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a research General characteristic

Research urgency. The modern society lives during an epoch of globalisation of economy and other fields of activity of the person, distribution of multicultural processes, including connected with migration, multiplication of threats of occurrence of conflicts on is religious-konfessionalnoj to soil, introductions of various political and economic sanctions.

The states aspire to react operatively to the designated new calls and to conduct work on search and a finding of ways and means of the decision of arising problems. Thereupon get a special urgency of research of various cultures of the world, including pedagogical persons causing, in particular, readiness for the self-realisation competitive to struggle and integration into world social processes. During the modern period in the international community installations on globalisation and formation internationalisation, including Russian which consist in integration of the international and polycultural aspects into the purposes, problems, methods and technologies of granting of higher education are marked. Development of modern school education should be carried out taking into account the global context, operating international standards. In the characterised circumstances it is necessary to pay special attention to a place and a role of the school teacher in modern educational space, taking into consideration a modern multicultural context and features the subject-subject of an educational paradigm.

Today in Russia and in all modern world intensive search of ways of the education modernisation, having for an object formation of the teacher of a new formation, improvement of quality school and higher education in modern conditions, development of socially successful person of the pupil is conducted. Especial value in the given context is represented by world (classical) pedagogical experience ХІХ, HH centuries and modern researches of teachers, psychologists and other scientists, devoted to intrinsic aspects of activity of teachers, the purposes and values of formation in their dynamics to corresponding change of historical stages. A condition of successful reforming of system of school education all over the world is preservation and cultivation of defining intrinsic characteristics of the school teacher as key subject of pedagogical activity in process and as a result of spent reforms.

For the task in view decision it is necessary to reveal and critically to comprehend genesis of representations about a place, roles, professional and personal qualities of the school teacher, problems, ways of achievement of the put educational purposes of a society in various pedagogical traditions of the world. With a view of judgement of concept of the modern school teacher in a global context, kulturospetsificheskom and transnational contexts it is necessary to allocate konstitutivnye lines, a kernel and periphery, the general and various in stages of formation of an ideal of the school teacher in the USA, as one of authoritative national pedagogical traditions of the world,
Capable to make powerful impact on international scene. Thereupon attention the tendency of development of the marked image of the teacher in the theory and practice of North American formation in retrospective and prospektivnom illumination deserve also. Disclosing and the analysis of an ideal of the school teacher in pedagogical tradition of the USA can form a basis of the comparative analysis of components of the given concept of a context of wider international experience of judgement of a phenomenon of the school teacher.

As is known, formation, and such its base institute as school, in modern society acts as one of basic factors of social and cultural development, and, being the progress engine, provides not only economic growth, but also revealing of intellectual, moral qualities of the human person. The teacher is that character which helps school to carry out the mission. The person of the teacher - the most important component of educational process. Value and public importance of a trade of the teacher, its essential professional and personal qualities are actively discussed in researches of many scientists, whose scientific interests are connected with pedagogical, philosophical, cultural urological and sotsiokulturnymi questions of modern formation.

As a whole, the analysis of numerous domestic and western researches on history of pedagogical thought of the USA, as a rule, outlines the generalised positions and concepts of the pedagogical theory and practice, philosophy and formation sociology, and also the basic directions of the school reform which have begun in the late fifties of the XX-th century. About what should be the school teacher in the USA, it should correspond to what criteria to some extent scientists and teachers, psychologists, the philosophers, visible public figures, presidents, ministers, etc. throughout all history of development of the North American state reflect.

If earlier both domestic, and foreign authors considered the person of the American school teacher, basically, as object of pedagogical process at the present stage there are the researches considering the school teacher as the subject of educational process as sotsiokulturnyj a phenomenon as a spiritual and moral ideal.

The developed tradition aspektnogo studying of the school teacher as persons and the professional explains absence of volume complete researches about an ideal of the teacher in works of the American thinkers.

Thus in methodology of pedagogical knowledge some categories with which help it is possible to reveal objectively insufficiently full are defined, on the one hand, qualitative characteristics of the teacher as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon, on the other hand, to define dynamics and laws of development of the teacher as the unique representative of the professional community.

About a role of the school teacher in educational process to the USA it is written many researches, however about are executed to what type of the person there should correspond the modern ideal school teacher to meet the requirements of time, to those global changes occurring in
The world while there is no full and developed answer. There was an inconsistent situation in sphere of knowledge of domestic teachers and scientists about a North American ideal of the school teacher in its key characteristics and evolution of representations about them. On an example of the considered period it is possible to ascertain, that the school teacher should operate in the tideway of the varying priorities of formation caused by a political conjuncture, level of economic development and sotsiokulturnym with a context as a whole. Thus actual there is a question consisting in how it can keep in changeable conditions the essence of the calling and the pedagogical mission from the point of view panhronicheskoj and from the point of view of an epoch mainstream.

Thus, studying and the analysis of original works of the American researchers of formation, psychologists and the teachers devoted to a problematics of an American education and the person of the teacher, have revealed, that the urgency of the designated theme of scientific work is caused by contradictions between:

- Significant amount theoretical and applied researches psihologo-pedagogical, cultural urological, philosophical and sotsiokulturnogo character of a phenomenon of an American education and the person of the teacher in educational space and absence of objective and their developed statement in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature;

- Necessity of judgement of essence of concept «the ideal American school teacher» and absence in pedagogical works of the Russian scientists of the special scientific analysis devoted to the given question;

- Recognition in the modern world, including in Russia, an urgency and the importance of theoretical and practical researches of the American psychologists, teachers, researchers of North American formation; a recognition of importance of the analysis of experience of the American educational system and nedorazrabotannostju toolkit of the analysis and an estimation of prospects of application of the most productive elements of the theory and practice of North American school in domestic education system;

- Stability invariativnogo kernels of concept of the ideal school teacher of the USA and the changes caused by the periods of development of system of North American school education.

- Dynamic changes in system of requirements to activity and the person of the school teacher and necessity of preservation of invariant essence of the person of the teacher as subject of educational process.

- Between necessity to have accurate idea about an ideal of the school teacher and aspektnym the approach to its substantiation in works of the American thinkers.

The revealed contradictions have allowed to formulate the basic scientific problem of research: to establish key components of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA and offered in tradition of North American pedagogical thought of a way of its achievement in HH - beginning ХХІ of centuries and to carry out a reflexion
The given concept in istoriko-pedagogical, typological and kontrastivnom illumination.

The problem urgency is caused nerazrabotannostju an invariant kernel of concept «the ideal school teacher» in foreign pedagogical thought as a whole, in particular in works of teachers-researchers of the USA which can lead to the deformed representation about system of pedagogical thought of the USA as a whole, to misunderstanding of the cores directing developments of North American pedagogical thought and law of its development in historical prospect, and in certain synchronous cuts. In a context of globalisation of formation in a variant of its Americanization causes interest representation about the ideal teacher in history of development of the American pedagogical thought, both from the point of view of evolution of an image, and from the point of view of revealing of an invariant kernel of concept of the ideal teacher in experience of North American pedagogics. At the same time to confirm about constants of multicultural America to us it is represented a little pretentious.

