2.1. Realisation of pedagogical ideas of Howard Gardner in school education of the USA

Approaches to the formation, designated and analysed by Howard Gardner in its works, were not simply teoretizirovaniem within the limits of school reform, and began to be applied successfully to training of schoolboys in various corners of globe.

The first-ever school of plural intelligence has arisen in the USA - the native land of the theory of Gardner. The small comprehensive school in Indianapolis which has for ever changed the person of formation of the USA became it. Occurrence of this school has been connected with reaction of pedagogical community to the reforms of an American education begun in the country after the well-known report «the Nation in danger» («A Nation of Risk»), published in 1983. In 1987 group of teachers of eight average comprehensive schools in Indianapolis, having seen in these reforms on formation standardization in all educational space of the USA and on the increasing application of the standardised tests for definition of the general success of each pupil, each teacher and each school, alternatives have started to search for the tendency.

Gardner's book «Frames of Mind» in which the system of training directed on disclosing and development of an individual mental potential of pupils has been offered became such alternative of them. As recollects Katie Sehm, one of eight teachers-founders of this school: «each of us had a history about the child who showed good results on employment in a class but when we looked at results of the standardised tests, we did not see success» [163, the river 206].

Thus, having opened for themselves the theory of plural intelligence, teachers-founders have decided, that it and is that idea which it is possible to base on creation of the school, capable to offer the new approach to training of children, distinct from the standardised training.

It is necessary to notice, that before to pass to creation of the school, the big spadework has been done. In the-first, these teachers have got support from the regional heads, and in the second, they began to take part in meetings with various researchers of formation and to visit the schools using progressive methods. They met researchers of the Project of the Zero in the Harward higher school of formation, universities of Indiana and Chicago, have visited the Pittsburgsky comprehensive school and School of Friends in Carolina.

The new school in which basis of work the theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner has been put, has received name Key School and has opened the doors for the first 150 pupils in 1987. The main principle laying in activity of school, consisted in conviction, that each child has a plural intelligence which develops every day. Therefore founders Key School wished to develop such program of training which would cover each of intelligence kinds. Taking into account it the staff has been typed and the lesson schedule is made. Only at these of a condition as principal Chris Kunkel marks, it would be possible to create that environment which will allow pupils to use maximum time for development of each of intelligence [164, the river 293].

The lesson schedule has been made so that each pupil could try to use each of intelligence. Therefore in Key School all pupils in addition to the thematically-aligned curriculum which includes standards of literacy and obligatory subjects
For studying, on a regular basis study programming, music, take part in "corporally-kinesteticheskih" kinds of activity.

As in the course of training the emphasis on development of each of intelligence kinds, besides teachers was placed, experts in this or that field of knowledge have been picked up. As a result of it, pupils had a possibility freely and deeply to study each of intelligence kinds. At them, Chris Kunkel writes, there is a good chance to achieve successes in school from early age and, to open for itself the strengths [162, the river 77].

As the basic component of curricula on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence Key School uses the stream theory. The stream theory is the idea Mihajja CHiksentmihajja which has been put forward by it in 1990. According to it, the person becomes, is so involved in activity, that practically loses time account. It is dissolved that does. The stream is a condition of simultaneously maximum efficiency and the maximum pleasure. «Degree of concentration of attention in this condition is so great, - writes Mihaj CHiksentmihaji, - that the person appears is incapable to think about something the stranger and to be anxious about the problems. At it the sensation own I is lost, the time sense is deformed. The sensations tested by the person in a condition of a stream so are strong and fertile, that it again and again comes back to this activity, not stopping before possible difficulties and dangers and it is not enough being interested, that it will receive as a result» [127, the river 283-284].

Through cooperation with Mihaj CHiksentmihaji Key School has developed the elementary program for activity from a kindergarten to 5th class on the basis of the stream theory. In a class of "stream" pupils have a possibility freely to study the intelligence, and the problem of the teacher to observe and write down their choice and strengths. Thereby, pupils receive knowledge of strengths of the personal intelligence, paving the way for the further development.

