Programmno-methodical maintenance of school music education in Russian emigration

Musicians-teachers of Russian abroad not only put and discussed questions of a technique and practice of music education of children of refugees in books, journal publications and reports on different sorts pedagogical forums, but also undertook concrete steps on programmno-methodical maintenance of music education at emigrant schools.

They had been created curriculums on singing for Russian schools abroad, separate teaching materials for pupils are prepared.

In this activity musicians-teachers leant first of all against achievements of teoretiko-methodical thought and practice of domestic school music education of a pre-revolutionary time. S.P.Orlova, M.V.Chernosvitovoj, A.D.Aleksandrovicha, S.A.Trailina's article and other musicians, published in the emigrant pedagogical press, testify, that they were well familiar with a domestic is musical-pedagogical heritage. By preparation of programs and grants for Russian school abroad musical teachers leant also against own experience of pedagogical work. Many of them before emigration long time taught singing lessons in general educational educational institutions, were authors of is musical-pedagogical works, were the taken place musical teachers. By preparation of programmno-methodical materials they considered also experience of foreign musical figures (in particular, E.Jacque-Dalkroza), and as
"Operating time" of the Soviet musicians-teachers, including V.N.Shatskoj, N.N.Dolomanovoj, A.S.Irisova [107, 108, 109].

The analysis of sources has shown, that in activity of musicians-teachers of Russian abroad on programmno-methodical maintenance of lessons of singing at Russian schools abroad it is possible to allocate two stages conditionally. During the first stage (till 1923) at these schools programs on the singing, created independently in this or that country, in this or that territory the separate teachers which activity went nobody were used and was not co-ordinated.

In archive some programs of a similar sort used in the early twenties at Russian schools of some the European countries have remained. In view of that the given programs were not published earlier, have not been entered into scientific use, we will result some of them in full volume. One of such documents was «the Program [on singing] for the basic [Russian] school» in Latvia. The given program has been calculated on teaching of lessons of singing on one hour per week per a preschool class and for two hours per week from the first on the sixth class. Here the text of this program:

«A preschool class

Singing. Concept about a sound (you sing it, you play, you hear). The note is a sign on the image of a sound. Duration of a sound to designate the account - blows. Singing and the account of simple quarter notes, designating the account a clap of hands or postukivaniem feet. Singing of small children's songs, humourous catchphrases and game within a fifth and a sixth, for example: 1) «Baju, bajushki baju»; 2) «Ah, you, kotenka, kotok»; 3) «Baj, kachi, kachi»; 4) «Ah, du-du, du-du»; 5) «the Rain, a rain cease»; 6) "Cockerel"; 7) «On a parquet of a fly of eight pairs danced»; 8) "Ladushki"; 9) «the Caught birdie»; 10) "Goat"; 11) "Swallow"; 12) «the Fleet horse»; 13) «In the evening the bashful person»; 14) «the winter» Here has come; 15) «In a round dance on freedom»; 16) «About what frogs» [4] croaked.

The [first] class of the basic school


Notes - signs for sounds. A musical camp (lines, the intervals, the first additional ruler). A step (the smallest part of a song, peski). Steps separate from each other cross-section lines. The size of a step various - chetyryohdolnyj, dvuhdolnyj. One share is equaled to one blow, the size also is designated by special signs: With, 2/4, ¾ in the beginning of each song or the play. Distinction of low and high sounds. Piano, forte. Deep and quiet breath through a nose and a mouth. Never to breathe in the middle of a word. A rhythm (uniform repetition of known number of blows in the appointed duration).

Diction (a true and exact pronunciation of syllables and words). To maintain a sound always on vowels. Singing of songs and children's games, as, for example: 1) «Lengthways yes on small river»; 2) «On bushes, on branches»; 3) «Sleep, the child, fall asleep»; 4) «Went ohotnichek»; 5) "Cuckoo"; 6) «All before I rise»; 7) «Ah, you of a shade»; 8) In a field the birch stood »; 9)"Summer morning"; 10)« Veins-was at the grandmother »; 11)« Zajchik in dances practised »; 12)« the Sun comes »; 13)« There in a distance behind the river »; 14)« Well, the cat, go »; 15)« At Foki was seven children »; 16)« Ah, the birdie »has got.

The [second] class of the basic school

Singing. The writing of notes. A pause (a silence or rest sign). Division of notes on whole, semitones, quarter and the eighth, as well division of pauses.