The ideal of the school teacher of the USA can form a basis of judgement of tendencies of development of the school education, problems existing in it and contradictions, in the country keeping the priority influence in the modern world. At the same time, it allows to reveal an originality and unity of the developed pedagogical traditions on training and education of the growing person, a place and a role in the given processes of the teacher on konkretnoyoistoricheskih stages and in various sotsiokulturnyh contexts of development of a world civilisation. In this connection the importance of rather-comparative researches is staticized at studying of such difficult phenomenon as an ideal of the teacher.

Degree of a scientific readiness of a problem of research

The carried out analysis domestic and foreign psihologoyopedagogicheskoj literatures on an investigated problem allows to divide available scientific researches on the given subjects into following basic groups. The first group concern istoriko-pedagogical, istorikoyopsihologicheskie works of the American and domestic scientists in which historical aspects of origin and development of schools In the USA are considered, a development of education and the pedagogical theory, a problem of formation of the person of the teacher (G.Barnard, J. Bruner, D.Goldshtejn, P.A.Grem, U.James, D.Djui, L.Kremin, H.Mann, E.Mensfild; M.L.Volovikova, B.L.Vulfson, A.N.Dzhurinsky, G.D.Dmitriev, A.V.Zhulanov, M.N.Ignatenko, D.N.Ignatenko, Z.J.Malookaja, N.A.Pavlova, S.M.Pjastolov, D.Tajk, T.G.Shershneva, etc.).

The researches of domestic scientists devoted to studying of ideas of the American teachers-progressivistov and psychologists concern the second group (I.S.Bessarabova, E.V.Bondarevsky, O.A.Dorokhov, N.V.Maminova, So-called Local, J.I.popova, E.JU.Rogatchyov, I.N.Sidorov, T.G.Shershneva, etc.).

Researches of the domestic scientists concern the third group, concerning standardization of a pedagogical education in the USA, problems of a content of a pedagogical education in colleges and universities of the USA, values, kompetentsy the school teacher in system professional
Preparations of the American teachers, certifications of teachers (S.A.Andrejkova, N.V.Belokrylova, O.N.Bessarabova, B.M.Bim-Bad, N.M.Voskresensky, N.V.Goltsova, G.D.Dmitriev, N.M.Kaganovsky, N.I.Kostin, A.S.Kravchenko, Z.O.Kuzminyh, N.V.Malkova, Z.A.Malkova, R.G.Sahieva, M.V.Shirokov, etc.) . We have carried researches of domestic teachers, psychologists and philosophers in which the person of the teacher is considered in different aspects to the fourth group: psychological aspects of pedagogical activity of the teacher (E.R.Ganeeva, L.V.Lidak, L.M.Mitin, O.K.Pozdnyakov, S.V.Subbotin, L.N.Talalova); mission of the teacher (A.V.Utkin); evolution lichnostnoyoprofessionalnogo an ideal of the teacher (I.D.Lelchitsky); sotsialnoyopsihologicheskie bases of image of the teacher (A.A.Kalyuzhny); the teacher as a phenomenon of culture and a social reality (E.N.Zarechneva, N.J.Maksimova, E.V.Piskunova, I.P.Safronov); model of the modern teacher (L.M.Sharova, S.L.Fomenko).

The fifth group is made by critical researches of the American psychologists and the teachers, mentioning following problems: functioning of the American schools, the purposes and values of modern formation, a problem of quality of formation, feature of pedagogical activity of the teacher in modern society, priority personal and professional qualities of the teacher, actual techniques of teaching, training influence on the person of the person, etc. (M.Barber, J. Bruner, J. Gatto, T.Gordon, J. Gudled. F.Jackson, A.Dreer, J. Kozol, A.Kon, D.Cohen, D.Lemov, P.Mak-Laren, D.Ravich, C. Silberman, B.Skinner, R.Slater, K.Tucker, E.L.Torndajk, L.Ferlatstso, M.Fullan, A.Hartman, J. Hetti, etc.).

The sixth group is made by scientific researches of the domestic scientists, concerning multicultural, interethnic formation in the USA, and also the school education maintenance in the USA (A.E.Babashev, I.S.Bessarabova, V.V. Veselov, M.V.Volovikova, A.N.Dzhurinsky, I.L.Krasnov, J.A.Manzhosova, V.J.Pilipovsky, etc.)

The seventh group contains the researches, concerning mutual relations between the teacher and the pupil in the American school (G.A.Mihajlova, L.A.Sudovchihina, F.Jackson, T.Gordon, etc.).

The eighth group of researches theoretical works in the field of methodology of pedagogical and comparative-historical research (B.M.Bim-Bad, M.V.Boguslavsky, V.I.Zagvjazinsky, G.B.Kornetov, V.V. Kraevsky, I.D.Lelchitsky, M.A.Lukatsky, A.M.Novikov, Z.I.Ravkin, A.V.Utkin), and also works in sphere modern pedagogical komparativistiki (make B.L.Vulfson, A.N.Dzhurinsky, M.V.Klarin, Z.A.Malkova, N.D.Nikandrov, O.N.Olejnikova, V.J.Pilipovsky, T.V.Tsyrlina).

The carried out analysis domestic, in particular (A.E.Babashev, N.M.Kaganovsky, Z.O.Kuzminyh, O.N.Bessarabova, N.A.Bozhenova, N.V.Malkova, L.A.Sudovchihina) and foreign researchers (M.Barber, J. Bruner, D.Goldstein, T.Gordon, P.A.Grem, K.Lokhart, D.Ravich, R.Slejter, H.S.Foster, K.Heggerl., Etc.) shows, that the questions connected with development of school education in the USA, are actively discussed by change of a role of teachers in world educational community. However conclusions, to
Which scientists come, is insufficiently developed describe problems of search of an ideal of the school teacher in the American education system. The published results of researches during the Soviet period (V.V. Veselov, N.M.Voskresensky, I.N.Gavrilenko, T.V.Tsyrlina, etc.) on problems of occurrence and ontogeneza filosofsko-pedagogical thought of the USA, the analysis of educational programs and standards, are interpreted on advantage in the tideway of ideological priorities of time. Hence, there was a necessity from modern methodological positions to carry out nauchnoyopedagogicheskuju a reflexion of an ideal of the school teacher, presented in works of the American thinkers throughout ХХ-ХХІ centuries.

The theoretical analysis of the istoriko-pedagogical, psychological and cultural urological researches devoted to formation, development and judgement of such difficult and complex phenomenon as «the ideal school teacher» in a context sotsiokulturnogo and obshchestvennoyoekonomicheskogo ascertains developments about necessity to expand existing methodological approaches to multilateral judgement of the given category. Considering an urgency of a problem and insufficiency of its research in modern domestic pedagogics, and also degree of a scientific readiness of a problem has been selected by us a theme of dissertational work «the Ideal of the school teacher in works of American thinkers HH - beginnings ХХІ of a century».

Substantiation of chronological frameworks of research.

