciences nevertheless was assumed. With creation of Slavjano-Greek-Latin academy has ended, as fairly marked P.F.Kapterev, the church period of development of the domestic pedagogics, characterised «prevailing position of church and its outlook in a life of Russian people in its formation» [127, with. 11].

The following period allocated with us, begins time of carrying out of Petrovsky reforms and comes to the end with the termination of board of Catherine II (the end XVII - with second half XVIII centuries). This period is characterised by that the state, taking school under the guardianship, removes familiarising of pupils with orthodox culture on the second plan.

The period of Petrovsky reforms has made considerable changes to an education system and education. Prompt development and reforming of various areas: manufactures, buildings, designing, military, economic, administrative and other branches - occurrence of new schools has generated. So, tsifirnye, navigatskie, the military-civil (garrison), sea, engineering and artillery schools having in the basis of the purpose of vocational training of experts-experts everywhere start to open. At new schools on the foreground there are mathematics, applied sciences (engineering, navigating, artillery), new foreign languages and arts which have been aimed at preparation of this or that sort of experts: «About vospitatelnosti formations at Petrovsky secular schools were not and pominu, it was replaced with simple training by the matematichesko-military man to sciences», - wrote P.F.Kapterev [127, with. 155]. Unity existing before in pedagogics under
The church beginning now has disappeared, formation became class, is professional-practical [127, with. 154].

In spite of the fact that in comparison with the previous epoch the educational and educational ideal began to vary and gradually to get a secular education vector, the orthodox culture continued remain an obligatory component in system of training and education tserkovno-parish and arhierejskih schools. About, whether the orthodox culture at new secular (state) schools was studied and in what volume, accurate data has not remained.

Tserkovno-parish schools, keeping in themselves way of Old Russian schools, continued to exist at temples, tserkvah, monasteries. In the maintenance of their formation has changed nothing: training to the Church Slavonic reading and writing for studying of books of the Scriptus and a word Divine, church singing for possibility of understanding of Divine services and participation in them remained their primary goals. The sacral component in teaching and educational process of such schools has been expressed most brightly. All way of tserkovno-parish schools submitted to a church divine service circle.

Schools at arhierejskih houses began to appear and especially to develop during the Petrovsky epoch. It, for example, school in Rostov, opened by metropolitan Dimitriem Rostov in 1703; in Tobolsk, opened metropolitan Filofeem Leschinsky in 1703-1704, in Novgorod, based by metropolitan Iovom Novgorod in 1706, etc. Feature of such schools was that the religious-focused component was a basis of these schools, and an overall objective arhierejskie schools had «the statement and expansion sloves Bozhiih», and they intended for children of clergy and clergy that «robjatok to learn to the reading and writing, and then to slavic grammar and other on slavenskom language to books and a catechism of orthodox belief» [TSit. On: 91, with. 139-140].

Let's consider on an example of school of metropolitan Dimitrija Rostov, in what degree arhierejskie schools have been included in orthodox culture and as it has been reflected in the formation maintenance in them. At the given Rostov school the course was "grammatical" and paid off for three years. During it
Pupils studied Russian and Greek languages, Latin and rhetoric. However the basic books on which there were prayer books and the Scriptus. So, to reading learnt under church books, also studied church singing, and the pray and a church life was an integral part of teaching and educational process [222, with. 3-15]. Prelate Dimitry Rostov was the confessor (confessor) for pupils of the school, itself professed and prichashchal pupils.

By preparation of children of clergy for the future service in Church, in the formation maintenance arhierejskih schools could not avoid direct participation of children in a practical life of Church. So, studying of orthodox culture in teaching and educational process has been realised not only by studying of orthodox dogma, but also thanks to presence of a sacral component: to participation in divine services, sacraments of a confession and communicating, the general prays, to sermons of spiritual instructors of schools etc.