Intervals (intervals between two signs or distance from one note to another) the tonic, second, a third, a quart, a fifth, a sixth, a seventh, an octave. A reprise (the repetition sign, that is a song or a song part should be repeated two times). The Treble clef. Development of a vocal range to, mi and fa. Singing of national and other songs, as an example: 1) whether «you See as the sky clearly»; 2) «the sun for wood» Comes; 3) «the Lesson of dances»; 4) «the street has become covered by Snow»; 5) "Sail"; 6) "Orphan"; 7) "Spring"; 8) «Kohl is nice ours
The Lord »; 9)« Be turned green my green, magnificent garden »; 10)« And we sowed millet »; 11)« As at ours at gate »; 12)« Hey, we will crash »; 13)« the three daring »Here rushes; 14)« at Night in a cradle of the baby »; 15)« Birdie Bozhija does not know ».

The program of the [third] class of the basic school

Singing. Repetition of the theory of the previous classes. Singing of various songs, for example: 1) «If I a little bird was»; 2) «a bell evening; 3)« Smells as hay over meadows »; 4)« the Old song »; 5)« White snow swept up »; 6)« As heavenly force »glorifies the God; 7)« Ah, appease, you a storm »; 8)« Gulenki, gulenki »; 9)« There behind the river »; 10)« I long was motionless ».

The [fourth] class of the basic school

Singing. A point - point (at the note extends a sound two independent notes). 1/16 note.

Tone and semitone in an ascending and descending order: two whole tones, one semitone, three whole tones, one semitone.

Tonic (the first tone on which the interval is under construction, for example, re - fa a third, re - tonic, in a quart to - fa, to - tonic).

Triplet (the group of three notes, it is designated by an arch and figure 3). All three notes are sung on one blow, [that is] 3/4 or 3/8 are sung on one share.

Signs for strengthening and voice easing: piano - [silently], pianissimo - is very silent, forte - is loud, fortissimo - is very loud.

Exercises on two voices. Songs on one and on two voices: 1) «a minute of a life difficult»; 2) «In luzjah»; 3) «Birdie Bozhija»; 4) «the Gay, Slavs»; 5) «Hey, all scandal-mongers home»; 6) «Zemljanichka a berry»; 7) «In colour all village»; 8) «Zainka, jump»; 9) «it is loud»; 10) «Kind night, fall asleep». Singing of canons.

The [fifth] class of the basic school

Singing. Rate (speed of movement of a song and the play) largo - very slowly, the andante - slowly, moderato - is moderate, allegro - is fast, cheerful.

Chromatic scale (consists of a number of semitones). Major scale. A triad. An attentive and distinct pronunciation of consonants.

Musical shades in songs. The correct beginning of a sound. Keeping or filirovanie a sound. Linkage of notes.

Singing of scales on two voices, chords on three voices. Singing of national and other songs on two and three voices, for example: 1) "Maloletie" ([D.S.] Bortnjansky); 2) «As by the dark blue sea» (national); 3) «Downwards on the mother, across Volga» (national); 4) «Sleep, the baby my fine» ([it is illegible]); 5) «I saw a birch» ([A.G.] Rubinshtejn); 6) «there Comes spring» ([SH] Gounod); 7) «Day has come» ([F] Mendelson); 8) «the Boring picture» ([Item I] Tchaikovsky).

The [sixth] class of the basic school

Singing. Scales minor. Their construction in dependence and comparison with major [scales].

Harmony or system of major scale - firm and cheerful. A harmony of minor scale - soft and sad. The minor scale is under construction to in parallel major [scale] on a third more low, for example: To a major - lja a minor. Exercises on [one, two, three] voices. Repetition of the passed.

Approximate songs: 1) «Maidens, beauties». (Chorus of girls from an opera "Evgenie Onegin" [Item I] Tchaikovsky); 2) «My pretty friend» (from op [ery] "Queen of spades" [the Item And] Tchaikovsky; 3) "Duets" [F] Mendelson;

4) national songs «In the river runs the rattling shaft","Ruddy zaryoju has become covered the east","You ascend, the sun»; 5) «Was at the Christ of the baby a garden» ("Legend" [Item I] Tchaikovsky); 6) «In the north wild» [A.S.] Dargomyzhsky; 7) «water vernal» (from op [ery] «the Life for the tsar» [M. I] Glinka) »[14, l Spread, has cleared up. 155-176].

