readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, as psihologoyopedagogicheskaja a problem

Necessity of the introduction into an independent life of minors condemned becomes a problem which defines an orientation of their behaviour (social or asotsialnoe), staticizes formation of a personal position in various vital situations, and also their requirement for self-determination.

In a modern science the concept "self-determination" is used in several values.

Self-determination is considered as bilaterial process: on the one hand, it is the form of self-realisation and self-organising of the teenager, with another - result of pedagogical influence in the organisation of informative and labour activity [67].

P.G.Schedrovitsky self-determination understands as ability of the person to build itself, to rethink own essence.

In a philosophical science self-determination is defined as «by process and result of a choice the person of the position, the purposes and self-realisation means in concrete circumstances of a life» [74].

I.e., self-determination is mnogoetapnyj process of definition by the person of the purposes, outlooks on life, vital positions taking into account own interests and society requirements.

N.S.Prjazhnikov, conditionally allocating three types of self-determination (professional, vital and personal), considers, that they vzaimopronikajushchi, however between them, from its point of view, exist following differences: professional self-determination in bolshej degrees is formalized (professionalism is fixed by diplomas, certificates,
Employment records, achievements in work); vital self-determination depends on an image and style of a life, sotsiokulturnoj environments in which there is a person, on public stereotypes of the given environment, the economic, social, ecological and other conditions defining human life and his environments; personal self-determination occurs in the course of overcoming of difficult circumstances and is absolutely deprived formalisation [96].

In treatment of concept «professional self-determination» in a modern science there are various approaches. Its characteristic as element of self-determination personal is represented to the most proved. Personal self-determination, according to L.V.Bajborodovoj, is «definition by the person of concerning developed in a society (and accepted by the given person) criteria of formation of the person and the further realisation of on the basis of these criteria» [94,5], according to S.I.Andrjushchenko, it «a choice teenagers of the position in the relation to the world, the surrounding people, to itself, to the future professional work, to problems facing to them, ways and means of their realisation» [2].

Condemned it is necessary for minor to solve, what he wishes to be, and also meaningly to choose for itself(himself) forms and ways of behaviour. In a situation of fulfilment of a crime and serving of punishment such choice is especially important, from its quality as it seems to us, the further life of the minor after clearing depends.

Professional self-determination - «the realised choice the individual of professional work on the basis of a self-estimation of the qualities and according to the interests and requirements, definition of concerning the criteria of professionalism developed in society» [94,5], "JA-concept" of the person in which its understanding of experiences and intentions is reflected, the relation to subject actions in professional work in concrete conditions [92], «formation process
The person of the relation to professional work and a way of realisation through the coordination of personal and socially professional requirements »[88].

The constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees to citizens the right freely to dispose of the abilities to work, to choose a sort of activity and a trade. It represents possibility of realisation of professional self-determination [3].

According to E.A.Klimov professional self-determination proceeds throughout all life, instead of comes to an end with vocational training end.

S.N.Chistjakova considers professional self-determination difficult, the continuous process which is carried out throughout all human life, it is process of formation by the person of the relation to professional and labour spheres, and also a way of its self-realisation which is reached as a result of the coordination of intrapersonal and socially-professional requirements [131].

E.F.Zeer understands as professional self-determination the selective relation of the person to the professional world (as a whole and to the concrete chosen trade) [37]. A basis of professional self-determination is the realised choice of a trade considering features, possibilities, requirements of a trade and sotsialnoyoekonomicheskie conditions. Throughout a life the individual reflexes, reinterprets the professional life and ego-trips in a trade. Actualisation of professional self-determination of the person can be initiated by various events (leaving school, a professional educational institution, residence change, dismissal from work, etc.).

Professional self-determination is the important characteristic of a socially-psychological maturity of the person, its requirement for self-realisation and self-actualisation. A choice of a field of activity in many respects
Depends on how the person of the relation in concrete sotsialnoyoprofessionalnoj to group estimates, and the choice of the role in system of relations with people often connects with representations about the future trade and an occupation.

The maintenance of professional self-determination of the person is the clearest reflect the author's structural models discussed in a domestic pedagogical and psychological science.

It is possible to consider as a classical variant of structurization the developed E.A.Klimov three-componental model: I "want" - I "can" - it "is necessary" [46]. As an example of a concrete definition of the given approach the structure offered by A.V.Mordovian [70] which, besides named, includes an element serves "can", reflecting forms of the public and state support, concrete sphere guaranteed to the professional.