The explanation of background of a case in point, the nature and preconditions of dynamics of investigated object (ideal of the school teacher) has demanded the reference to pervoistokam a North American picture of the world, and also to pedagogical researches of the American, domestic and some foreign scientists of second half XIX century. The Istorikoyopedagogichesky analysis of "the ideal school teacher» has allowed to specify and detail an arsenal of professional and personal values of the ideal school teacher, to reveal it sotsiokulturnye preconditions, to designate the basic pedagogical ideas and the senses keeping an urgency throughout all period of development of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA.

Chronological frameworks of research of a problem of the ideal school teacher in the USA are caused by necessity of the retrospective analysis of process of formation of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA as subject of is professional-pedagogical activity and realisation of educational strategy of the USA taking in the lead positions in economic, cultural and political life of the present. In the attention centre it is necessary process of dynamic development of an ideal of the school teacher in a context scale sotsiokulturnyh the changes connected with transition of the country from industrial to a postindustrial society that has defined a choice of borders of the considered historical period covering all XX-th century and beginning ХХІ of century that allows to track century evolution of an ideal of the school teacher in the USA till now.

The top border of chronological frameworks is to a certain extent conditional. Beginning ХХІ of a century in the given dissertation is limited to the analysis of researches
The American teachers published in Russia in 2016-2017 (F.Jackson «the Life in a class», 2016; D.Lemov «From knowledge to skills», 2016; D.K.Cohen of "a teaching Trap», 2017; A.Kon «School for children, rather the reverse», 2017). The newest researches of the American scientists and teachers give new representations about an ideal of the teacher, open professionally significant qualities claimed in the XXI-st century.

Object of research - pedagogical thought of the USA XX - the XXI-st century beginnings.

Object of research - strategy of a substantiation and transformation of an ideal of the school teacher in works of the American thinkers in XX - the XXI-st century beginning.

Research objective: to reconstruct evolution strategy teoretikoyometodologicheskih approaches to a substantiation of an ideal of the school teacher in works of thinkers at concrete historical stages of the considered period.

The problem, object, subject and the purpose have defined a circle of research problems:

1) to reveal sotsiokulturnye determinants of the reference to a problem of the ideal school teacher in the American pedagogical thought;

2) to characterise an ideological context of formation of the basic concepts of an ideal of the school teacher and school education of the USA;

3) to open concept «the ideal school teacher» in history of development of the American pedagogical thought;

4) to designate historical stages, characteristics and dynamics of an ideal of the school teacher taking into account changes in sotsiokulturnom and ideological contexts of school education of the USA in the XX-th century;

5) to prove the contribution of various scientific and pedagogical approaches and paradigms to formation, formation and development of an invariant kernel of a national ideal of the school teacher of the USA the XX-th centuries;

6) to reconstruct model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century and to open its valuable and communicative bases;

7) to open professiograficheskie characteristics of the ideal school teacher of the USA in standards of preparation of pedagogical shots with a support on theoretical positions and requirements on the one hand and practical decisions with another;

8) to consider the basic contradictions of a problem of the ideal school teacher of the USA and the basic approaches to their permission in the tideway of North American pedagogical tradition.

9) to present harakterologicheskoe judgement of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA on a basis kontrastivnogo comparisons to image of the teacher in domestic pedagogical tradition.

Research hypothesis

The theoretical reflexion of a phenomenon of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century can be optimum presented in the form of theoretical model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher, reflecting an invariant conceptual kernel and accompanying variativnye the components caused historical (paradigmalnoj) by dynamics sociopolitical and sotsiokulturnogo of contexts, and also
Original approaches and individual position of the separate researchers, reflecting integrity and continuity of national school of pedagogical thought of the USA.

As the teoretiko-methodological basis of research the ideas of dialectics based on historical both logic and system approaches in consideration of a problem of development of the maintenance of formation have served; philosophical and general scientific approaches to modelling of social processes; philosophical ideas about essence of formation and its influence on development of the person; philosophical and psychological concepts of the person, human activity and social management (A.Maslou, K.Rogers, G.Tedzhfel, 3. Freud).

Besides, the methodology of the given research leans on cultural urological, aksiologichesky and tsivilizatsionnyj the approaches, allowing to consider formation as one of the basic making cultural values of a civilisation (V.P.Bezduhov, M.V.Boguslavsky, E.V.Bondarevsky, A.N.Dzhurinsky, G.B.Kornetov, S.N Vasileva, V.V. Veselov, etc.), works in sphere modern pedagogical komparativistiki (B.L.Vulfson, A.N.Dzhurinsky, M.V.Klarin, Z.A.Malkova, N.D.Nikandrov, V.J.Pilipovsky, T.V.Tsyrlina).

Theoretical works in the field of methodology of pedagogical and comparative-historical research (B.M.Bim-Bad, M.V.Boguslavsky, V.I.Zagvjazinsky, G.B.Kornetov, V.V. Kraevsky, I.D.Lelchitsky, M.A.Lukatsky, A.M.Novikov, Z.I.Ravkin, A.V.Utkin) had great value.

The choice of methods of research was determined by specificity of object and an object of research, tasks in view, and also work primary sources. Thus, the basic methods of dissertational research are:

Gipotetiko-deductive method of research which has allowed to generalise and prove the basic theses of work;

The analysis and ordering of positions of the American concepts of development of a pedagogical education have allowed tipologizirovat the basic approaches to formation and a formulation of concept of the ideal school teacher in pedagogical tradition of the USA and to allocate the basic stages and their characteristics in a historical retrospective show;

The method kognitivno-diskursivnogo the analysis has allowed to allocate key trends in development of pedagogical thought and concept of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century taking into account ideological and scientifically-paradigmalnogo contexts, and also to allocate their basic characteristics;

harakterologichesky the method with elements kontrastivnogo the analysis which has allowed to present judgement of stages of development of an ideal of the school teacher in pedagogics of the USA of the studied period and has formed the basis for comparison with a current condition of concept of the ideal school teacher in a domestic education system;

The modelling method has allowed to reconstruct system of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century taking into account invariant and variativnyh valuable, kognitivnyh and
Communicative a component;

Method of the analysis of operating standard documents and standards for teachers in system of school education of the USA of the investigated period;

And also germenevtichesky a method which has allowed to analyse various sources at level of the text and a social context and to clear and generalise their social senses, and also their implication for understanding of dynamics of an image of the ideal school teacher in history of pedagogical thought of the USA taking into account it is also historical and cultural conditionality on the basis of reconstruction of a historical context; the special attention is given the analysis sotsio-cultural a determinant for judgement of a problem of the ideal school teacher of the USA in history of North American pedagogical thought;

The conceptual analysis of concept and phenomenon «the ideal school teacher» in the American pedagogics XX - beginnings ХХІ of a century was carried out with application of elements of the typological and genetic analysis in sotsiokulturnoj to a paradigm.

As additional methods the method of transfer of the authentic literature, and also studying and generalisation of an operational experience of establishments on preparation of school teachers in the USA have acted.