In work it was recommended to use such collections, as "Psaltery" [I.S.porhanova], «the Red sun» [N.M.] Eroshenko, «the New collection of choruses» [N.M.] Eroshenko, «the Collection of songs» P.Juljana, etc.

The Program on singing »which was used at Russian schools of Estonia was more laconic«. The given program offered the following maintenance of musical training [43, l. 4]:

«The [First] class

Concept about sounds. A musical sound - tone. Distinction of tones on height, duration, force and a timbre. Simple sounds. Octaves and steps. Alphabetic zvukopisanie. Musical signs. Notopisanie. Division of notes. Keys. A musical camp. Pauses. A point point. Signs on force of a sound.

odnogolosnoe singing.

The [second] class

Concept about intervals. Quantity of intervals. Second - as a unit of measure of intervals (big and small). Chromatic signs. Quantitative and qualitative size of intervals. A rhythm. A step. Aktsentuatsija steps. Simple and difficult rhythms. The reference of intervals. Solfeggio.

Singing odnogolosnyh songs.

The [third] class

Concept about scale. Scales: diatonicheskie, chromatic and engarmonicheskie. Their distinctions and ways of construction. Rate. Studying of a metronome and its application. A transposition. Rhythmic exercises. Solfeggio.

Singing odnogolosnyh and dvuhgolosnyh songs.

The [fourth] class

Concept about a tetrachord and its construction. A harmony and a tonality. Diatonichesky scale of a major harmony. Its scheme. Singing of scale of a major harmony. Solfeggio.

Singing of two [golosnyh and] tryohgolosnyh songs.

The [fifth] class

Diatonichesky scale of a minor harmony. Its scheme. Scale of a minor harmony harmonious and its scheme. A leading note. The name of steps of scale. Scale of a minor harmony melodic and its scheme. Singing of scales. Affinity of tones. Singing of chromatic scale. Solfeggio.

Singing tryohgolosnyh songs.

The [sixth] class

Sinkopirovanie notes. Melizmy. Short data on harmony. A triad. Konsonans and a discord. Triads of scales of a major and minor harmony. The main things and naiupotrebitelnye triads. Combinations of triads. The general tone. Combinations of triads not having external communication. Dominantakkord and nonakkord and their permission. A wide and close arrangement of chords. Short history of music. Solfeggio.

Singing of four-part songs »[43, l. 4].

The comparative analysis of the maintenance resulted above programs has shown, that the basic accent in them became on detailed enough acquaintance of pupils with the musical reading and writing, on development in them of skills of choral singing (odnogolosnogo and mnogogolosnogo) on examples of national songs, compositions of domestic and foreign composers. These programs under the maintenance were in many respects similar with programs on singing which were applied in initial and high schools of Russia of the end XIX - the XX-th century beginnings where too traditionally big place was given to questions of acquaintance of children with the musical reading and writing and the priority place was taken away singing activity.

The second stage of work on programmno-methodical maintenance of a subject "singing" at Russian emigrant schools has begun since 1923 and has been connected with aspiration of the socially-pedagogical centres of Russian abroad to unify curricula and programs of schools of the Russian diasporas located in the various European countries, to give to the given programs more expressed Russian beginning. It has been caused by that to the middle of 1920th years in emigration to be designated there was more and more clearly a tendency of loss children of Russian refugees of national originality.

One of the first attempts in this direction has been undertaken at the First pedagogical congress which has taken place in the spring of 1923 in Prague. The given congress, modern researchers mark, was of great importance for Russian emigrant schools as on it were
Some general approaches to training and education of children of Russian refugees are developed.

At congress the report of known pedagogical figure A.A.Zemljanitsyna «next problems of high school» in which approximate programs on all subjects of Russian emigrant school were stated, including «the Program of teaching of singing in Russian high school» has been presented. Giving comments to the given program, A.A.Zemljanitsyn noticed, that the new sight at teaching at schools of subjects of art, including singing which should be taught in «national spirit» is necessary and develop in children national feeling.

The maintenance considered «Programs of teaching of singing» included six sections:

«1) the General concepts about music. A music origin. Its basic elements.

2) Sources of musical creativity. Folk music roots. National songs of the different people (their comparison).

3) Processing of national songs. National musical creativity. Comparison of different kinds of national creativity (on nationalities).