According to E.M.Borisovoj [24], professional self-determination is made by five components: motivational sphere, professional abilities, individually-typological features, consciousness and the social status of the person.

N.A.Tsvetkova [133] in the research describes the developed O.V.Padalko structural model of self-determination including three components: kognitivnyj (an estimation of abilities, qualities of the person, its vital purposes, valuable orientations, a professional orientation and knowledge, professional consciousness), emotional (requirements, labour motives, interests of the individual, its relation to work and prestige of trades, an estimation of their appeal, satisfaction work in a trade), behavioural / strong-willed (professional installations, aspiration to professional mobility, actions for choice trades).

Similar opinion adhere to J.P.povarenkov and A.G.Hajmina [89], asserting, that as obligatory components of professional self-determination act motivational (requirement to choose and occupy
Certain position in professional sphere, understanding of the importance of the future professional work for self-realisation), kognitivnyj (presence of professional preferences, understanding of, knowledge of the abilities, personal qualities, presence of reflective skills, desire to carry out introspection), operational (ability and experience of acceptance of independent decisions and planning of own professional life, skills of self-control, knowledge).

M.V.Batyreva [11] represents professional self-determination as unity of a professional orientation and professional consciousness. S.N.Chistjakova and N.N.Zaharov [130] is supplemented with the offered components with two more - professionally important qualities and professional self-control. And S.N.Chistjakova asserts, that quality of professional self-determination probably to characterise on the basis of concrete indicators. They should be treated as levels, «each of which forms a basis for the subsequent: on the knowledge base the motivation is formed..., knowledge and abilities underlies practical activities..., in it there is an emotionally-valuable relation., self-determination defining professionally» [55,1].

In V.V. research Boluchevsky [25] more difficult structural model of the professional self-determination which components are grouped is described: the person and individuality optanta; motivatsionno-valuable group; external and internal activity optanta (a reflexion, decision-making and concrete actions); prognosticheskaja activity optanta (the purposes, plans, the relation to prestige of a trade); its social inclusiveness (knowledge of requirements of a society, ability to be guided on a labour market to analyze sotsialnoyoekonomicheskuju the trade party, its prestigiousness, a demand, other).

Let's note, the described variants of structurization of professional self-determination differ the list of components and their complexity.

E.F.Zeer considers, that professional self-determination - the main task of vocational counselling [38]. N.S.Prjazhnikov, supporting E.A.Klimov's position, underlines, that «vocational guidance is an orientation of the pupil (optanta) whereas professional self-determination corresponds with self-orientation of the pupil acting in a role of the subject of self-determination» [95 more, 32].

Vocational guidance as the special phenomenon acts as object of research of various sciences that explains set of approaches to its treatment. In pedagogics vocational guidance is considered as «... Scientifically-practical system of preparation of pupils to a free conscious choice of a trade» [84,124] or «.tselenapravlennaja the activity connected with formation at rising generation of professional interests and propensities according to personal abilities, requirement of a society and suitability to this or that trade» [13, 64]. In psychology it is represented as the process consisting of two interconnected actions: acceptances optantom decisions on the professional choice and influences on its mentality for formation at it professional intentions [135]. With a sociology and economy position, «it is set of social and economic relations between a society and its members concerning formation of a specialised labour taking into account public requirements for it» [109,163].

The understanding of the maintenance of vocational guidance is promoted by the analysis of the developed scientific approaches. Attempts of their allocation were undertaken repeatedly: E.M.Dorozhkinym, T.E dus, E.F.Zeerom, D.A.Parnovym.

So, T.E.dus finds out seven approaches: pedagogical, psychological, sociological, medical and biologic, upravlenchesko - organizational, legal, interdisciplinary. Within the limits of the pedagogical approach as the scientist confirms, various forms and methods of educational and educational work on vocational guidance are investigated, questions of attraction of pupils to socially useful are analyzed
To work, means of acquaintance with the basic groups of trades, methods of education of diligence and respect for work are developed.

In a context of our research interest is represented by G.M.Romantseva's considering vocational guidance as pedagogical and social systems position. The purpose of pedagogical system, in its opinion, active assistance of the person in a trade choice, and social - optimisation of influence of professional work on the device of ability to live of the person [107,121] acts.