Istochnikovuju the base of research was made by two basic groups of sources:

Scientific researches:

1) monographies, dissertations, the analytical articles of domestic authors devoted to questions:

- Formation, developments and reforming of the American average and higher education (A.E.Babashev, A.N.Dzhurinsky, A.V.Zhulanov, D.N.Ignatenko, M.N.Ignatenko, G.B.Kornetov, V.Leschinsky, Z.A.Malkova, L.Mozgarev, S.Nedelina, E.Sedova, N.A.Pavlova, S.M.Pjastolov, L.D.Filippova, V.E.Tchernikov, T.G.Shershneva);

- Formation standardization in the USA (S.A.Andrejkova, O.N.Bessarabova, N.M.Voskresensky, N.M.Kaganovsky, A.S.Kravchenko);

- To problems of quality of an average and higher education (T.V.Tsyrlina, A.M.Sidorkin, M.V.Shirokov);

- To the analysis of researches of progressive American teachers and thinkers (I.S.Bessarabova, B.M.Bim-Bad, O.A.Dorokhov, A.V.Zhulanov, N.V.Maminova So-called Local, J.I.popova, E.JU.Rogatchyov, I.N.Sidorov);

- To the maintenance of preparation of the future teachers (S.A.Andrejkova, N.V.Belokrylova, Z.O.Kuzminyh, N.V.Goltsova, N.V.Malkova, R.G.Sahieva, A.M.Sidorkin, L.N.Talalova, M.V.Shirokov);

- To the maintenance of pedagogical activity of school teachers (E.R.Ganeeva, V.V. Kraevsky, G.A.Mihajlova, V.V. Serikov, V.A.Slastyonin, V.I.Slutsky, S.L.Smyslova, S.V.Subbotin, V.J.Pilipovsky);

- Mission and mission of the teacher (I.D.Lelchitsky, A.V.Utkin, A.P.Fomin);

- To personal and professionally important qualities of the teacher (O.S.Bulatova, h.p. Vygotsky, V.V. Gorshkova, O.S.Bulatova, G.A.Volik, N.I.
Vjunova, O.A.Kadilina, A.A.Kalyuzhny, V.I.Karasik, Z.S.Nurlanova, A.I.Salov, V.A.Slastenin, R.Slater, M.N.Frolovskaja, N.I.pie, O.K.Pozdnyakov, V.E.Tchernikov, A.A.Rean, I.A.Sternin, L.A.Sudovchihina);

- To researches kontseptov "Teacher", "Teacher" as phenomena of culture and social reality (E.N.Zarechneva, L.V.Lidak, N.J.Maksimova, E.V.Piskunova, I.P.Safronov, A.P.Fomin, M.N.Frolovskaja);

- To researches of model of the modern teacher (L.M.Sharova, S.L.Fomenko);

- To values of a modern education system in the USA and the world (N.A.Bozhenova, E.V.Bondarevsky, V.P.Vahterov, V.V. Veselov, V.E.Derjuga, N.J.Maksimova, Z.J.Malookaja, T.F.Peshkov, V.M.Rozin);

- To cultural aspects of formation (M.L.Volovikova, G.D.Dmitriev, J.A.Manzhosova, N.A.Emih);

- To works of domestic thinkers XVIII - the XX-th centuries about the teacher, education and formation (L.N.Tolstoy, N.I.pie, I.P.Paul, K.D.Ushinsky).

2) the researches of the American thinkers devoted:

- To the scientific analysis of system of school education in diahronii and synchronism (H. Barnard, N Mann, E.D. Mnnsfield L.Kremin, U.Jams, J. Dewey, T.Gordon, G.Mjunsterberg, D.Goldshtejn, R.W. Tyler, A. Wolfe, G.J. Clifford, W.J. Urban, J.S. Wagoner);

- To questions of quality of school education in the USA (M.Barber, M.Murshed, K.Donnelli, S.Rizvi, M.Adler, A.Kon, D.K.Cohen, D.Ravich, R.Slater, M.Fullan, E. D.Mаnsfield, N. Rather, D. Ravitch, L.B Resnick, C. Tucker, D.B. Tyack,)

- To questions of a pragmatism and progressivizma in American education system (M, Adler, U.Jams, J. Dewey, CH.S.pier, y. X. Kilpatrik, J. S.Kaunts, B X. Boud, and J. CHajldz);

- To requirements to the person of the teacher (M.Adler, T.Gordon, A.Dreer, G.Mjunsterberg, K.Rogers, A.Kon, D.K.Cohen);

- To questions of the higher (including pedagogical) formations in the USA and its standardization (M.Adler, M.Barber, G.Bernard, J. Bruner, G.Gardner, D.Gudled, D.Djui, L.Kremin, J. Kozol, K.Lawrence, E.Mensfild, P.MakYoLaren, D.Ravich, B.Ridings, K.Rogers, R.Slejter);

3) original works of the American thinkers

- About the person of the teacher and its pedagogical activity (J. Bruner, G.Gardner. E.Torndajk, L.Kremin, U.Jams, J. Dewey, T.Gordon, G.Mjunsterberg, K.Rogers, M.Adler, A.Kon, D.K.Cohen, D.Ravich, R.Slater, M.Fullan, M Adler, H. Barnard, M. Bartel, M.I. Briggs, M.H. McCaulley, N.L. Quenk, A.L. Brown, J.S. Bruner, L.A. Burke, E. Sadler-Smith, R. Chatty, J.N. Friedman, J Ε. Rockoff, W. Churchill, L.A. Cremin, G.A. Davis, B.A. Ermeling, H. Gardner, W. Glasser, G. Godwin, D. Goldstein, A. Hartman, J. Hattie, C. James, W. James, T.J. Kane, A.L. Wooten, E.S. Taylor, J.H Tyler, J. Kozol, A. Lincoln, D.M. Lloyd, C. Loсkhаrt, H. Mann, E. D. Mаnsfield, N. Rather, D. Ravitch, L.B Resnick, J.D. Rockfeller, F.D. Roosevelt, P. Saetler, C.E. Silberman, B.F. Skinner, R. Slater, S.D.
Sparks, C.F. Steele, T.S. Taylor, J.H. Tyler, D. Tanner, L.N. Tanner, T.L. Thorndike, P.D. Tieger, L. Tomlin, A.S.Trace, H.S. Truman, J.L. Trump, D.B. Tyack);

- Researches about efficiency of teaching and training (T.Gordon, D.Berdzhes, J. Bruner, U.Najsser, R.Nisbett, J. Dirksen, D.K.Cohen, D.Lemov, L.LeFever, M.Marshall, T.Uajteker, R. Chatty J.N. Friedman, J.E. Rockoff, L. Ferlazzo, M. Lipman, P. Stephens, C. Tucker, Wittrock M.C.);

4) Original works foreign (except American) thinkers about formation, the person of the teacher, leadership and to various aspects of a pedagogical discourse (B.Bernstejn, K.Bjutner, K.G. Ship's boys, G.Spenser, I.Illich, J.Korchak, T.Li, A.Nill, H.Ortega-AND-gasset, G.Sharrelman, In, Frankl, M.Buber, B. Berstein, M. Buber, C. Hoggerl, R.G. Ingersoll, A. Huxley, M. Van Doren, A. Onassis, I.K.Adizes);

5) Critical works of the American and foreign thinkers about activity of schools and uchitelj in the USA and the world (J. Gatto, J. Gudled, F.Jackson, I.Illich, P.Mak-Laren, D.Ravich, B.Ridings, G.Thomas, P.Frejre, A.Zhiru).