4) music Historical development. Different forms of pieces of music.

5) Russian music. Russian song and its elements (slavic and east). Different kinds of Russian song: bylinas, spiritual verses, household, wedding, ceremonial, pljasovye, lyrical. Songs pseudo-national (soldier's, factory, chastooshkas). Malorussky songs. Songs Cossack.

6) Musical processing of Russian song. Our composers: [A.N.] Verestovsky, [A.V.] Serov, [M. I] Glinka, [Item I] Tchaikovsky, [N.A.] Roman-korsakov, [A.P.] Borodin, [TS.A.] Kjui, [M. P] Musorgsky, [A.G.] Rubinshtejn, [A.K.] Glazunov, [A.K.] Ljadov, [A.S.] Arensky, [S.V.]
Rakhmaninov, [A.T.] Grechaninov, [M. A] Balakirev and the friend [ie]. National motives in their creativity »[5] ^, l. 21].

It is difficult to name the resulted material the curriculum in its standard value. More likely, this short transfer of those directions on which it was offered to spend musical work with children at Russian emigrant schools. The main thought in the considered text is expressed quite distinctly: it was recommended to give the basic attention to acquaintance of schoolboys with Russian musical art, especially national songs in their comparison to musical folklore of other people. The variant of the program presented Zemljanitsynym, considerably differed from resulted above curriculums on singing for Russian schools of Latvia and Estonia. The given variant assumed wider maintenance of school music education, focused singing-masters on the message the pupil of various knowledge of music - its histories, forms, genres.

At the Second congress of figures of average and lowest Russian school abroad (June, 1925, Prague) work on an establishment of the general bases of obrazovatelno-educational activity of Russian emigrant schools, on creation for them the unified curriculum and programs of subject matters has been continued. The big spadework to congress was spent by the Program commission of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad, the collected and analysed programmno-methodical materials, including on the singing, applied in Russian schools of the different European countries.

The program commission focused members of sections entering into it in high school subjects, including representatives of section of music, on preparation of such variants of programs of subject matters which would promote preservation of national character of Russian school abroad. Russian beginning, the chairman of the Program commission professor I.M.Malinin underlined, should be at emigrant schools in the foreground. «All teachers at all schools and in all subjects should use each opportunity, and whenever possible even each lesson to strengthen in pupils national feeling, to deepen in them national consciousness by a concentration of their attention on those cultural values which were brought by Russian people in a world treasury in the form of products and works of Russian writers, artists, scientific, composers and others» [27, l. 80].

Simultaneously with discussion at congress of a problem of preservation of national character of Russian school in the conditions of emigration, on it the question on ways of its integration into cultural space of the countries of residing of emigrants, about adaptation of Russian educational institutions to social and educational conditions of these countries also was comprehended.

In the tideway of stated above installations at congress the question on character and the music education maintenance at Russian emigrant schools has been put and discussed. On singing for Russian schools the program variant has been presented to the emigrations, the prepared S.P.Orlovym to the program commission of the Pedagogical bureau. The given document in archival materials is not found out. But it is possible to judge its maintenance quite definitely under the text remained in archives of the manuscript of "Conclusion" of the Program commission of the Pedagogical bureau in which substantive provisions of the named program are stated. In the "Conclusion" text it is spoken:

«Including music an essential part of education in general, and Russian music an essential part of Russian national culture and recognising
Its mighty factor in business of national education, the Commission considers necessary:

1. To enter musical education into all emigrant schools as an obligatory subject, having given to it for 2 hours per week per first three classes and on 1 hour per four following classes, being guided by programs and the schemes offered by S.P.eagle [ym], namely:

[Two words it is illegible] a private kind of musical work at school, «school singing» [is necessary] to move apart in systematic system of musical education which should include except singing also music hearing, studying of the theory and music history (in particular Russian music) and the analysis of pieces of music from a melody, a rhythm, harmonies, the form and style.

The Purpose of musical education is at all vocational training of the singer or the instrumentalist, but the general musical development of the child, i.e. Awakening and development in children of feeling is musical-fine, ability to feel and worry music, awakening of love and interest to musical art in general and to native in particular, ability to notice and feel, distinguish at the higher steps of training and to formulate characteristic lines of Russian music (to catch "russkost" Russian music). All possible mechanical means of reproduction of music should be involved In business of musical education in particular regarding music hearing, as, napr [imer], the piano, a record player, in case of possibility a radio telephone.