However abolition of patriarchate and establishment of the Sacred Synod, and also the subsequent reforms of system of spiritual formation change the maintenance of formation and feature of the organisation of teaching and educational process arhierejskih schools a little. M.I.Demkov noticed, that the training program at such schools after the church reform regulated by the document «Spiritual Regulations», made in 1721 on the instructions of Peter I Feofanom Prokopovichem, became more volume and considerable, than before, and the tendency to "growth" arhierejskih schools [97 took place, with. 28], but after a while the educational level at schools has been a little lowered because of a lack of the qualified teachers. But at all schools the divinity on which it was taken away two years was necessarily studied. The maintenance of theological discipline assumed, that was «ucheno glavnyja doctrines of belief and the law Divine: Foreheads the teacher theological the Holy Writ also would study rules as the direct real nobility force, and sense of the writing: and all doctrines would strengthen the certificate of the writing: and in the help of that business, foreheads diligently sacred the father of the book »[75, with. 55]. In the literature a mention of Law Bozhija as systems
Certain knowledge on orthodox culture (in particular to dogma into which the Scriptus entered, its interpretation, svjatootecheskie doctrines) meets for the first time in the text «Spiritual Regulations».

Thus, during Petrovsky reforms the spiritual schools were allocated in special type of educational institutions, which steels to have is professional-class appointment, that is intended only for children of clergy and clergy. It has left traces on character of training in them. Formation in them has been closely connected with orthodox culture. Before reforms of 1721 in bolshej degrees it there was a practical component in studying of orthodox dogma, i.e. direct participation in the Church life. After the reforms ordered by "Spiritual Regulations», the circle of other subject matters has extended, and the curriculum has got in bolshej degrees a theoretical orientation though the sacral component to some extent was present at the formation maintenance of all arhierejskih schools.

Thus, since the Petrovsky epoch, the complete Old Russian school breaks up as a matter of fact to three types of educational institutions: comprehensive schools; the spiritual schools intending for vocational training of clergymen with expanded studying of orthodox dogma and cultures, including obligatory inclusion of pupils during a church life (a sacral component); old type church elementary schools at the arrivals, continuing actually in full to reproduce traditions of training and education of Old Russian schools. It is important to notice, that the orthodox culture was present at the formation maintenance at the schools designated above in different degree, but in the maintenance such, for example, educational books as abc-books and alphabets, it entered without fail.

Considering years of board of Catherine II, M.I.Demkov characterises the given period as time of revival of Russian pedagogics, however its basic feature marks privnesenie ideas of the West European education which have been reflected by N.I.Novikovym, I.E.ShChvartsem, I.I.Betsky and others. During Catherine II epoch the domestic education has undergone the considerable
Reforms - the system of the state formation as the Austrian has been created. The special commission on establishment of schools, on which plan in 1782 was engaged in its working out it was supposed to develop system of national schools, subdividing them on three types: small schools (2 years of training), averages (3 years of training), the main things (5 years of training). But in practice only small and main schools subsequently have been opened. Spiritual and private church schools besides, continued to exist.

Let's consider, how in each of the specified types of schools studying of orthodox culture has been presented. Work of the main and small schools was regulated left in 1786 «by the Charter of national schools in Russian empire» which covered only national education system in cities. According to the document, such schools should exist «in all Provinces and Namestnichestvah Russian empire, under a name of National Schools» [43, with. 646] also followed «to be to these schools on affinity of churches, or among a city» [43, with. 657].

The main schools had 4 classes (category) of training. In the first class reading, the letter, the initial bases of the Christian law and decency, «the Reduced catechism [2]» and «Sacred history» were studied; in the second class - «observing the same subjects of the Christian law and decency to start to read“ Vast katehezis ”without proofs from the Scriptus», also studied arithmetics, calligraphy, grammar and drawing, «the Book about posts of the person and the citizen», and also repeated Sacred history; in the third class - reading of explanations Gospel (interpretation), repetition of the Vast Catechism with explanations from the Scriptus, arithmetics, general history, geography, zemleopisanie Russia; in the fourth (on which 2 years of training were taken away) - history, geography, grammar, the beginnings of geometry, mechanics, physics, natural sciences, civil architecture.

Verouchitelnye disciplines on the fourth year of training any more were not taught [43, with. 646-647].

Small schools, in effect, were the same educational institutions, as the main things, with the training program «to subjects, prepodavaemym in 1 and 2 class of the Main national school, excepting the doctrine of foreign languages» [43, with. 648]. The basic grants on studying of orthodox dogma in them were: the Catechism (reduced and vast), Sacred history, explanations of the Gospel, the Russian abc-book with the alphabet church and civil. Verouchitelnye disciplines were taught by the same teachers, as other subjects. Before the existing order of teaching of orthodox dogma has been changed by clergy.