The psychological approach in vocational guidance considers the psychological factors defining a choice of a trade, and aspects of psychological preparation for work. The sociological approach in vocational guidance analyzes as the social factors influencing a choice of a trade, and public requirement for shots. A problem of the economic approach is development of optimum means of preparation and profadaptatsii qualified personnel for various branches (taking into account their specificity). The Medical and biologic approach defines the importance of the account of medical contra-indications at a trade choice, physiological preconditions of success of professional work are defined. The Upravlenchesko-organizational approach allows to present vocational guidance as administrative process with especial rules, the purposes, requirements and carrying out order. The legal approach defines management of vocational guidance. He assumes gathering and information processing, working out of a plan of action, the control. The interdisciplinary approach is expressed in a combination described above approaches. It defines vocational guidance as purposeful, organizuemuju and the activity regulated by the state including studying of a labour market and public requirement for shots, diagnostics of features of the persons choosing a trade, and rendering of the pedagogical and psychological help by it in a professional choice [32].

In E.F.Zeera and E.M.Dorozhkina's research specific lines complex as a matter of fact approaches to the vocational guidance maintenance are presented. The system-structural approach contains the description of parts of system of vocational guidance - the purposes, problems, principles, values, forms, methods, means. A classical triad of vocational guidance of E.A.Klimova I "want" - I "can" - it "is necessary" it is considered within the limits of lichnostno-focused, sotsioorientirovannogo and complex approaches.

In D.A.Parnova's works eight approaches to vocational guidance are allocated: dejatelnostnyj, state-administrative, social and economic, lichnostno-focused, the subject-objective, psychological, developing, socially-pedagogical (for our research especial interest is represented by five of them). According to dejatelnostnomu to the approach, the person is formed and shown in professional work, and as affirms in the subject-objective the approach, it can take various positions (the subject or object) both in professional work, and in vocational guidance. LichnostnoYOorientirovannyj the approach allows to create conditions for self-realisation of the person in a trade, developing - to develop means of revealing, development, formation of professionally important qualities of the person taking into account trade requirements. Within the limits of the socially-pedagogical approach the judgement and a responsible choice of the purposes and models of development of minors, development of technologies (mechanisms) of their realisation for mastering by a trade is provided. Realisation of the specified approaches is quite possible, in our opinion, in penitentsiarnyh conditions.

The carried out analysis of opinions of scientists allows to assert, that the choice defining essence of vocational guidance of approaches is made by them on the various bases. The approaches allocated with E.F.Zeerom and E.M.Dorozhkinym can be designated as methodological, D.A.Parnovym - as target, T.E.dus - as substantial.

V.D.Simonenko's characterising vocational guidance as pedagogical on methods opinion, social under the maintenance, economic by results and state on the organisation of work [114] activity is worthy. The aforesaid allows to carry out vocational guidance in an educational colony pedagogical means as training of minors condemned new with a view of their preparation for a life on freedom and resotsializatsii, realising the social order of the state in relation to criminally-executive system.

The primary goal which is carried out by employees of an educational colony, maintenance of necessary conditions for correction and the guaranteed observance of legality, social justice is at execution of punishment [81] concerning minors condemned. It assumes the organisation in establishment special uchebnoyovospitatelnogo process and preparation condemned to independent labour activity and a life on freedom. The allocated directions of work of an educational colony have mainly pedagogical maintenance and, accordingly, are realised by pedagogical means. In our research vocational guidance is considered as a special direction of pedagogical activity of an educational colony for this reason we will construct the description of its specificity on the basis of structural model of pedagogical process [113].

Characterising a target element of vocational guidance, we will notice, that the international legal certificates ratified by the Russian Federation, contain instructions on necessity proforientatsionnoj works with the population. So, in the European social charter vocational guidance is designated as the specific right of the person allowing «to solve the problems connected with a choice of a trade or increase of professional level taking into account specific features and possibilities of employment» [35]. The convention the SQUANDERER №142 «About vocational counselling and vocational training in the field of manpower resources» defines, that, organizuja
Vocational guidance, it is necessary to consider: «requirements, possibilities and problems of employment both on regional, and on national levels; a stage and level of economic, social and cultural development; interrelation between development of manpower resources both other economic and cultural purposes» [49]. Organizational specificity of vocational guidance that it provides a general inclusiveness «on the basis of equality and without any discrimination» [49] and allows people «to develop and apply the abilities to work in own interests and according to the aspirations, considering requirements of a society» [49]. The given positions staticize realisation of vocational guidance condemned in an educational colony.