In view of svoeobraznosti Russian music and radical differences of its system from system zap [adno] the European music and all more sharply noticed among Russian youth of loss of a scent of native music Russian national music and as its basis - Russian national song should be an axis of musical employment at school.

d) the Sufficient place should be taken away and Russian sacred music, as part of Russian musical culture equal in rights.

e) the West European music even in its best samples should be supposed only as a material of illustrative, shading characteristic line of music Russian. It is necessary to acquaint pupils with it, but by no means on it not to bring up. Its long or exclusive influence postpones the Russian child from a scent and understanding of native music.

Primech [anie]. Using is false Russian school collections like known and, unfortunately, at Russian school rather extended "Guselek" Vesselja and Albrecht, filled under the pretext of Russian songs transfers of third-rate German songs (documentary proofs of it in S.P.Orlova's report see), is the most harmful and inadmissible from Russian point of view. For business of national musical education similar collections are harmful in the same measure, as literal German translations of insignificant German stylists to development of correct Russian speech. Musical language Russian in the same measure differs from muses [ykalnogo] German language, as verbal speech Russian from speech German.

f) the Place given before a German song, should be taken away to a song slavic (i.e. To a song of other slavic people). It is necessary not only from liking to fraternal people, but also for the reasons covered in the nature of slavic songs, for reasons a trace [ujushchego] didactic and methodical character: a slavic song on the spirit and on relationship of formal elements - on the melodike, rhythmics etc. Much more close to a song Russian, than a song German, that speaks, on the one hand, the general sources of slavic culture, and on the other hand, [apparently], presence of known, general racial signs of the Slavic peoples causing their certain unity creative [on] tentsii.

Along with acquaintance of Russian children with a national song of other Slavs their acquaintance with the pivotal stages of musical development of these people both their pivotal composers and musical figures and first of all, of course, that country where there live Russian children is desirable.

Primech [anie]. Acquaintance of Russian children with music of the West and world sizes as Palestrina, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner and others, undoubtedly, should be, but in connection with history of Russian music and so far as as their influence was reflected in history of Russian music.

At a choice of a material for learning the school should give the songs having not only prevodjashchy a school example, but to supply pupils with good national songs and in road »[6] [44, l. 17-19].

In archive the short response of musician-teacher N.N.Rozova on presented to S.P.Orlovym in the program commission materials has remained. In this response, in particular, it is spoken: «the Program and S.P.Orlova's explanatory note are based on the healthy Russian basis and consequently they can be welcomed only. It is quite right specified, that it is necessary not only to learn their [children] to music, and it is necessary to develop musicality by acquaintance of pupils with the best samples of our creativity in good execution. It is necessary, this first business» [44, l. 16].

Commission "conclusion" in which program installations on basic questions of music education at Russian emigrant schools are stated, in many respects is the remarkable document.

First of all in this document the music place in business of education of rising generation as integral part of this education quite definitely is underlined. The special importance of musical art in training and education of children in conditions inokulturnoj is noted environments also
As mighty factor of their national education. The question on the status of musical employment in comprehensive schools of Russian abroad is distinctly designated: they should be obligatory and be taught to all children within all five years of school training. We will notice, that in pre-revolutionary Russian initial national schools and the governmental grammar schools the subject "Singing" was among disciplines unessential to studying. Installation of teachers-musicians of emigration was in this question a step forward. Obligatory after 1917 singing lessons have been declared and at uniform labour school of the Soviet Russia.

In the considered document the purpose of school musical employment - the general musical development of children is accurately formulated. The given installation focused school teachers-musicians on the decision of problems of musical training, education and development of children, and, for example, not on their religious education as it has been specified in programs on church singing for tserkovno-parish schools of pre-revolutionary time. The document aimed emigrant schools at considerable expansion of the maintenance of music education, on that pupils acquainted in sufficient volume with the theory and history of musical art, regularly learnt them to execute, listen, analyze pieces of music. The similar approach has been put and in a program basis on the singing (music), prepared in the first poslerevoljutsionnye years in bowels narkomprosa RSFSR for the Soviet schools.

In the analyzed document the thought on necessity of construction of music education at schools of Russian abroad both on secular, and on a sacred music was important. Such approach differed from program installations of the Soviet school of 1920-1930th years according to which the sacred music has been excluded from the maintenance of school training. Existing centuries-old domestic tradition
Rising generation familiarizings simultaneously and to secular, and a sacred music it has been interrupted. At Russian emigrant schools this tradition was supported up to the termination of activity of the majority of these schools in the late thirties.