Besides use of the theory of a stream, and a component of the program of general secondary education К-12 in Key School which helps to define and develop strengths in intelligence of pupils, (cocoon) is important «The pod». "Cocoon" is a class for choice, whether which pupils visit 4 times a week and where they can choose to investigate it the strengths of intelligence, or any other of intelligence which draws their attention. For example, they can participate in such classes as the Planet Fitness, Dolls, the Science of Masters etc. Employment in such classes, according to organizers, are fine pastime as pupils plunge into that activity which really is pleasant to them, and during these employment they have a chance in the best way to develop the strengths [164, the river 293].

One more important principle realised at this school, that the training environment in it carries uniting is, instead of competitive character. For this purpose at school uneven-age classes when younger pupils during the educational activity co-operate with seniors are used. It leads to faster mastering of various skills and knowledge.

It is necessary to notice, that from the moment of school creation in a basis of its activity thematically based curriculum has been put. Every spring at active participation of parents, pupils and all educational community, employees of school choose themes for next academic year. It is considered, that formation of the curriculum with a support on themes has a number of advantages: 1) helps pupils to generate the personal relation to process of the training; 2) gives interesting themes for training; 3) provides a basis for the large, thematically based semestrial projects, such as «In it I trust», "Environment", "Harmony", "Pathfinders" [164, the river 295].

If for the first time years of existence of school thematically based curriculum has been calculated only on an elementary school, later, on
To desire of parents, it has been extended to average and senior schools. So, in 1993 it has been opened The Key Renaissance Middle School, and in 1999 The Key High School. In 2000 all program from initial to the senior school has been united and became the program of training К-12.

In spite of the fact that the curriculum on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence is one of the most innovative aspects in Key School, there are also other aspects which also assume itself not easier training, and training for understanding. Which purpose, according to G.Gardner, formation at pupils of ability is to apply the knowledge received in a certain situation at the decision of a new problem or in new conditions.

In this connection, in Key School three major approaches are used. The first consists that each pupil, takes part every day in, so-called, "apprenticeship" where it works with schoolmates of different age and the competent teacher to improve the skills in any skill or its interesting discipline. As pupils of various age everyone has a possibility to join that group which corresponds to their level take part in this "apprenticeship", and to develop the skills or knowledge with comfortable speed for themselves. Working near to more knowing person, pupils also have a rare possibility to observe of how the expert carries out this kind of activity.

It is necessary to notice, that in Key School there are some tens kinds "uchenichestv" in various areas from architecture before gardening, from cooking before «making of money». Besides it, once a week in school comes the expert from the party and shows professional skills to all pupils. Often such expert is one of parents, and, as a rule, the theme of its performance corresponds to a theme studied at present at school.

The second, and the most important, according to G.Gardner, the approach applied in Key School is a design activity of pupils. Every year at school with an interval in 10 weeks 3 different themes are shown. These themes can be as extensive enough, and to carry narrower orientation. Participation of each pupil in the given projects is a part of school requirements. In the end of each thematic period these projects represent to general attention so each pupil has a possibility to study that other pupils have made in this project.

Besides it, all pupils represent the projects to schoolmates, describing project occurrence, its purpose, problems and the further conclusions. Then they answer questions of schoolmates and the teacher. All presentations of projects register in video, and thus, at each pupil the video portfolio in which its successes in design activity are reflected is created. As G.Gardner marks, it is a portfolio the model reflecting development of pupils in their training in Key School [154, river 232] can be considered as progressing kognitivnaja.

It is necessary to underline, that such self-estimation of the results perfects process of introspection at pupils during curriculum passage, since a kindergarten and to 12 classes. At the senior school of pupils ask to "lift" all their work for previous years and to prepare a multimedia or digital portfolio which they will show at an exhibition in the graduation class. In most cases, as teachers of school believe, portfolios of pupils provide the most real representation about their results and achievements, than any other proofs [164, the river 297].