The importance of realisation of vocational guidance with the persons sentenced to imprisonment or other similar measure of punishment, is noted and in item 66 of the Minimum standard rules of the reference with prisoners where it is considered as «necessary means of ispravitelno-educational, educational, moral, spiritual and other order» [104], corresponding to requirements and an individualization of corrective influence on prisoners. In European penitentsiarnom the legislation it is designated, that «during their stay under guards it is necessary for minor to render... The help in a sphere of education and vocational training» [64] which thus promotes «re-education process» [64].

Positions of the above-named international documents have found reflexion and in the Russian legislation. So, in the Federal law «About the basic guarantees of the rights of the child in the Russian Federation» it is specified in necessity of actions «on vocational guidance maintenance. Children who have reached of age of 14 years» [128], and item 80 of the Federal law «About formation in the Russian Federation» realisation of vocational guidance of minors condemned is provided. And for the persons who are serving time in an educational colony, it acts as one of
Conditions of obligatory vocational training or average vocational training [127]. The presented positions can be interpreted as the original social order executed, including establishments of criminally-executive system of Russia.

At the present stage vocational guidance is spent for the purpose of maintenance of social guarantees in sphere of a free choice of a trade, the form of employment and ways of formation and self-realisation of the person in the conditions of market relations; equation achievements between professional interests of the person and labour market possibilities; forecasting of professional success in any sphere of labour activity; assistance to continuous growth of professionalism of the person as major condition of satisfaction work and own social status, realisations of individual potential, formation of a worthy way of life and worthy well-being [66].

Accordingly, vocational guidance functions are that: the help in activization of internal resources and possibilities of the person; creation of conditions for realisation of its professional plans and full self-realisation in professional sphere; formation of ability of decision-making on a choice and trade change; conversion training or improvement of professional skill; development of personal activity, independence and responsibility of the young man in decision-making about professional future [66]. In an educational colony of function of vocational guidance, in our opinion, will a little be transformed: helping the minor in a trade choice, thus promotes it resotsializatsii.

So, the vocational guidance purpose in an educational colony - assistance to preparation of minors condemned by a life on freedom and resotsializatsii.

For understanding the subject-objective of the organisation of vocational guidance important is the following. S.N.Chistjakova asserts, that it should
To be spent with all categories of the population, including «with condemned and released» [132]. As subjects of this activity the author names «specially prepared teachers and psychologists, social teachers and social workers, and also workers of personnel services of the enterprises, advisers of services of employment, doctors, workers of law enforcement bodies, journalists, etc.» [132]. As we see, from the specified categories of employees psychologists and the social workers who are actually employees of law enforcement bodies enter into staff of an educational colony. In a context of pedagogical research studying of the psychological practice focused, first of all, on creation of conditions of professional development of the person, strengthening professional I [1] is inexpedient, experts in social work complete such division of an educational colony, as group of social protection condemned for this reason the especial attention in our research is paid to studying of its activity.

For vocational guidance realisation, according to materials of the researches [73,59] studied by us, some groups of methods are used. Depending on the purposes and problems of application they can be classified as: directory (educational) methods, methods of professional psychodiagnostics, methods of emotional support.

Into group of directory (educational) enter reference books (under condition of reliability of the information), excursions to the enterprises and educational institutions (preliminary selection and preparation of the qualified leaders and guides), informative and educational lectures about ways of the decision of problems of self-determination, educational films and video films, use of mass media, «fairs of trades» and their updating.

Questionnaires of professional motivation, questionnaires of professional abilities, personal questionnaires, projective personal tests concern psychodiagnostics methods (demanding special preparation
Advisers), gathering of the indirect information on the client from parents, teachers and other experts, use game and treningovyh situations (modelling of various aspects of professional work that allows to build forecasts concerning the future professional behaviour of participants), supervision over the client in labour activity, use of various training apparatus, where not only labour skills are fulfilled, but readiness to master new professional actions is studied and predicted.

Into group of methods of emotional support enter: dialogue groups («Clubs searching for work» and their updatings where in friendly atmosphere it is possible to consider effectively vocational guidance questions); dialogue trainings (communicative skills at employment, in various business contacts); difficult methods of individual and group psychotherapy (NLP, logoterapii, etc.); proforientatsionnye and profkonsultatsionnye making active methods [118].