Basic value for Russian schools installation containing in the analyzed document abroad had to pay priority attention in work with children to domestic musical art, especially rising generation education on samples Russian national pesennogo creativity, and also music of the slavic people. Today it is difficult to agree with the thesis containing in the document that the West European music can be supposed in school as «a material illustrative» that it is necessary to acquaint children with this music, but «on it not to bring up». Probably, activity conditions bezhenskih schools abroad were so uneasy, that for preservation of Russian children by Russian it was required to bring an attention to the question in such plane.

Finishing the analysis of "Conclusion" of the Program commission, we will notice, that in it in the generalised kind quite certain answer to a question was given: «What should be music education at Russian emigrant school?». In positions containing in the document have found reflexion the advanced methodical installations of pre-revolutionary time (generality, a continuity, width of school music education), and also the approaches caused by specificity of activity of Russian schools abroad (prioritetnost domestic music, special attention to Russian national song, etc.)

By musicians-teachers of Russian abroad during the considered period have been prepared not only programs on singing for emigrant schools, but also a small number of the educational editions addressed by the pupil of these schools. The most considerable among these works is the written S.P.Orlovym the textbook of choral singing for schools and choruses «To native tunes» (Prague, 1924). The given textbook represents rare, and is possible, and
Unique example (other editions of a similar sort by us it is not revealed) the educational book on the singing, specially written for pupils of Russian emigrant schools, that does necessary to give its detailed analysis [7].

The plan of the considered book is distinctly expressed in its name - «To native tunes». The author saw the mission in that singing lessons at emigration schools became lessons of familiarising of pupils first of all to a domestic musical heritage, to a native song. According to Orlova, the basic idea of creation of the textbook consisted in presenting in it all that it is necessary to know to the Russian pupil, thus it started with following installations: 1) necessity of teaching of singing under notes with mastering of bases of the elementary theory of music; 2) necessity basis of all teaching of singing at Russian schools to make Russian national song; 3) necessity of acquaintance of pupils with character and a structure of Russian song, with the pivotal stages of development of Russian music, biographic data of outstanding Russian composers [106, with. I].

The textbook «To native tunes» consists of four sections:

1. Elementary data from the theory of music and a number of exercises.

2. Data on Russian national song and a song of other slavic people.

3. Short data from history of Russian music with biographies of outstanding Russian composers.

4. The collection of songs.

The first section of the textbook contains data on notes, dlitelnostjah, the sizes, intervals, scales, etc. All theoretical positions are supported by bright examples. Special attention of Eagles has given to consideration of a structure of Russian national song, it ladovyh, rhythmic and other features.

The second section of the textbook is devoted history of Russian national song, the characteristic of its distinctive signs. Considering features of Russian music, the author drew parallels with the West European music. Together with simple dvudolnym and tryohdolnym in the size the teacher gave for studying pjatidolnyj and semidolnyj the size, explaining it that the given sizes are very common in Russian folk music and make its distinctive feature. «They bring in Russian music, - he wrote, - many new interesting rhythmic figures which the West European music leaning mainly on 2-dolnye and 3-dolnye steps, has no» [106, with. 52]. The author also had been gave data on origin of Christian church singing, its features and historical development, about glasovom singing.

In the same section of Eagles has shown, that Russian national song the roots leaves in slavic music. He underlined: «Ancestors of Russian people - slavic tribes - occupying spaces of present Russia, have announced their songs, and since then the song over Russkoju zemlyoju did not become silent. The people lived with it, stored it, transferred from generation to generation, carrying by it through the most gloomy times of the life» [106, with. 73]. Some theoretical positions (for example, unpaired crushing of notes) are shown in the textbook on examples of the Czech, Moravian folk music and music of other slavic people.

Mastering with pupils the rhythm, Eagles also entered examples, characteristic for Russian and slavic national songs. In the textbook the author had been prepared «Tables of rhythmic figures» which were included by the most typical samples meeting in the choral literature [106, with. 71-72].

The given rhythmic figures forgot pupils in the certain size on a syllable "lja" and with the account a hand. All rhythmic schemes were learnt by heart. According to the author, it is important, that at listening
Musical material the schoolboy was able to "seize and define at once on hearing an executed rhythmic combination.