The documentation of standard character:

6) the standard documents proclaiming, fixing and describing North American standards of a pedagogical education, qualifying standards of a trade the "teacher", published in the end of the XX-th century and modern workings out of standards (NCATE - National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education; CAEP Accreditation Standards - Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation; InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards, Council of Chief State School Officers; Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) Model Core Teaching Standards; PiOfcssioniil Stаndаrds for the Асс^йійопof Teасher Prepаrаtion Institutions. №йош1 Sonne il for Асс^йійопof Teасher Eduсаtion; TEAC principles and standards for teacher education programs / Teacher Education Accreditation Council; Council of Chief State School Officers - СС88О and dr);

7) programs of preparation of the future teachers at pedagogical faculties of the American universities (Arizona State University. Undergraduate Degrees. Education and Teaching; Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University; College of Education (University of Maryland); Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning - CHETL, etc.);

8) reports and recommendations of the American federation of teachers, National association of teachers of universities, Association of colleges of a pedagogical education of the USA, National board on accreditation of a pedagogical education, National board concerning quality of a pedagogical education, the Ministry of Education of the USA, Councils and departments of various states of the USA by training, agencies and national associations, the professional associations, prosecuting subjects in the field of working out of professional standards of a pedagogical education and an estimation of its quality.

Besides, as sources of the scientific information were used:

9) materials of forums and the conferences, the roles of the teacher devoted to discussion in a modern education system, to personal and professional characteristics of the school teacher.

10) articles from domestic scientific and scientifically popular magazines, including from editions of the Russian Academy of education, and also article from the American periodic magazines covering problems of psychology and pedagogics of the USA («Атегісап Psychologist», «American Educational Research Journal», «Educational Leadership», «Educationаl Researcher», «European Journal of Teacher Education», «Journal of Humanistic Psychology», «Journal of Individuatel Psychology», «Learning and Instruction», «Learning and Motivation», «The Education Digest», «Teacher Education and Practice», «Teасhers of the World», «Teaching and Teacher Education», educationnext.org, the international catalogues by training «Graduate», «Harvard Eclucatioiiiil Review», etc.), including articles and researches in an easy approach in network Internet.

Investigation phases

At the first stage (2010-2012) the retrospective analysis of scientific sources on subjects of research both domestic, and the American scientists has been carried out; the stage prorabotannosti problems has been defined; the source study base of research is revealed, the research prospectus is made, problems and methods are defined its purpose.

At the second stage (2013-2015) the system of the higher pedagogical education of the USA, laws and distinctive lines of its development was investigated; priorities in philosophical and general-theoretical researches of the American scientists revealed at designing of theoretical model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in the USA; the maintenance of the American school education and its valuable reference points was considered; articles by results of the spent researches have been published; intermediate results of research at the international scientifically-practical conferences were approved.

At the third stage (2015-2019) preparation and the publication of scientific materials (articles and monographies), results of research reflecting substantive provisions was carried out; the analysis of the maintenance of programs of a pedagogical education of the future teachers at universities of the USA in a context of standards of pedagogical qualifications was carried out; the analysis of articles and the researches devoted to the analysis modern condition of a trade of the teacher in the USA, a role of the school teacher in educational process, including from the point of view of the analysis of priority qualities of the teacher in the course of globalisation was made; the basic contradictions in concept of the ideal school teacher of the USA and the basic approaches to their permission in the tideway of North American pedagogical tradition have been revealed.

On protection following positions are taken out:

1) the Reference to a problem of the ideal school teacher in the American pedagogical thought is caused following sotsiokulturnymi by determinants. As the first determinantoj problems of the ideal school teacher of second half XIX century the state and society order has acted
The country turning to the world leader. As the second determinantoj calls of world formation, first of all, in the advanced capitalist countries (England, France, Germany, etc.) have acted. The third determinantoj the real situation in security sphere as pedagogical shots and systems of their preparation has acted. The fourth determinant - actually ideological component of formation of an image of the ideal school teacher of the USA, reflects its national specificity and colour. The ideological component of North American formation narrowly is connected with historical features of sociopolitical development of the American society, served by basis for its formation and development throughout centuries and defined its constant lines.

2) as Ideological roots of formation of an ideal of the school teacher in North American tradition of pedagogical thought have acted Christian reformatorstvo and building of a new society on the new earth. In this connection constants of the American pedagogical tradition of the ideal school teacher are: enthusiasm, innovation and a priority new before old, checked up in Europe, "traditsionalistskim" the approach in all; activism, a work cult, efficiency, a success cult, rationalism, a thrift, absence of superfluous lyrics, ability to explain, love to a trade and children, individualism, confidence of the mission; patriotism and a special American openness.

Formation of the basic concepts of the ideal school teacher of the USA and school education was influenced also by such ideological concepts as () the American Messianizm based on images of search and a finding of the earth promised on new continent; () ideology libertarianstva, connected with colonisation of new territories, clearing of the mother country power, movement of abolitionism and development of the American democratic values; () ideology of a superpower.

3) Concept «the ideal school teacher» represents the complex phenomenon in which were reflected as the basic ideological currents generated in the USA and directing development of an American education, and psihologo-pedagogical, philosophical, cultural urological and sotsiokulturnye the concepts, made essential impact on key personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher. As the major ideological currents and concepts have acted: abolitionism, dzheffersonianstvo, protestantizm and rationalism, a pragmatism, an instrumentalism, progressivizm, essentsializm, biheviorizm, kognitivizm, humanism, existentialism, rekonstruktsionizm, futurism, critical pedagogics, multikulturalizm, feminism.

4) historical stages and dynamics of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA taking into account changes in sotsiokulturnom and ideological contexts of school education of the USA in the XX-th century Are revealed.

The period is characterised 1900-1920 by formation multicultural, polyethnic, polylanguage and mnogokonfessionalnogo societies in the USA. Mass resettlements of immigrants on the American continent have caused
perepolnennost school classes that was negatively reflected in quality of teaching and results of training. The XX-th century beginning in the USA name the period of assimilation of migrants during the American life. The ideal school teacher in assimilation is an indisputable authority for the pupils, having the higher vocational training; understanding features of multicultural formation; giving special attention education of the American values; owning organising abilities for the purpose of discipline maintenance in a class and educational program performance. In practice decrease in requirements to a teaching staff of schools as there were no highly professional teachers whom in conditions mnogokonfessionalnogo societies could build interpersonal relations with pupils was observed and provide qualitative training.

The period in the USA is noted 1920-1950 by the adaptation of migrants by a new life, to search of the place in the new state, to comprehension of the mission and has received the period name sotsiokulturnoj adaptations. School teachers one of the first adapted pupils taking into account their abilities and interests. The marked period is noted by attention to techniques and motivating training, working out of new educational programs with the account of requirements of children and introduction of new motivating disciplines. The most important it is professional the important qualities of the ideal American school teacher act high professionalism, knowledge of children's psychology, ability to explain, organising abilities, application of command and group kinds of work, projects, individual approach realisation, development of critical thinking, democratic style of training.