Comparison of scientific opinions on vocational guidance problems [87, 91, 93] and understanding of its communication (in the conditions of correctional facility) with the phenomenon resotsializatsii have allowed us to formulate following definition of the central concept of our research «vocational guidance of the minors condemned to imprisonment». It is activity of the employee of an educational colony / other expert, focused on interaction with the pupil for rendering to it supports in personal and social formation, social adaptation, decision-making on selected sphere of professional work and self-affirmation in it for the purpose of it resotsializatsii.

E.A.Klimov considers, that as result of work on a management of professional self-determination the condition of readiness of the teenager to conscious, independent considering acts. Professional future [47].

Definition of essence of readiness of the minors condemned to imprisonment, to professional self-determination is under construction on understanding of scientific categories making it - "readiness", «professional self-determination», and also concepts «vocational guidance of minors condemned» with which it is logically connected.

The concept "readiness", despite its active application in a science, has plural interpretation: as a condition of successful performance of activity; as the selective activity which is adjusting the person on the future activity; as the active condition of the person providing its self-realisation in preparation and the decision of certain problems on the basis of own experience [49]. M.I.Djachenko and L.A.Kandybovich notice, that readiness - a primary condition of successful performance of any activity [33], and out of real-life communications with other characteristics of mental activity of the person the readiness condition loses the maintenance.

In the pedagogical theory the concept "readiness" is considered as a special condition of the person (K.M.Dugaj-Novakova), presence of certain abilities (V.A.Slastenin), sistemoobrazujushchaja installation to activity with positive result (T.B.Gershkovich, M.T.Gromkova).

In a context of the lichnostno-focused paradigm of formation as confirms A.V.Besklubnaja, readiness for activity - the original educational competence which is characterised through knowledge, abilities, skills and experience of activity of the trained subject [20,11]. In psychology as readiness understand such condition of the person at which he is ready to benefit by some experience [25]. Readiness for any kind of activity assumes presence of motives and abilities. Preconditions of its occurrence are its understanding, responsibility comprehension, desire to become successful, definition of sequence and modes of work [3]. L.A.Kandybovich characterises
Readiness as integrativnoe the quality of the person including knowledge, abilities, skills, a spirit on concrete actions [33].

S.N.Chistjakova in the research operates with concept «readiness for professional self-determination». It is defined on the basis of a definition offered by L.JU.Juvensky as the difficult complete condition of the person characterised by set nravstvennoyopsihologicheskih of qualities of the person, allowing it to realise the possibilities, abilities and the relation to certain professional work [55].

The carried out analysis of proceedings allows to define the central concept of our research as follows: readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, - integrativnoe the quality of the person consisting in a recognition of value of work, acquisition of special knowledge, the abilities, providing professional self-determination in imprisonment and requirement of realisation for work in postpenitentsiarnyj the period.

Readiness of minors condemned to professional self-determination - result of pedagogical activity of an educational colony on their vocational guidance. As a condition of its qualitative organisation the tracing of productivity which is carried out on the basis of special techniques acts. For their working out in our research it is important to develop the optimum approach to structurization of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned.

Let's notice, that in a pedagogical science attempts of allocation of components of readiness of the person to professional self-determination were repeatedly undertaken. So, M.V.Retivyh considers, that readiness includes ability to a trade choice, practical readiness, aspiration to realisation profnamerenija [105].

I.V.Lesovik offers the structure including motivatsionnoyotsennostnyj, is substantial-operational, emotionally-strong-willed
Components [60]. By E.K.rub are allocated information, lichnostno-dejatelnostnyj and reflective components [121]. Similar positions in structurization of readiness of the person to a trade choice state N.A.Romanovich (kognitivno-educational, kognitivnoyoprofessionalnyj, motivational, dejatelnostnyj components) and S.V.Papsueva (kognitivnyj motivatsionno-potrebnostnyj, dejatelnostnoyopraktichesky components) [85]. D.A.Mikaeljan has included in structure of the given personal characteristic lichnostno-target, motivatsionno-valuable, is information-gnostichesky also is reflective-estimated components [63].

The model of readiness of the person to the professional self-determination, the made A.V.Besklubnoj is represented to the most difficult. It includes motivatsionno-target, emotionally-strong-willed, kognitivnyj, dejatelnostno-practical, is reflective-productive components [20].

E.V.Ananina, being based on theories of readiness for self-actualisation of N and S.N.Serikovyh, allocates following components of readiness for professional self-determination [3].