The charter in Russian empire did not order to national schools any instructions concerning participation of pupils in a practical life of Church. The unique point specifying in it, was following: «to All teachers is permitted to contain at itself pupils. At othozhdenii them to a dream and having risen from a dream, at the beginning and the termination of class periods, also before food and after onago to force them to read prays, accustoming that their example. If who from pupils in Sunday and holidays remains at the teacher the teacher should it interpret explanation of the Gospel of that day and to take it with itself in church, reminding it that it as in general stood there decently so osoblivo listened to the explained Gospel and the sermon» [43, with. 650-651]. The given position testifies that duhovnoyonravstvennoe education of pupils becomes private care of teachers, and also a personal duty of pupils.

In «Rules of pupils in national schools», made by F.I.Jankovichem de Mirievo, by the first section it is specified «As pupils should arrive before the God and in Church":"In general to all pupils is subject in Sunday and holidays diligently to go to church on a liturgy, and for luchshago an order is established, that anybody from pupils did not go from the house directly to church but that all on a ring gathered in school, here again submissively and silently
Expected divine service time ». Also, observing a church rule for orthodox Christians, at least once in a year to clear soul of the sins in sacraments of the Confession and the Communicating, the given rules« offer to pupils to bring the confession in the post founded by church and to taste Sacred Tain;... To this to read in school aloud usual to communicating and after onago prays »[270, with. 7-8]. Execution of a debt of a pray also was recommended to pupils before arrival to school and on arrival to it, together with the teacher in the form of perusal of the general uchilishchnoj prays.

Thus, the sacral component of orthodox culture in a certain kind was present at the state national schools. However in whole their organisation has already departed far from domashne-church atmosphere of schools of tserkovno-parish type. Having remained at arrivals and tserkvah, tserkovno-parish schools continued to be "keepers" of orthodox tradition and way of Old Russian schools. Their atmosphere and the organisation of teaching and educational process in many respects leant against church way. Representatives of clergy who were considered as "carriers" of the moral law taught orthodox dogma, besides, they usually were spiritual pastors and instructors of pupils and watched observance of the basic duties of the orthodox Christian by them: prays, Confessions, Communicatings, etc.

In days of Catherine II board spiritual schools have undergone to special reforming. The organisation raznourovnevoj the branched out network of spiritual schools, with accent on accessible and vsesoslovnoe national education was assumed. However to the full these plans have not been realised.

The program of new reform ordered creation in each diocese of seminaries of two categories (big and small) and 3-4 lowest spiritual schools or grammar schools at monasteries and curriculum expansion at spiritual schools introduction of general educational sciences.

The lowest spiritual schools or grammar schools, being are focused on children of clergy, were vsesoslovnymi and prepared pupils for receipt
In seminary. In them studied Russian, calligraphy, church singing, arithmetics, the first bases of Latin and Greek grammar. Small seminaries intended for «formations of candidates on spiritual service» [118, with. 473]. In them classic languages, arithmetics, geography, history, rhetoric with piitikoj, logic, moral philosophy and divinity were studied. The big seminaries physicists and polemic divinity had more serious theological level of preparation that was defined by addition to the subjects studied in small seminaries, German and French of languages, geometry, metaphysics, theoretical. Despite enough wide range of general educational disciplines, the greatest attention in seminaries it was given to divinity. For example, last two years of training in the big seminaries it was taken away on studying of exclusively divinity. And for the best result, according to the project, «should neotmenno interpretation St. is attached to be Writing in known days and hours »[118, with. 474].

The sacral component of orthodox culture has been realised in seminaries to the full. For an example we will consider the charter of one of such seminaries - the Tobolsk theological seminary. According to the charter, for its pupils the accurate daily routine and strict rules of behaviour have been established, including is rather long prays, presence on divine services etc.: «Pupils, rising in the morning at five o'clock and laying down in ten, should gather all in one rest for a pray.................. After a morning pray,

Having put on decently, go to the class... In a class observe modesty and silence so that all attention has been directed on rules, prepodavaemye the teacher... At a table should sit on the places without everyone to noise and having listened to a pray, to eat offered by it, listening meanwhile read from chair and to leave a dining room not before, as after perusal of a thankful pray... », also in Sunday and holidays« to be in church on all rule church, to stand on choirs, and to stand grandly and with awe, jako in Its house sacred »[88].