The period in the USA is characterised 1950-1980 by occurrence of new programs, innovative currents and concepts of development of the American school education. Among the most known psychological and pedagogical concepts the following: kognitivizm, neotomizm, istorikoyopedagogicheskaja the formation concept, the concept of types of person Myers - Briggs. The idea how to teach becomes a priority problem of the ideal school teacher instead of what to teach. The ideal school teacher is in active search of methods, techniques and approaches in teaching, and also new ways and ways of the decision of pedagogical problems. The accent in teaching is made on development kognitivnyh abilities of pupils, the creative approach, use of innovative technologies and techniques.

The XX-th century end in the USA is noted by scale reforms in system of school education and reconsideration of the purposes and essence of school education. The sign event which has served by the beginning of reforming of school education, the report «A Nation at Risk is. The Imperative for Educational Reform» (1983) in which the critical analysis of a condition of secondary education in the USA has been carried out, and the conclusion that level of knowledge and abilities of schoolboys constantly decreases is drawn, threatening well-being of the nation. Responsibility in realisation of reforms of formation, improvement of quality of formation and its efficiency has been assigned to school teachers. An ideal
The school teacher during the marked period it is characterised by readiness to reconstruct the activity, to apply the newest technologies of formation aimed at intellectual development of schoolboys, to use creative and critical thinking. The ideal of the school teacher is closely connected with a qualitative professional pedagogical education, improvement of professional skill and self-improvement. The ideal school teacher replaces traditional lessons interactive, raising educational motivation of schoolboys. The special attention of the ideal school teacher is turned to a multicultural context and necessity of formation of the polycultural person including such qualities, as tolerance, an openness, responsiveness.

5) the contribution of various scientific and pedagogical approaches and paradigms to formation, formation and development of an invariant kernel of a national ideal of the school teacher of the USA the XX-th centuries Is proved.

Considerable influence on qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA was rendered protestantizm, to be exact Protestant ethics that was reflected in such its important characteristics as diligence, efficiency, a success cult, rationalism, ekonomnost, a thrift, absence of superfluous lyrics in mutual relations, by enthusiasm. Rationalism - prioritetnost human reason and a science, the rational approach to formation and a life; orientirovannost on common sense, instead of feelings and emotions, enterprise. As the concept of rationalism is based that people try to approach rationally to all things, passing emotions and prejudices in the ideal teacher rationalism is embodied in such professional qualities as critical thinking, at a lesson, ability it is good to explain rational use of time, a rationality and judiciousness.

The pragmatism is connected with confession of the Protestant ethics, an estimation of the person having by the basic criteria its work and socially recognised success. From this follows, that the ideal of the teacher under the influence of ideas of a pragmatism gets such professional qualities as orientirovannost on practical benefit, ability to put the purpose and to reach them, responsibility and the rational approach by a life.

progressivizm - socially political movement of the general reforming of end ХІХ - the beginning of the XX-th centuries, characterised by search of ways of settlement of mass process of an urbanization and industrialisation of the USA. The ideal American teacher could not stand aside of ideas progressivizma, in its personal characteristics the following is considerably allocated: feeling new, aspiration to self-improvement. In a context of ideas progressivizma the ideal school teacher acted as the researcher, the instructor, the co-ordinator of changes, the good psychologist and the methodologist, and also the experimenter.

Essentsializm - the direction of the pedagogical thought which have appeared in 1930­х of the XX-th century, as a way of the resolution of conflict between progressivizmom and traditional utilitarian approaches to the school education organisation. Followers essentsializma supported the structural
Construction of programs of school education on the basis of justified in practice of disciplines. The given direction has made appreciable impact on the professional characteristics of the ideal teacher consisting in upholding of high academic standards of training, in perfect knowledge of the subject, thus the critical relation to a freedom in choosing of subjects pupils.

In the world economic crisis of 1930th years progressive teachers, scientists and thinkers develop the new concept of the formation, aimed to leave social crisis which would change a traditional role of school from usual transfer of knowledge to the public institute generating social reforms. Movement of the advanced scientists has received the name rekonstruktsionizm. Followers of idea rekonstruktsionizma saw in teachers of the important sources and tools of social changes in a society. New curricula considered base ideas of social disciplines (anthropology, economy, sociology, political science and psychology). In a context rekonstruktsionizma the ideal school teacher should possess following qualities: leadership, justice, purposefulness, professionalism, cultural awareness, social responsibility.

Biheviorizm - a direction in the psychology, the made considerable impact on development of new approaches in the formation theory in which the vector of studying from consciousness on behaviour has been displaced. Biheviorizm has influenced activity of the American school teacher and its professional qualities: ability to support due discipline, regulation of behaviour of pupils, supervision over behaviour of pupils in various educational situations.

Kognitivizm - a direction developing on a joint of psychology and pedagogics, studying knowledge processes, work of memory and a role of knowledge of motivation and behaviour. The ideal American school teacher owns the theory kognitivizma, the major professional qualities are a reflexion, development of ability of the pupil to think, understand and do own conclusions.

«The doctrine about two trues» or "neotomizm" represents the philosophy of Catholicism based on ideas of Fomy Akvinsky. Followers neotomizma recognised two sources of knowledge - natural reason (science) and divine revelation (religion), considering, that they do not contradict each other. In the concept neotomizma the ideal school teacher - the highly moral person and the perfect professional of the business.

From humanism positions - the ideal American school teacher - the carrier of humane values and simultaneously bringing up in pupils humanistic belief and the sights, possessing the following qualities: enthusiasm; pedagogical talent; the attentive relation to children; compassion; sincerity; tolerance to distinctions between children; empathy; readiness to develop in children individual abilities, ability to explain a material accessible and clear language; the morals, made
Possession of a teaching technique, responsibility; ability to bring up discipline; professionalism; aspiration to self-improvement; achievement of pedagogical problems.

From existentialism positions the ideal teacher does not present senses as a reality, as ready knowledge. The sense should be found, but cannot be given. The ideal school teacher in practice should help to pupils to find concrete senses, to develop ability of pupils to think, be responsible for the acts and for the life.

The ideal school teacher from the point of view of critical pedagogics - the professional of the business, respects pupils; considers requirements of pupils; develops critical thinking of schoolboys, builds dialogue and training on principles of equality and dialogue; is held in respect from pupils, and also possesses such personal qualities, as an internal reflexion and tolerance. In an ideology context multikulturalizma priority qualities of the American ideal school teacher are: keenness to requirements of students, cultural interaction; comprehension of equality of representatives of various cultures; use of suitable techniques and pedagogical technologies; the account of specific features of pupils; knowledge of the nature of stereotypes and their influence on formation of biases, racism, discrimination and conflicts; interest in historical and cultural luggage of pupils; Communicative skills of interpersonal dialogue both verbal, and nonverbal; ability to choose model of behaviour adequate to a situation, positivity.

The ideal school teacher in the concept of educational feminism is the teacher-woman, possessing following qualities: ability to show empathy, care, sincere interest children, high professionalism, good communicative skills, organising abilities, morals, culture, good education.

One of modern educational systems is modified rekonstruktsionizm or futurism. Ideas of supporters of futuristic formation consider, that formation should build «the preferable future», namely: to prepare the people capable adequately to perceive change in the world and a society, to make of the decision and to make a rational choice, to expect the future which can develop in various directions, keep up to date. School teachers should carry out these problems.