1. The emotional relation of the person to, the position in a society. It is result of resolution of conflicts between natural properties of the person and developing egoism. As a result at the teenager the emotionally-estimated relation to got knowledge, abilities, skills is formed. The motivation of a choice of a trade raises, there is a positive relation to a situation of a choice of a trade.

2. Intellectual culture in area chelovekoznanija assumes presence at teenager of certain sphere of professional interests, representations about specific features, differentsirovannost knowledge of the world of trades, professionally important qualities and propensities, ability to work with information sources; knowledge of requirements of a trade and individual characteristics of the person.

3. Personal experience of self-management by process of professional self-determination - a leading element of readiness for continuation of any activity. Readiness for professional self-determination assumes presence of ability to the self-management, developing in the course of a life (ability to put the purpose of a choice of a trade to make the program of actions for its achievement to analyze variants of a choice of a trade to supervise and correct the professional plans to staticize the potential possibilities directed on formation of professional readiness).

1. Spiritual and physical health. Correctness of decision-making on a professional choice depends on knowledge of the teenager of restrictions and the risks connected with this or that trade.

On the basis of the analysis of scientific sources on problems of professional self-determination and vocational guidance we offer the following structure of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment (see table 1.1).

Table 1.1

The maintenance of components of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned

InformatsionnoYOkognitivnyj a component Emotional component Motivational component Sensibleness of the personal professional plan
Knowledge in questions, significant for a trade choice Opinions, estimations and valuable orientations in the field of work and professional work Strong-willed efforts in achievement put professionalnoyoorientirovannyh the purposes Accurate and certain intentions concerning a situation of a professional choice

Features of vocational guidance of minors condemned are defined, on the one hand, by specificity of their socialisation in the conditions of imprisonment and isolation from a society, and with another - characteristics of their psihologo-pedagogical and social development.

Minors condemned leave criminal punishments in the form of imprisonment in an educational colony. It is a special kind correctional facility, whose activity is focused on correction condemned and the prevention of fulfilment by them of crimes. Presence of the realised choice of a trade at released to no small degree, in our opinion, defines productivity of the given activity. According to the current legislation (item 56 UK the Russian Federations), in an educational colony are located condemned to the imprisonment, not reached by the moment of removal with court of a sentence of 18-year-old age. According to FSIN Russia for October, 1st, 2017, in 23 educational colonies ugolovnoyoispolnitelnoj systems of Russia served time 1,4 thousand persons [82].

Being guided by positions of juridiko-psychological researches (A.M.bandurki, S.V. Berezina, I.V.Ignatenko, K.S.Lisetsky, K.S.Masetsky, A.K.Lukinoj, A.I.Mokretsova, A.B.Saharova, A.I.Ushatikova, etc.), we will allocate and we will describe features of social development of minors condemned, defining their vocational guidance. They characterise their specificity sotsializirovannosti, behaviour and construction of mutual relations with microsociety.

Without dependence from presence of criminal career the teenager is compelled to find decisions of problems of the further development in short terms. The basic difficulty consists what to make it it is necessary independently. The special place among problems is occupied with questions of a choice of a trade and construction of the professional future and first of all the condemned teenagers do not realise them as their lives significant and defining quality. According to the majority of authors (A.M.bandurki, V.M.Ignatenko, A.K.Lukinoj, A.I.Ushatikova, etc.), it is connected with deviations in physical and mental development of the minors, arising including as a result sotsialnoyopedagogicheskoj neglect. This problem defines the maintenance and specificity of corrective influence in an educational colony.

To A.M.bandurka, A.I.Ushatikov, etc. specify on inherent in minors condemned high level of claims in the absence of a critical estimation of the possibilities [12], leading to that «they do not see necessity to overcome negative qualities and habits» [126]. Minors condemned are distinguished by requirement for the self-realisation, often not realised socially approved by, as, according to A.I.Ushatikova and B.B. The Cossack, informative interests at teenagers-offenders either are not developed, or lost, or have got a criminal orientation [126]. At the same time K.E.Igoshev and G.N.Minkovsky notice, that at minor criminals replacement of a considerable part of normal interests, requirements, behaviour stereotypes specific negative is observed, pseudo-requirements and the pseudo-interests deforming moral shape [42].eto complicates their vocational guidance: Value of work does not admit and is not perceived as necessary sphere of the human life, allowing to realise and satisfy its requirements.

Quite often possessing low level of intellectual development [12], minors condemned show interest to a pornography, sexual distortions, early sexual communications [126]. Thus realisation in sphere of labour relations is represented to them to less significant.