The third period allocated with us, - the end XVIII - It is connected first half XIX centuries with carrying out of reforms in the field of the state educational policy, and as its basic feature it is possible to note partial returning znanievogo a component of orthodox culture in comprehensive schools and searches of optimum volume and the form of its studying.

In the beginning of XIX century, in 1804, Alexander I has signed «the Charter of educational institutions, podvedomyh to universities» (further - the charter of 1804). The given charter had been legalised the state education system consisting of four steps: 1 step - parish schools (1 year of training); 2 step - district schools (2 years of training); 3 step - grammar schools (4 years of training); 4 step - universities.

According to the charter, the specified steps of training had continuity, i.e. wishing to study at university should pass preliminary a curriculum in the grammar schools arriving in a grammar school - a course of district school, in district school it was possible to arrive, only having ended parish school.

Parish schools were organised at church arrivals, each of which in provincial and district cities, and also in villages should have such school. The training purpose in parish schools assumed «preugotovljat youth for district schools» and «to deliver to children agricultural and other conditions of data to them decent, to make them in physical and moral relations the best, to give them exact concepts about natural phenomena and to exterminate in them superstitions and prejudices which actions are so harmful to their well-being, to health and a condition» [45, with. 640]. The training program in parish schools included reading, the letter, the first actions of arithmetics, the main beginnings of Law Bozhija and morals, and also studying of the book including a short explanation about rural housekeeping, nature product, addition of a human body and means to health protection.

On studying of orthodox culture in parish schools the following quantity of time was taken away: 3 hours from 9 week class periods - on studying of letters, numbers and reading of the civil and church press; 3 hours - on
The reduced catechism and Sacred history, on one hour per day alternately. Besides, in Sunday and holidays it was recommended to study a catechism and Sacred history on one hour.

In legislative base of the state elementary schools the mention of Law Bozhija as systems of knowledge of orthodox dogma in XIX century meets for the first time. Possibly, Law Bozhiim at the given step of formation was understood as studying of the reduced catechism and Sacred history as in the charter document these subjects have been specified in time distribution to studying of the program of training in parish schools.

It is important to note the following: tserkovno-parish schools and schools existed rather for a long time. Training has been directed to them on reception of elementary knowledge, including on the orthodox culture which studying did not stop since times of occurrence of Old Russian schools. Therefore at drawing up of the charter from 1804 them have simply included in system of an elementary education and have tried to regulate already existing uchebnoyovospitatelnyj process, including in a noegenesis question on orthodox culture. In practice studying of orthodox culture at parish schools was wider, as included a sacral component: prays before the beginning and in the end of employment, participation in school molebnah, sacraments of a confession and communicating etc. Joining by a practical life of Church, pupils received more knowledge, than at simple reception of theoretical data on Orthodoxy.

The subsequent educational reforms of first half XIX century, in particular left «the Charter of grammar schools and schools of district and parish 1828» (further - the charter of 1828), practically has not changed the training maintenance in parish schools, however he nevertheless has made changes to parish schools - in questions of the organisation of teaching and educational process, in a part connected with a church way of life of parish schools which became regulated. So, point 24 of the charter of 1828 ordered: «Employment in a class begin and
Terminate molitvoju: the Teacher orders to one of pupils, by turns, to read this aloud and observes, that the other listened with attention and awe »[42, with. 1101]. Besides, the given charter defined now, that verouchitelnye subjects should be prepodavaemy priests, and, as well as to other teachers, it recommended« not to lose in any case main, i.e. the moral purpose of education ":" Explaining to the pupils svjatyja trues of Christian belief and a virtue rule, they should try, that children entrusted to him not only without difficulty understood their instructor, but also got used to feel all importance of these and importance of the present and future duties to the God, to itself, to the authorities near and decided over them »[42, with. 1102]. The given instructions have received now the statement« on a paper »though before were present at training practice. The sacral component also continued to remain in the maintenance of training of parish schools.

In the charter of 1828 of data on orthodox dogma are designated by the short formulation - the Law Divine - with instructions on books on which it should be studied. However it yet a subject with the worked program and a training technique.