6) On the basis of the istoriko-pedagogical analysis of sources the method of historical reconstruction and a reflexion proves model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA as social, spiritual, professional, psychological, pedagogical, cultural urological and aksiologichesky the standard of vision of mission of the modern ideal school teacher possessing set invariant and variativnyh of personal and professional characteristics, allowing to realise the right to formation in the conditions of liberally-democratic relations.

Reconstruction of model of the ideal American school teacher has allowed vyvit and to prove the important personal qualities of the ideal American school teacher: Authoritativeness, adaptability, activity, artistry, vdohnovlennost, thoughtfulness, politeness, belief in internal force of the child to grow and change, attentiveness, flexibility, literacy, pride to have a trade of the teacher, foresight, diplomacy, discipline, goodwill / kindness, skill to communicate / sociability, eloquence, kreativnost / creativity, culture / cultural awareness, logicality / the logician, the best friend for pupils, love to a trade and children, neatness, optimism, originality, responsiveness, an openness, susceptibility to errors, positivity, the sequence, the developed intuition, a versatility of interests and knowledge, a rationality / judiciousness / orientirovannost on common sense, rationalism, self-discipline, sostradatelnost / ability to empathy display, ability to apologise, justice, aspiration to

To self-improvement, stressoustojchivost, tactfulness, patience / tolerance, diligence, respect of pupils, ulybchivost, charisma, feeling new, sense of humour, ekstraversija, an emotionality, vigour, enthusiasm, erudition.

Professionally important qualities of the ideal American school teacher are revealed and proved: endurance and self-control, readiness to come to the aid of the pupil, criticality / self-criticism / critical thinking, leadership, motivation, observation, persistence in achievement of the personal purposes and pedagogical problems, erudition, organisation / organising abilities, responsibility, pedagogical talent, increase of professional level and quality of the work, a prediction / pedagogical intuition, professional passion, rational use of time at a lesson, a reflexion / reflective thinking, resoluteness / ability to make of the decision, perfect knowledge of the subject, ability to motivate, ability is good to explain, ability to listen to others, ability to put the purpose, mental work, an establishment of a correct climate on employment, learns lives, formation of a positive self-estimation at schoolboys, efficiency.

Following humanistic values by which the American school teachers are guided are opened: love, kindness, sympathy, care, altruism, conscience, honesty, justice. The humanism of the teacher, first of all, is directed on the pupil. The ideal teacher - of the humanist is distinguished by the social activity, a rich inner world and readiness for constant self-education and self-improvement. Among universal values: respect of another's opinions, respect of people without dependence from well-being, race, a floor, sexual orientation or an origin; observance of laws by all members of a society. The right of citizens declared in a democratic society to participate in management, for the purpose of satisfaction of general interests, causes predisposition of educational institutions to studying and an estimation of such values, as freedom and equality, mutual trust, law domination. The USA, embodying ideals
Democratic society, leans against schools and teachers who should develop corresponding democratic character traits of its pupils.

The right of citizens declared in a democratic society to participate in management, for the purpose of satisfaction of general interests, causes predisposition of educational institutions to studying and an estimation of such values, as freedom and equality, mutual trust, law domination. The USA, embodying ideals of a democratic society, leans against schools and teachers who should develop corresponding democratic character traits of its pupils.

The balance between historically developed, traditional values and the new values appearing under the influence of modern lines of development of a society, including increasing information a stream should become the base factor for preparation of the American school teachers. In school education it is necessary to spend the correct vector reflecting the most significant human values, accurately registered and proved purposes of formation. In this context it is necessary for teacher to give relative freedom in a choice of means, planning, methodical maintenance, use of modern technologies of training for successful achievement of main objectives of school education. Preparation of the ideal American school teacher should correspond to requirements of a modern society to the full. First of all, programs of colleges and universities should correspond to standards of formation of the USA.

The humanistic substantial kernel of concept the ideal school teacher remains a constant of educational thought of the USA that allows to confirm about defined turned into the future, pedagogical potential investigated kontsepta, the development of a North American society generated by special conditions.

7) Professiografichesky characteristics of the ideal school teacher are presented in standards of preparation of pedagogical shots of universities and the colleges specialising on training of the future teachers. The analysis of a content of standards of preparation of pedagogical shots has allowed to allocate the major personal qualities of the ideal school teacher: activity; leadership; tolerance; belief that all children can and should study, support of the child in social and personal development; a feedback; literacy; good standard English language; skill to communicate, use of all forms of communications; ability to explain well and clearly; multicultural formation; optimistichnost, positive influence on pupils; kreativnost, the creative approach to planning; justice; a versatility of interests; replenishment of knowledge from adjacent areas; tracing and application of the newest scientific technologies; enthusiasm; erudition; realisation of intersubject communications; Flexibility; critical thinking. Professionally important qualities of the ideal American school teacher presented in standards of preparation of pedagogical shots: knowledge and understanding of main principles and ideas of pedagogical professional standards; deep understanding and the critical analysis
prepodavaemogo a subject; material teaching in the clear, accessible form with competent use of various educational technologies; understanding of features of informative activity of pupils, the constant help in training; planning, the analysis, an estimation, updating of process of training, correct use of resources of time; ability to carry out the control of informative activity of pupils; development of a positive self-estimation of pupils; development intellectual and kognitivnyh abilities of pupils; ability to put short-term and long-term objectives; the account of features of a social context of educational process (school, a family, a society); possession of all modern technologies of training; an involvement into various school activity besides the teaching; aspiration to incessant self-improvement and increase of professional level; respect of pupils, possession and application in practice of knowledge of psychology of development of the child; Understanding cultural, ethnic, gender, racial, etc. differences of pupils; a pedagogical education not below degree of the bachelor, aspiration to have degree of the master in an education sphere; responsibility, division of responsibility with pupils.

8) Revealing of the basic contradictions of a problem of the ideal school teacher of the USA allows to define approaches to their permission in the tideway of North American pedagogical tradition.

Rather high level of financing of the American school education makes moderate impact on improvement of quality of formation at North American schools to what results of the standardised testing of schoolboys and a modest share of prize-winning places on the international Olympic Games and the competitions spent among schoolboys testify. Thus, is admissible to confirm about the developing contradiction between level of financing of school education of the USA and education systems as a whole and qualitative level of received educational results in comparison with the world.

Separate designated in model of the ideal school teacher of the USA professionally important qualities not always are applicable in practice the American schools on a number of the known reasons; some of essential characteristics are practically unacceptable. We name some from variativnyh qualities of the school teacher which do not manage to be realised to teachers in average educational institutions of the USA more often: readiness for innovations, feeling new, aspiration to self-improvement, increase of professional level and quality of the work, resoluteness, authoritativeness, leadership, rational use of time at a lesson, professional pedagogical culture (including understanding of features of a multicultural society), empathy, stressoustojchivost, tolerance and endurance.

Proclaimed from high tribunes throughout many tens years of idea of a humanisation of formation go to a cut with practice of carrying out of the scale standardised testing and not only, and as a whole demonstration by a society of the overestimated trust to results
The automated tests and to the estimations which are taken out without understanding of the nature of errors of schoolboys.