Poor informative interests of minors condemned partly speak the limited access to sources of the information [91], deviations inherent in them in mental development [125], their former experience (for example, residing at children's home, small area, a low educational level of the neighbours, badly developed social infrastructure etc. [91]).

A.I.Ushatikov and B.B. The Cossack notice, that dialogue in the criminal environment generates discrepancy of sights, judgements, estimations, incorrect interpretation of moral concepts. Condemned scepticism, cynicism, nihilism, disrespect for people of work are inherent in minors «and
To the work »[126], that cannot affect the decision them of a question on a trade choice. Inclusion in this or that professional area for the majority of them not only is unattractive lichnostno, but also is condemned by the nearest microsociety. Non-recognition of values of work speaks as well limitation of knowledge of minors condemned about a professional life: this knowledge or odnostoronne, or is overflowed by stereotypes [91].

Kriminogennaja the environment of places of imprisonment quite often interferes with the basic new growth of teenage age - to self-determination and comprehension of the place in the future. In our opinion, optimum for safe development of the person satisfaction the present and tendency in the future communicate at minors condemned not with self-realisation in professional sphere, and with inclusion in prison subculture and construction of criminal career.

At the same time V.R.Schmidt notices, that, serving time, minors reflect on the far future, but ignore the nearest. And this feature essentially complicates vocational guidance carrying out in an educational colony. A.K.Lukina, on the contrary, asserts, that in minors condemned are inherent dispassionateness from a real life and fear of an external world [93]. For this reason formation of accurate representation about a desirable social status after clearing and necessary ways of its achievement should become a significant problem of their vocational guidance in an educational colony. I.e. the expert who is carrying out vocational guidance, should help the minor preparing for clearing from an educational colony and choosing a trade, to answer questions «Where also what I will be?», «whom I will be?», «that I should make for this purpose?», «that to me will help to make it?», «that at me is for this purpose now?» To present the real life outside of an educational colony, to develop the self-control mechanisms, allowing to join in a social life least painfully.

The behaviour of minors condemned also is specific: «the moral dependence, backlog of formation of a call of duty and a civil maturity is marked. Thus the aspiration to independence gets at them the perverted character» [126]. Their social activity is limited, they reluctantly join in different kinds of useful activity [93]. Under A.I.Ushatikova's statement, «it is connected with a sensual inclination to any business (object)» [126]. As soon as it loses appeal, activity vanishes. Hence, vocational guidance and involving of minors condemned in labour sphere should be in an educational colony not only socially useful, but also, that is more significant, interesting and carrying away, it is essential not similar to kinds of activity offered for participation (sports, formation, etc.).

Despite low cultural level, minors condemned quite often have a various sort of a hobby and hobby [122], employees for them means of self-expression, communications and identification, means of achievement of the prestigious status in [122 environment. As hobbies reflect preferences of the person, in our opinion, expediently to build formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors on the basis of their studying.

In general condemned absence of an accurate position in an estimation of the phenomena of a public life »[12] is inherent in minors«, therefore, even choosing sphere of informal employment (the important factor of professional self-determination), many of them join in criminal activity. For this reason, organizuja their vocational guidance, to employees, in opinion V.R.Schmidt, it is important to avoid a negative estimation of criminal activity as special professional sphere and to draw parallels between criminal employment and various kinds of work [91].

The important factor of a choice of a trade the teenager is the position of its relatives. However, according to A.K.Lukinoj's [93] research, minors condemned can test deficiency of dialogue with
Them owing to what the set of samples for imitation and mastering of norms of social behaviour is reduced. The reasons of such position a little. Among minors condemned the share of the persons deprived of parental care is considerable, the few have a full family [68]. Hence, to use parents (or persons, their replacing) as a vocational guidance resource is difficult (and even it is impossible): they or struggle with illegal behaviour of the teenager, including it the education main task, or conduct asotsialnyj a way of life and do not understand the importance of the participation in a choice of a trade the child.

A.K.Lukina specifies in an originality of the social status of the minor condemned: «it nobody's, at it is not present anybody, nobody is interested in it also to anybody it is not necessary» [93].v to communication with it, it is practically deprived support of a professional choice - neither with relatives, nor it cannot discuss questions of self-determination with contemporaries.