However use of projects in educational activity today widespread enough phenomenon, and Key School was far not the first school which began to apply them. Design activity
realizovyvaetsja in student teaching already many years. In foreign pedagogics the founder of this approach was the American philosopher and teacher Dzh. Dewey. At domestic pedagogical school design activity developed under the guidance of the known teacher - of experimenter T.S.Shatsky. There was even such educational approach as «a method of projects» in which basis creation of conditions and possibilities for independent acquisition of knowledge by pupils in the course of decisions them of practical problems or the problems demanding integration of knowledge from various subject domains lays.

Thus, Howard Gardner and its research command have tried to improve the given method only. According to their analysis, each project can be described in terms of several separate parametres. As one of such parametres it is possible to consider levels of development of pupils. Beginning pupils do the representations corresponding to initial level, and more skilled - corresponding to level of very qualified pupil. Assuming such developing prospect, Gardner writes, everyone can set corresponding questions under the project: how much it is well simulated, how much it is well presented, how much it is well issued from the technical point of view, how much it is original and exact, in what volume and how much precisely the pupil is capable to estimate the project by these criteria [154, the river 233].

The second parametre for G.Gardner is in what degree the project reflects qualities of the pupil - its strengths, restrictions, distinctive lines and the general kognitivnyj a profile. As the third parametre acts in what degree the project includes cooperation with other pupils, teachers, external experts as such information resources as libraries and computer databases [154 are used, the river 233].

These parametres, G.Gardner believes, reflect prominent aspects of any kind of projects in which pupils what-or are involved image. Working together with other pupils, pupils become more susceptible to various ways according to which the project can be conceived and carried out. Besides, seeing in projects reflexion of own styles, pupils have an opportunity for a tentative estimation of in what sorts projects they will take part, most likely, after leaving school [154, the river 233-234].

Thus, the course on creation of projects raises possibilities for formation at pupils of new understanding. As G.Gardner marks, projects help pupils to estimate skills earlier generated at them and then to use them for realisation of the new purposes and problems. Project planning, project creation, leading of intermediate results, answers to questions under the project and videorecording viewing - all it should help increase of understanding by pupils of a theme of their project, the same as also their own contribution to its realisation [154, the river 234]. The most important, according to Gardner, is that creation of projects forms environment, in which pupils show that kind of understanding, which they have reached (or have not reached) during training [150, the river 120]. On these features of design activity the emphasis in Key School becomes.

It is necessary to notice, that wide use of practice "uchenichestv" and design activity for training the expert at this school does not mean full cancellation traditional educational. There is a teaching material which represent in a kind "drillov", there is a material which moves as lectures in a class or work with the textbook. However, these new approaches, according to G.Gardner, should lead to formation which value for various participants of educational process makes sense also that leads to more reliable and more flexible forms of training [154, the river 235].

As the third approach underlying educational process in Key School, the new system otsenivanija knowledge acts. Within the limits of this educational project such system was of great importance, as the project «The Key School» partially was born as a result of the disappointments connected with standardised tests and accompanying narrowing of the curriculum.

If at the beginning existence Key School testing still remained in school curricula in two years the decision was accepted, that the standardised tests will not be used any more for otsenivanija results of pupils. Teachers Key School had been developed characteristics for development of each of intelligence kinds. These characteristics describe educational achievements of pupils through continuous kognitivnoe development in each of kinds of intelligence and are used as the headings making the full report on progress.

Thus, in this report instead of the basic subject domains all kinds of intelligence have been considered. Instead of usual estimations level of motivation of the pupil (internal, external, passive or destructive) and how the pupil - steady progress (S) progresses, fast (R) here is reflected or it requires the help (N) [164, the river 296].

It is necessary to underline, that all approaches designated above and the experts applied at this school, have been directed on connection of the theory with practice. During all educational activity pupils Key School are trained in how to do successful projects, to connect them to knowledge of the world in which they would like to live and work, and to present complete works to the schoolmates. A main objective kazhd about go the pupil of this school is the understanding and development of the strengths, ability to define a problem and to find effective ways of its decision. The biggest hope of teachers Key School, Chris Kunkel marks, that their pupils can use the strong is
The parties for positive changes, both in personal, and in a public life [164, the river 302].