The similar method in studying of the rhythmic figures, offered in textbook Orlova, was used in educational practice of the Soviet comprehensive schools, in particular, musicians-teachers V.G.Chernushenko and E.I.Balchitisom.

In the third section of the textbook short data from history of Russian music are presented, biographies of many Russian composers, including M.A.Balakirev, A.K.Glazunov, M.I.Glinka, M.P.Musorgsky, N.A.Roman, A.N.Skryabin, S.I.Taneeva, P.I.Tchaikovsky are placed. To this material as the author marked, it attached special educational significance. «Among our composers, - wrote Eagles, - is not only musical geniuses to whom as though from courtesy a tribute of respect should be paid. Among them there are many persons of huge sincere greatness and moral beauty and force. Their names should be known to each Russian child. Their light images should face always to eyes of Russian youth, as an example of moral force and self-denying service to the people» [44, l. 15].

Textbook Orlova contained also the practical tasks addressed by the pupil. In the textbook many "problems" are presented. The "problem" term is entered by the author. The decision of "problems" specified on problemnoyopoiskovyj character that promoted activization of attention of pupils, to thinking development, deeper development of knowledge. For example, at studying of scales the author suggested pupils to write scale "to" in a treble clef, to break it into tetrachords, to note a finding of tones and semitones.

Certain tasks Orlovym have been directed for work of pupils with a didactic material. Such tasks promoted fastening of the got knowledge. As one of examples to schoolboys was offered for cutting out from a cardboard of a strip with distance in 1 tone - 1 sm, half-tone - 0,5 sm, the least strip which represented the first step "to", - 6
See the Pupil it was necessary to make of these strips the table of scale "to" and to sign on each strip the name of steps [106, with. 13].

To other kinds of practical activities in the textbook the exercises directed on formation of vocal skills and abilities have been given. For example, exercises on singing of sounds of the top and bottom tetrachord with the name of notes and on vowel sounds [106, with. 15-16].

In conclusion of each theme of Eagles recommended to schoolboys questions for repetition which promoted fastening of the received knowledge.

The author suggested to carry out practical tasks on the highly artistic samples of the musical literature placed in the book - fragments from classical products of domestic composers, examples Russian pesennogo folklore. It did it that, on the one hand, examples for training were qualitative, instead of «everyone casual and boring otsebjatina», and on the other hand that pupils heard once again names of great Russian masters and got acquainted with their creativity [106, with. II]. Some tasks have been constructed on examples of slavic music.

Eagles focused schoolboys on profound independent work on acquaintance with a life and creativity of outstanding figures of domestic musical art. With that end in view it has placed in the textbook the list of the recommended literature including the most authoritative works of Russian researchers (among them: N.D.Kashkin. «History of Russian music», V.V. Stasov. "A.P.Borodin", V.V. Karatygin. "M.P.Musorgsky", I.Glebov. "Tchaikovsky", V.M.Beljaev. "A.K.Glazunov"). The best book shining activity «Mighty small group», Eagles N.A.Roman Korsakova considered «Annals of my musical life». For acquaintance of pupils to history of church singing he recommended D.V.Razumovsky and V.M.Metallova's books.

Also the author offered pupils the list of pieces of music for independent hearing in which number there were Russian songs,
Products and spiritual compositions of M. And Glinka, M.P.Musorgsky, A.P. Borodino, N.A.Roman, P.I.Tchaikovsky, A.T.Grechaninova, A.K.Glazunov [106, with. 12-13].

In the fourth section of the textbook of Eagles has placed 54 pieces of music intended for learning and execution by children. It recognised that to train and bring up children it is possible only on classical, perfect products, instead of on «for everyone untalented strjapne» [106, with. III]. Therefore it has not included in the collection so-called «school songs» (like «Here a frog on a path», «the Rabbit shy, a rabbit gentle»), and has placed in it first of all bright samples Russian national pesennogo creativity, including children's national songs-games.

All songs are located in the collection in certain sequence. At first children's songs-popevki on one sound («Andrey, a sparrow», «Don, don, don»), further - on two and three sounds («Go to a loop, go to paradise», «As for ours behind a court yard», "Forty"), then - songs with interval steps are given: («the Rain, a rain, more!», "Zajchik", "Cockerel", «do not fly, a nightingale», «As under our gate»). After odnogolosnymi are given dvuhgolosnye to a song ("Teremok", «Flax green», «Poppies, poppies», "Zainka", «In dark wood», «As at a month», «Oh, Ivan», «As at ours at gate», etc.). Along with Russian samples of slavic songs are placed.