The second step - district schools which should open in all provincial and district cities, at least on one in everyone. The training purpose in district schools consisted in, that «priugotovit youth for grammar schools... And to open to children of a various condition necessary knowledge» [45, with. 636]. According to the charter of 1804, in them following subjects were taught: the Law Divine and Sacred history, posts of the person and the citizen, the Russian grammar, and also grammar of local language, calligraphy, spelling, syllable rules, geography, general and Russian history, arithmetics, initial rules of geometry, physics, natural sciences and technology, drawing. On studying verouchitelnyh disciplines it was taken away: in the first class - on the Law Divine and Sacred history 4 hours from 28 hours week; in the second class - within the limits of studying of Law Bozhija on studying of a vast catechism and
Explanations of the Gospel - 3 hours per week [45, with. 637-638]. As manuals for studying verouchitelnyh subjects «the Vast Catechism» metropolitan Philaret Drozdova and explanation of the Gospel was appointed.

In the list of subjects resulted above and time distribution to them also there is a mention of Law Bozhija as systems of knowledge of orthodox dogma. Though in this case Law Bozhiim was understood already as studying of "the Vast Catechism» and explanation of the Gospel. In more details about catechism structure allow to learn, for example, remained archival materials of the Moscow district spiritual school. We can see the approximate abstract from the Reduced catechism which assumed studying of following subsections: «About Bogopoznanii Natural: About Life Bozhiem, about Being Bozhiem, about Bogopochtenii; About Bogopoznanii Frank: About Belief Evangelical, about Law Bozhiem, on a pray Dominical» [9, l. 423].

Thus, it is possible to assume, that the concept and structure of Law Bozhija as subject for that period have not been accurately formulated, and it was understood as the certain substantive provisions, some books from the Bible, svjatootecheskaja the literature, explanatory grants etc.

The late charter of 1828 has increased training term in district schools till 3 years and has given the chance training to additional courses. Regarding studying of orthodox culture to studying of Law Bozhija and Sacred history studying of Church history was added. The name «the Law Divine» in the given document also appears as system of the basic knowledge of orthodox dogma (probably, here it it is a question of the Catechism). But all preconditions to its registration in a separate subject already exist. Besides, in the text of the charter of 1828 the priest who teaches bases of orthodox dogma, starts to be called as zakonouchitel, i.e. the teacher of Law Bozhija.

In district schools studying of orthodox culture occurred also by familiarising of pupils with a practical life of Church. In this respect
District schools were similar to the parish. So, on an example of Kirensky district school we see, that the educational heads strictly watched observance by pupils and teachers of all church ceremonies. Before the beginning of employment in school followed read prays, in some schools - the Gospel. In days of special church holidays pupils under supervision of teachers were recommended to be present at church on Divine service. In the posts established by Church, pupils and teachers should confess and prichashchatsja. In many cases non-observance of the given instructions was considered as a synonym of the unreliability, harmful, from the point of view of the heads, free-thinking [263, with. 10-12]. As a rule, the inspector in district schools the priest to whom the duty was assigned was appointed to observe of all parish schools of the district.

The third step - grammar schools; at least one grammar school should be opened in each provincial city. The training purpose in them under the charter of 1804 was «preparation for University sciences of youth» and «teaching of sciences, though initial, but subjects of the doctrine full in a reasoning» that who will want to continue the training at university [45, with. 626].

In grammar schools humanitarian subjects have been widely presented: Latin, German, French languages, geography, history, a course of statistics of the Russian state of the general and private, the beginnings of graceful sciences and the philosophies including morals, the initial bases of political economy, the mathematician (pure and applied), the skilled physics, the initial bases of the sciences concerning trade, technology, drawing [45, with. 626].

In the beginning of XIX century from verouchitelnyh subjects in grammar schools Morals in the second class were studied only, on them together with psychology 4 class periods in a week were taken away. Studying of orthodox culture in grammar schools under the charter of 1804 was limited only to it. P.F.Kapterev noticed, that, despite multiconcreteness and entsiklopedichnost a course of grammar schools, the orthodox culture presented by lessons of Law Bozhija, in them did not study, because
They, obviously, admitted superfluous because of presence of morals a philosophy course [127, with. 313].