It is necessary to notice, that Key School has made big enough impact not only on American, but also on formation in general. She was visited by teachers and researchers of formation practically from all states of the America and from all continents. Teachers Key School have been invited in many states of the country to present a school operational experience. They willingly shared aspects of the program, techniques of training and councils, but warned against «their blind copying». «When us ask about possibility of carrying over of program Key School, - teachers of school mark, - we always warn: you not can to take simply this program and to use at your school. That these ideas really worked, employees who, working as a uniform command, will realise the corresponding curriculum are necessary for you and to create new ideas for your school» [164, the river 302].

One more known school where the theory of plural intelligence has been applied, became New City School in Saint Louis, the State of Missouri. The given project has begun the realisation in it since 1988. New City School is an independent school which includes 360 pupils at the age from 3th years to 6 classes. Unlike Key School, structure of pupils in Nju-city much more various, approximately 1/3 from them "colour", 1/3 - children of various races [158, the river 305].

Already more than 20 years this school positions itself as school of plural intelligence. Besides use of plural intelligence, as means which helps pupils with training, the school also sees the role in maintenance of use of the theory of plural intelligence by other teachers worldwide. Teachers of school had been wrote two books how to use the theory of plural intelligence in teaching and in otsenivanii (Celebrating Multiple Intelligences, 1994 and Succeeding with Multiple Intelligences, 1996),
The book how to apply plural intelligence on obshcheshkolnyh bases (Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School, 2001), and a considerable quantity of articles about the theory of plural intelligence [158, the river 305]. At school the first-ever library of plural intelligence has been opened.

The same as also other founders of schools on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence, founders New City School have understood, that it is impossible to create such school simply having entitled it. For this purpose the deep understanding of the theory of plural intelligence and methods of its practical application, presence of well prepared teachers and corresponding curricula is necessary. Therefore they have deeply studied Howard Gardner's theory, met teachers who already realised in practice of its idea. In 1989 they have visited Key School in Indianapolis to understand, how ideas of plural intelligence are realised in pedagogical activity.

It is necessary to notice, that introduction of the theory of plural intelligence in training process passed in New City School in three ways: teachers began to use the theory of plural intelligence in the teaching, pupils showed, that they have studied by means of this theory, the centres of plural intelligence in which pupils worked have been created. According to teachers of this school, with application of the theory of plural intelligence «we have received the positive answer from pupils, and we began to understand is better their interests and how they study» [158, the river 307].

To similarly teachers of other schools using in training the theory of plural intelligence, employees New City School spent work with parents. They acquainted them with principles of the theory of plural intelligence and its methods. It was important because teamwork of school and parents helps pupils to achieve the house of the best results.

Similarly Key School in New City School for a gain score of pupils and their progress standard methods otsenivanija with exhibiting of estimations in separate subjects were not applied. They used the report reflecting development of pupils within the limits of the theory of plural intelligence. However here changes have been made. Most considerable of them in practice otsenivanija knowledge of pupils in Nju-city was that they have created new first page of the report («Page One») and have devoted to its exclusively personal intelligence. Unlike reports of other schools where teachers paid attention only to, whether the pupil «with the best efforts» works or «proves in cooperation», teachers New City School believe, that «personal intelligence are the most important, and they define those distinctions, which pupils will show at the decision of any problem and in any conditions» [158, the river 311].

In this connection, all their efforts have been directed on helping pupils to develop the personal and interpersonal intelligence. The substantiation and an estimation of development in pupils of these intelligence also have been reflected in the first page of the report.

This page consists of two parts: intrapersonal and interpersonal development. The section «Intrapersonal development» characterises, whether the pupil can independently estimate, understand and use own emotions and feelings. It includes following subsections and points:

1) trust:

- Comfortably communicates in various situations with contemporaries; it-is involved in the behaviour demanding certain risk;

- Comfortably feels both in a role of the leader, and in a role conducted;

- Perfectly copes with disappointments and failures;

- Shows a positive and exact self-estimation.

2) motivation:

- Shows internal motivation;

- It is actively involved in training process;

- Shows curiosity;

- Shows persistence;

- Shows the creative approach.