Socialisation of minors condemned to no small degree depends on an inclusiveness in groups (criminal groupings) [12], securities providing feeling and nuzhnosti and occurrence of so-called feeling "we" [12].nesovershennoletny condemned, consisting in group, is assured, that on freedom it is enough to it to own one of criminal skills to have all necessary for satisfaction of vital needs and self-realisation. The choice of a trade, as a rule, is not supported by group, acquisition of professional skills and labour activity are considered not as a necessary element and a condition of a normal life after clearing, and as means of reception of is conditional-preschedule clearing and approval from employees.

Complicates a professional choice of minors condemned and the organisation of their vocational guidance and «a rigid regulation of a life, restriction of a personal choice, suppression of independence, the initiative» [12], inherent in an educational colony. And as professional self-determination should be display
Independence of the minor, it is necessary to give it a freedom in choosing and even erroneous decisions. Unfortunately, it is inconvenient to realise in the conditions of FSIN Russia.

It is in summary important to notice, that minors condemned in the majority possess certain life experience. According to A.K.Lukinoj, it is excessively great, negative, mentions the questions mismatching age, and (owing to the given circumstances) is inadequately used. The specified lines demand creation of especial working conditions of an educational colony on formation of readiness for professional self-determination of minors condemned.

Thus, the analysis of features of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, and vocational guidance as directions of pedagogical activity of an educational colony, its providing, allows to draw following conclusions:

- Self-determination as special process allows the person to generate the vital positions taking into account own interests and society requirements;

- Being an element of personal self-determination, professional self-determination expresses the relation of the person to professionalnoyotrudovoj to the sphere, the way of self-realisation reached by the coordination of intrapersonal and socially-professional requirements preferred by it;

- Maintenance of qualitative (successful) professional self-determination - the central problem of vocational guidance;

- Vocational guidance of the minors condemned to imprisonment, is specific. It is activity of the employee of an educational colony (other expert), focused on interaction with the pupil for rendering to it supports in personal and social formation, social adaptation, decision-making on selected sphere
Professional work and self-affirmation in it, and as a whole - it resotsializatsii;

- As result of vocational guidance in an educational colony readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment acts. It integrativnoe the quality of the person consisting in a recognition of value of work, acquisition of special knowledge, the abilities, providing professional self-determination in imprisonment and requirement of realisation for work in postpenitentsiarnyj the period;

- Readiness of minors condemned to the professional

To self-determination includes four vzaimostvjazannyh a component - it is information-kognitivnyj, emotional, motivational,

Sensibleness of the personal professional plan, defining its possibility to make a qualitative choice of a trade;

- Features of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in the course of vocational guidance in an educational colony are defined by specificity of their socialisation in the conditions of imprisonment and isolation from a society, and also psihologo-pedagogical features of their social development.

The characteristic of readiness described by us to professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, allows to pass to studying of domestic and foreign practice of work correctional facilities on its maintenance.


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A source: Barysheva Anna Viktorovna. Formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment. The dissertation on competition of degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, as psihologoyopedagogicheskaja a problem:

  1. realisation of pedagogical conditions of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  2. pedagogical model of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  3. the analysis and interpretation of results of skilled-experimental work on realisation of pedagogical conditions of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  4. the purpose, problems and the organisation of skilled-experimental work on approbation of pedagogical model of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment, in an educational colony
  5. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  6. Chapter 2. Skilled-experimental work on formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  7. genesis of ideas of vocational guidance as conditions of professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment
  8. Barysheva Anna Viktorovna. Formation of readiness for professional self-determination of the minors condemned to imprisonment. The dissertation on competition of degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  9. BARYSHEVA Anna Viktorovna. FORMATION of READINESS For PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION of the MINORS CONDEMNED To IMPRISONMENT. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
  10. § 3. A problem of definition of criteria of classification of the crimes condemned for plurality by kinds correctional facilities and a choice of conditions of enduring the punishment in the form of imprisonment
  11. «Scientific-theoretical bases of research of a problem of formation of readiness for professional work»
  12. § 1. Subculture of a microhabitat condemned, leaving imprisonment
  13. § 1. Features of a legal status condemned to imprisonment
  14. perfection of execution of the punishments which have been not connected with imprisonment concerning condemned, sick socially significant diseases
  15. § 3. A parity material and right rules of procedure in maintenance of a legal protection condemned to imprisonment
  16. perfection of execution of punishments in the form of imprisonment concerning condemned, sick of socially significant diseases
  18. execution of punishments in the form of imprisonment concerning condemned, sick of socially significant diseases