The charter of 1828 brings in organizational and teaching and educational process in grammar schools considerable changes. First of all, it concerns the duration of the training which has increased till 7 years. The training maintenance has changed, but is insignificant, except that hours have been increased by studying of disciplines and their maintenance is accordingly expanded, and instead of morals began to be taught «the Law Divine, Sacred and Church History» [42, with. 1111]. Concerning the formulation of Law Bozhija similar representations as about system of knowledge of orthodox dogma here remained.

V.V. Grigoriev notices, that from now on lessons of Law Bozhija gradually receive «the main thing, taking priority value». It has been noted in the Charter of 1828 which ordered in grammar schools, district and parish schools to study the Law Divine and others verouchitelnye subjects [91, with. 340].

The fourth step - universities - according to the charter of 1804, should include four faculties (branch): moral and political sciences; physical and mathematical sciences; medical or medical sciences; verbal sciences. On branch of moral and political sciences the divinity (dogmatic and moralizing), interpretation of the Scriptus and church history [240] was without fail studied.

After 1817 at the initiative of Alexander I and A.N.Golitsyn who at that time was the Minister of national education and headed the Ministry of spiritual affairs and National Education, at all universities the chairs of the divinity which has been not provided by the Charter of 1804 began to open.

To students of universities visiting of temples, participation in sacraments of Church, schooling also was made a duty «to mercy affairs, by small alms on each condition, visiting of sick companions» [25, with. 9-10] etc.

The university charter of 1835 has even more expanded possibilities of studying of orthodox culture in higher educational institutions on a legislative basis and ordered the following: «For dogmatic and moralizing divinity, church history and church jurisprudence the chair for students all in general grekorossijskogo confessions» [241] is defined special, not belonging to any faculty.

In studying of orthodox culture after 1835 at universities it is a little data on presence of a sacral component, but all of them are. At universities there were university churches. So, at the Moscow university the church for students and teaching structure existed for a long time (though its locations varied), since second half XVIII century, shortly after the university has been opened. Therefore during solemn actions and the big church holidays students and teachers were present at a temple on the Divine Liturgy, participated in molebnah and sacraments of Church. Celebratory actions of university necessarily included divine service visiting.

One more type of educational institutions, along with the state educational institutions, were spiritual schools though some of them (for example, district and parish schools) in spite of the fact that were podvedomstvenny to the Sacred Synod, entered into the state 4-step education system (on I and II steps).

The device and the organisation of spiritual schools in first half XIX centuries also have undergone to reforming. For that moment in system of spiritual formation there was also a four-stage system: spiritual academies, seminaries, district and parish schools. The organisation of teaching and educational process in the last is considered by us above, therefore we will stop short on a question of studying of orthodox culture in spiritual academies and seminaries.

In seminaries and academies subjects were divided into 6 classes: a class of verbal sciences, with studying of Russian, Greek, Latin, and also
Studying of rhetoric, philosophy and aesthetics; a class of historical sciences, in particular, history and geography, general, church and bible; a class of the mathematical sciences consisting of algebra, geometry, mechanics, calculation pashalii, etc.; a class of the philosophical sciences consisting from logicians, metaphysics, physics and a moral; a class of the theological sciences including studying of moral and dogmatic divinity, germenevtiku, church archeology; a class of languages: Jewish, German or French - one on a choice. The curriculum in academies had more the expanded programme and made 4 years of training with division into 2 parts. Under B.V.Titlinova's remark, «among akademichesko - seminar sciences the first place on value was occupied with sciences theological» [237, with. 122] which had enough bolshy volume of sections and that for studying: Reading of the Scriptuses, divinity interpretative, dogmatic, sobesedovatelnoe, moral with joining vicarial, divinity accusatory about false doctrines out of Christianity, the initial right.

In a basis of teaching and educational process, according to charters of spiritual schools, piety, respect for the heads and seniors, obedience have been put fear Divine. Besides, training in spiritual academies and seminaries without fail included a sacral component. The pray was an obligatory making life of pupils, and, according to a daily routine, on it «the seventh o'clock in the morning» and evening time, after a supper and rest was taken away. Also all pupils should visit divine service in Church on Sundays and in days of church holidays, observe the posts established by Church. In particular it concerned the Great post: 71st point of the charter of seminaries and 76th point of the charter of academies ordered, that first and last week a post pupils fasted. Also employment by church singing were supposed.