3) the decision of problems:

- Shows sober judgement and prudence;

- Asks the help, when necessary;

- Can generate various hypotheses and decisions;

- Shows persistence and persistence on the decision of problems;

- Takes into consideration and considers remarks and wishes.

4) responsibility:

- Bears responsibility for the actions;

- Bears responsibility for things and property;

- Well transfers various changes;

- Perceives restrictions in work and game situations;

- Uses suitable sense of humour.

5) efforts and working habits:

- Takes part in various kinds of activity and discussions;

- Works over tasks accurately and carefully;

- Supports as it should be a workplace and accessories;

- Has stability of attention corresponding to age;

- Is able to work independently;

- Follows written and oral instructions;

- Attentively listens;

- Effectively uses time.

The section «Interpersonal development» characterises, whether the pupil with others can successfully co-operate. It contains following subsections and points:

1) understanding of distinctions:

- Makes the decisions based on the corresponding information, instead of on stereotypes;

- Understands interests of other people, including racial and cultural;

- Shows care and sympathy for other people;

- Respects another's individuality.

2) work in a command:

- Co-operates with schoolmates and adults;

- Takes part in the decision of conflict situations;

- Behaves responsibly at work in group;

- Shows ability to compromises;

- Expresses feelings and gives constructive support [158, the river 311­312].

It is necessary to notice, that use of the first page as a method otsenivanija with interest has been apprehended by parents and has helped them and their children to concentrate on important for everyone problems.

Besides the changes connected with introduction of the first page of the report, in New City School to trace as there is a development in pupils of all kinds of intelligence, began to use a portfolio. The portfolio includes an original self-portrait of the pupil where the information on it for every year training contains, the description and reflexion at it this or that kind of intelligence. In the end of an academic year annual evening of a meeting with parents during which time they attentively study a portfolio of children is held. As teachers of school mark, today portfolio application is still, mainly, at «demonstration level», and the problem of school to achieve its successful application for monitoring of progress of pupils [158, the river 315].

On example New City School it is visible, that process of realisation of the theory of plural intelligence in training is uneasy and interfaced to enough considerable quantity of difficulties. The first and the basic what teachers of school have faced - how to include the theory of plural intelligence in
Educational process. It has demanded from teachers of school of change of student teaching and methods otsenivanija. As there were no manuals on application of the theory of plural intelligence, teachers had to think out and develop them independently. Occurrence within the limits of school of two grants for teachers with methodical instructions on application of the given theory became a result.

The second problem consisted that the theory of plural intelligence needed to be used thoughtfully so that it corresponded to the educational purposes and problems. «We know, that the theory of plural intelligence, - Thomas Hoerr marks, - is a powerful tool for development of pupils and interesting and cheerful training, but we also understand, that our pupil is necessary for owning knowledge and in traditional academic educational branches. These ideas should not be mutually exclusive...» [158, the river 314].

It is necessary to underline, that use of the theory of plural intelligence demands from the teacher of expenses of a significant amount of time for planning and preparation for a lesson, and also for involving in this activity of pupils. It is necessary to take this time whence. Usually it take from traditional academic employment. Thus there is a problem how to make so that time spent for formation of personal intelligence, has not affected mastering of the basic program. «We have found out, - Thomas Hoerr writes, - that when the theory of plural intelligence is used according to the educational purposes, its application does not cause problems. The theory of plural intelligence can deepen and facilitate training of pupils, but, nevertheless, observance of educational balance is important for us, and we always remember this necessity» [158, the river 315].

In connection with use of the theory of plural intelligence New City School has undergone considerable changes, and today it is one of leading schools of the world, at the heart of educational activity which the theory lays
Plural intelligence. It mark and at the school. «We have achieved considerable successes in separate areas, such as, for example, our concentration on personal intelligence. Many our pupils have shown good results and knowledge in the academic educational areas, but also it not all: they very well know themselves, are strong members of a command and active participants of educational process, they know how to study» [158, the river 315].

Thus, successful application of the theory of plural intelligence in training on example Key School and New City School reflects change of a role of school in educational process. The school should develop and direct natural enthusiasm and energy of pupils so that each of them during study became the informed, thinking and constructive member of a society, with lifelong aspiration to training.

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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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