At a choice of repertoire for work with children of Eagles recommended to teachers to address besides the textbook made by it to the best editions published in pre-revolutionary Russia, - to two releases of "the School collection of Russian national songs», prepared by the Moscow is musical-ethnographic commission, and also to collections of children's songs of A.K.Ljadova and A.T.Grechaninova [106, with. III].

The analysis of textbook Orlova «To native tunes» has shown, that it was the sound, qualitatively prepared educational edition. It contained the data helping children to seize by various knowledge and abilities in the field of musical art. Constructed basically on a material
Russian music, this educational book promoted gradual occurrence of children of Russian emigrants in the world of domestic musical culture, to their acquaintance with foreign music, mainly the slavic people. In the textbook have received a practical embodiment and a concrete definition of idea Orlova about the valuable bases, the purposes, the maintenance, methodical bases of music education of children at Russian schools abroad, stated in its methodical articles and the school program on singing.

Among other editions of educational character prepared by Russian teachers-musicians abroad, there were «the Textbook of the elementary theory of music in questions and answers» (1925) and «the Musical dictionary» (1923), music of Russian grammar school made by the teacher in Prague S.A.Trailinym. «The textbook of the elementary theory of music», 60 questions containing more and answers to them, consists of three departments: 1) About sounds. 2) Zvukopisanie. 3) Intervals. In the first department the basic data on a musical sound, its properties, names of musical sounds, their arrangement on the piano keyboard are stated. In the second department the general concepts about a correct writing of sounds, notes, notonostse, keys are given. The third department contains data on intervals, accidentals, syllabic and a letter designation of notes, engarmonizatsii, temperirovannom a system [80].

«The musical dictionary» has started to make S.A.Trailin in 1923. In the given work materials about composers, executors in alphabetic order are presented, musical instruments, etc. In the dictionary data under the music theory contain, definitions are given to many musical terms. In archive the part of this dictionary - section on the letter "And" which includes more than 30 musical terms has remained only. As an example we will result a fragment of the given dictionary:

«The alphabet musical (musical) - designates a conditional order of the written musical signs named notes which are put at line, or notonostse, consisting of five lines. It is accepted to name the musical alphabet the textbook of the elementary theory also. Now
Use the double musical nomenclature. Names of notes go on diatonicheskoj to major scale To in a following order: syllabic (Italian): do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si and alphabetic (German): c, d, e, f, g, a, h. In Russia are applied both those and other names. At notes accidentals ("alteration" see in detail) [76, l are put still. 16].

Both works Trailina, judging by their maintenance, have been intended for pupils, which it trained in a grammar school to prepare them for singing and game on musical instruments under notes, to expand their musical outlook. Unlike textbook Orlova duplicated on a photocopier, works Trailina are prepared in a hand-written kind and owing to this circumstance have hardly received a wide circulation in is musical-educational practice of Russian schools abroad.

Let's bring results. During the considered period domestic pedagogical figures abroad undertook steps on programmno-methodical maintenance of educational process at Russian emigrant schools. In the first years of existence these schools in the majority were guided by curricula and programs of subject matters of Russian pre-revolutionary school in their various variants. Appreciably unified curricula and the programs considering specificity of activity of Russian schools in the conditions of emigration have been prepared for the middle of 1920th years.

The given tendency was characteristic and for sphere of school music education. To the middle of 1920th years the materials recommended by the Program commission of the Pedagogical bureau to use at Russian schools abroad, opening basic approaches have been prepared for singing teaching at Russian emigrant schools. These materials aimed Russian educational institutions abroad on obligatory within all school years teaching of lessons of singing directed on the general musical development of children, including

Various kinds of familiarising of pupils to music (choral singing, music hearing), called as a priority problem to enter pupils into the world of domestic musical culture, and also to acquaint them with music of the people of the countries of residing. The singing lessons, all musical activity at schools were considered as the powerful factor of national education of children. Russian musicians-teachers had been abroad prepared a small number of the educational books, called to assist the pupil of emigrant schools in comprehension of bases of music as arts and development of a domestic musical heritage.


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A source: MAMAYEVA Nadezhda PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018. 2018

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