Thus, having considered various types of educational institutions of the beginning of XIX century and the approximate maintenance of training in them, it is possible to tell, that there was a gradual statement and expansion of disciplines of a religious-orthodox orientation in all educational institutions of different steps of formation.

As to the educational literature for studying of orthodox dogma at school during the period from Peter I till 60th years of XIX century to reading of the Scriptus and other prayer books the Catechism is added.

The first published manual for initial and high schools became «Short katihizis for training of small children to the Orthodox Christian Law» (further «the Catechism for small children»), written by metropolitan Platon (Levshin) for Paul I, the successor of the Russian throne, son Catherine II. On the basis of the passed material and questions set by the successor metropolitan Platon has made a short catechism for an explanation to children of religious bases of orthodox culture at schools [see 156].

In «the Catechism for small children» has entered three parts. The first part told about natural Bogopoznanii, belief Christian, laws Bozhiih. The second part contained conversations with children about the Gospel, its value, about the Creed, and church sacraments. The third part was devoted to studying of ten precepts Divine.

Feature «the Catechism for small children» was that it is rather accessible, in Russian explained to children of a basis of orthodox dogma, such as: a Creed, ten precepts, knowledge of Christian sacraments and prays why it was recommended for studying in elementary schools. The big attention in "Catechism" was given to moral education of children, morals. Besides, in it instructions for carrying out of employment, and also some didactic recommendations contained.

If the basic books on studying of orthodox dogma and culture in Old Russian schools and schools were the Scriptus, Psaltir and other prayer books during the period of "the state pedagogics», in particular by the end XVIII - to the beginning of XIX centuries, they were replaced with a catechism (before studying of orthodox dogma in comprehensive schools with some time it has been suspended or replaced by a philosophy course) in which along with dogma bases Scriptus studying has gradually been included.

Besides, during this period the form of carrying out of lessons a little changes. It is not so simple reading Sacred and prayer books, and studying of orthodox dogma in the question-answer form, it is possible to tell, interpretation of bases of the dogma taken from the Scriptus, and also learning by heart fragments of texts from "Catechism" (learning of texts from the Scriptus was present and at Old Russian schools, however about a binding character of such learning a little that is known).

One more aspect which is important for noting, is a church art. If the period of "church pedagogics» was characterised as time of considerable presence of church art in an education system during the period of "the state pedagogics» the situation has considerably changed. Church singing in comprehensive schools practically was not studied, gimnografija as section of liturgical church chanting accordingly too. Agiografija (lives sacred) did not enter into the obligatory list of sections on orthodox dogma till the inclusion moment in it of Church history in which frameworks of a steel to study the biography of the sacred devotees, made the greatest impact on historical events during Church lives. The exception was made, as before, by parish schools with old way of Old Russian schools which tried to keep traditions of Old Russian training. But data on them during this period practically has not remained.

Perhaps, literary language reform at Peter I became the unique event promoting the further registration by one of disciplines of a religious orientation - Church Slavonic language - during this period. All prayer books: "Gospel", "Apostle", "Psaltir", «Triod Fast», «Triod Color», "CHasovnik" ("CHasoslov") and others were published and read in Church Slavonic language. During Petrovsky reform of the alphabet letters staroslavjanskoj Cyrillics which did not transfer sounds of slavic speech, and also dupletnye letters (designating the same sound) have been eliminated. Church Slavonic language after this reform to the middle of XIX century in comprehensive schools was not studied. "Catechism" at schools became
To be published in Russian. Therefore in due course, together with change of the maintenance of a course of "Law Bozhija» Church Slavonic language was issued in a separate subject which helped to understand Sacred and prayer books and to study orthodox dogma.

Thus, dynamics of interrelation of orthodox culture with a domestic education system has allowed us to allocate qualitatively various three periods on the specified parametre, in each of which registration preconditions in a domestic education system of a subject «the Law Divine» were consistently created.

In church pedagogics - (end H - the middle of XVII centuries) - The orthodox culture has been integrally included in the maintenance formation, moreover, it formed an education system in the bowels, was simultaneously both the formation purpose, and its maintenance. During this period in a domestic education system there was a unique type of school - church. Studying of texts of the Scriptus, prayer books, training to the letter and reading, church singing in it was reduced to one purpose - possibilities of studying and understanding of the Word Divine. Besides, the huge layer of developing Russian of church art has been included in the formation maintenance: divine service singing, gimnografija (liturgical church chanting), agiografija (studying of lives sacred), church sewing and other directions of church art. However the above-stated components of orthodox culture during the given period were not issued yet in special subjects (the exception, probably, makes only church singing). Development of orthodox culture occurred and thanks to an inclusiveness not only pupils, but also their parents during a practical life of Church: visiting of divine services, participation in sacraments of Church, molebnah, a joint pray at school and houses etc. It promoted that training at Old Russian school occurred in orthodox culture through studying of orthodox culture so, the maintenance of Old Russian formation submitted to the uniform purpose, was integrativnym, that is why productive.

With the beginning of Petrovsky reforms in a domestic education system there are the first comprehensive schools comprehension of orthodox dogma and culture was which purpose any more, and vocational training at Peter I and the general humanitarian education at Catherine II. To orthodox culture the first place in the formation maintenance in new, comprehensive schools was not taken away any more. However traditions of orthodox culture have so taken roots in national mentality, that the sacral component continued to be present at a life of pupils, but already as the private initiative. To the full and in the expanded volume the orthodox culture has been included in the maintenance of formation of so-called spiritual schools. Studying of orthodox culture in teaching and educational process was realised thanking as to studying of orthodox dogma, taki to participation in divine services, sacraments of a confession and communicating, the general prays, sermons of spiritual instructors of schools etc. The remained small private church schools at arrivals also continued traditions of studying of orthodox culture. By the end XVIII - to the beginning of XIX century studying of orthodox dogma has started to come back in bolshem volume in comprehensive schools and has been presented by development of "the Short Catechism» and fragments from the Scriptus. However the organisation uchebno - educational process and a way of life of schools already had secular character. Despite it, the sacral component still continued remain the integral component of educational process, but now was the private initiative of teachers and pupils.

Church art and singing in comprehensive schools was not studied. The exception was made by rural church schools which tried to save up way of Old Russian schools and were some kind of «keepers of orthodox culture». In them studying of church singing and Church Slavonic language as necessary for reading sacred and prayer books which were printed on-tserkovnoslavjanski remained. And only in first half XIX centuries in the state educational policy
There was some "crisis" which has introduced in an education system studying of orthodox culture in all educational institutions initial and secondary education.


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A source: Stanovskaya Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017. 2017

More on topic preconditions and factors of formation of the maintenance and a technique of teaching of orthodox culture at domestic school (end H - the middle of XIX centuries):

  1. orthodox culture in the maintenance of formation of various types of the Russian school in second half XIX - beginnings HH centuries
  2. actualisation of domestic experience of teaching of orthodox culture in modern educational practice
  3. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  4. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. TEACHING of ORTHODOX CULTURE At SCHOOLS of Russia IN SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNING of XX CENTURIES the dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  5. the Chapter the second. Sotsiokulturnye preconditions of formation of professional culture of region in the XIII-middle of XVI centuries
  6. Chapter 1. Directions of development of theoretical bases of domestic formation of the end of noble family XVIII - first third XIX centuries and its role in formation of spiritually-intellectual elite of a society
  7. Chapter 2. Perfection of the maintenance of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys in a domestic classical grammar school of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries and its value in a present context
  8. the purpose of studying, feature of construction of the maintenance and principles of teaching of orthodox culture in a context of introduction of a subject «the Law Divine»
  9. Chapter 1. Value of humanitarian subject matters in the maintenance of domestic classical gymnasia formation for formation of historical consciousness of pupils of second half XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries
  10. essence and features of formation of the end of noble family XVIII - first third XIX centuries.
  11. reflexion of theoretical bases of formation of noble family in formation of spiritually-intellectual elite of Russia of the end XVIII - first third XIX centuries
  12. methods and means of teaching of orthodox culture
  13. ZUBAREV Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  14. Zubarev Natalia Nikolaevna. FORMATION of HISTORICAL CONSCIOUSNESS of PUPILS In the DOMESTIC CLASSICAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL of SECOND HALF XIX - the BEGINNINGS of XX CENTURIES the dissertation Author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016, 2016
  16. 1.1. Factors of formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian subject matters of classical gymnasia formation as a condition of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys
  18. features of neomythological consciousness and myth functioning in the literature of the end XIX - the middle XX vv