Creative function of the teacher supported in words, obviously, cannot be high-grade is realised in modern conditions as everywhere as the major indicator of quality of educational process the rate on priority application of possibilities of means of training acts, standardization and stereotypification of educational results; loading of working hours of the teacher by registration of a considerable quantity of documents and reports practises. Assignment of a peripheral place to a creative element of pedagogical process in reverse motion of a reflexion and a technology vicious circle is observed. Means do not promote a gain of creative potential, and are directed on its operation. Without support of the strong motivating teacher it is impossible to expect high successes of its pedagogical activity, hence teachers are powerless to motivate success of the pupils.

Ideas declared in the theory and postulates of humanistic pedagogics in many cases remain only on a paper as effective mechanisms of their practical realisation taking into account a real state of affairs at school and structures of the working day of the teacher are not developed. At the same time the humanistic substantial kernel of concept «the ideal school teacher» remains a constant of educational thought of the USA that allows to confirm about defined turned into the future, pedagogical potential investigated kontsepta, the development of a North American society generated by special conditions.

The system of North American school education generates a special sort mifotvorchestvo, entering difficult relations with a daily reality, and thus demanding demifologizatsii with a view of understanding of a real state of affairs in pedagogical activity of the school teacher in the USA.

Accompanying a modern educational discourse of the USA the rhetoric appeals to idea of struggle with traditsionalizmom and stagnancy as stagnation sources in a development of education and public relations as a whole, but thus the school remains to one of the most conservative institutes of a society.

8. The traditional image of the ideal North American school teacher in many respects associates with displays of personal initiative, enthusiasm and persistence. For a traditional picture of the world of a North American society rapprochement of images of the teacher and the preacher, the pastor, and also the sacred person, having corresponding high authority also is characteristic, however work of the teacher does not bring high incomes and is not reliable by to financial well-being and prosperity. Unfortunately, in the American schools still long time will be difficult to involve the best minds of the country, the present professionals of the business as wages level mismatches that physical, intellectual, emotional and energicheskim to expenses of the school teacher. As acknowledgement of the given thesis D.Cohen's citation that «the salary cannot grow to such level what would make career can serve
The school teacher attractive to more capable experts. Perfection of processes of teaching which will help to involve and keep more capable teachers: it is more than work in methodical commands, less than personal contacts to pupils and there is more than possibility for leadership in the course of teaching »[90, with. 287].

9. In multicultural space the school teacher should observe considerably the big distance in relation to trained in comparison with single-crop traditsionalistskim space of interpersonal pedagogical interaction. The communicative behaviour of the teacher becomes less emotional, less sated with signs and symbols because of necessity of preservation of a neutral distance in relation to pupils who require that them motivated to educational and educational activity. The marked multicultural installation bears in itself a call to constants of an image of the ideal American school teacher of the XX-th century which should show enthusiasm, emotional contact and presence of a strong feedback.

10. The contradiction between pljuralistichnostju administrative requirements to the formation organisation at schools of the USA and invariativnostju (monistichnostju) the basic lines of the ideal school teacher of the USA is observed.

9) the Harakterologichesky judgement of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA supposes to allocate its two main components. The first - nuclear personal and professionally important qualities of the school teacher; the second - variativnye professionally important qualities of the school teacher. Nuclear personal qualities: enthusiasm, vigour, ekstraversija,

Skill to communicate / oratory, ability to empathy display, optimism, rationalism, diligence, love to children, pedagogical talent, patriotism, aspiration to self-improvement. Nuclear professional qualities: to motivate, ability to make of the decision, ability it is good to explain organising abilities, leadership, ability, possession of effective techniques, critical thinking, knowledge of psychology of the child, perfect knowledge of the subject, increase of professional level and quality of the work.

Variativnye professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA include the characteristics claimed at a concrete stage of a development of education and a society, in certain circumstances.

It is proved, that personal qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA are priority from the point of view of professional formation of the future teacher in comparison with a complex professional kompetentsy which are got and improved in the course of pedagogical activity. It is established, that absence or insufficiency of personal qualities cannot be compensated the vocational training, whatever high quality it was.

kontrastivnoe in domestic pedagogical tradition a number of differences has allowed to allocate comparison of the ideal school teacher of the USA to image of the ideal teacher. If the North American school teacher can not
To have the experience of pedagogical work and can interrupt work at school in favour of other activity, and also can and come back after any time in domestic tradition of a teaching (continuous) pedagogical experience is appreciated. The teacher in the USA often needs to pass examination for professional suitability, including for licence reception to teach at the concrete schools one or several states, and also it is necessary to pass courses of improvement of qualification. The Russian teacher c certain periodicity passes courses of improvement of qualification.

If in the USA the school teacher is guided by the standards of formation accepted in concrete staff by local bodies in Russia pedagogical activity of teachers is under construction with a support on FGOSy.

Working conditions of the American school teachers, payment of their work and the quality standards are established by each separate staff or municipality. Working conditions of the Russian teachers, payment of their work is established at the state level on a uniform scale of charges with small amendments at local levels. In work of the American teachers the enthusiasm, pedagogical passion, activity is appreciated, and in Russia often not co-ordinated pedagogical initiative happens is punishable.

In the USA demands made to the school teacher bjurokratizirovany. Thus working conditions of the teacher do not lag behind shown requirements. In Russia it is observed over bjurokratizatsija a control system and the control over the educational process, leaving there are not enough places for independent search of new ways and creative self-disclosing of the teacher. Process of permanent reforming of formation constantly brings set of the new requirements which conditions of performance are not created yet, and criteria of an estimation of performance are not developed. The teacher is compelled to work in stressogennyh conditions.

In the USA variants of vocational training of the school teacher are that: pedagogical college (the bachelor, the master), pedagogical faculty in high school (the bachelor, the master, PhD). Almost in all states of advantage at an employment in schools have the teacher c the higher pedagogical education, especially with degree of the Master. Variants of vocational training of the Russian school teacher: pedagogical college (an average profobrazovanie), pedagogical institute (the bachelor, the master), pedagogical faculty in high school; higher education without pedagogical preparation (e.g. chemistry, the applied mathematics, economy, physics, biology, geography, etc.), spetsialitet. At schools candidates of sciences seldom work.

Poorly formalizable demands are made to the American school teacher: enthusiasm, personal authority,

ekstravertirovannost, "missionary work". To the Russian teacher

Formalizable demands are made to knowledge and kompetentsijam. From the historical point of view in the USA evolution of image of the school teacher from the preacher, the missionary to the teacher-instructor is observed. Evolution of image of the Russian school teacher from from city and rural intelligency (teacher's estate) to "state employee".

In the USA increased requirements to the school teacher adequately are observed to carry out pedagogical activity with observance of rules of political correctness and tolerance in a multicultural society. In Russia not formalizable requirements of love to children, creativity, emotional return, and now and tolerances are observed.

In the USA the teacher is a component of concepts «educational services», commodity-money relations. Thus in Russia the image of the teacher worries crisis, but in a stereotype the teacher is still considered as an authoritative figure, respect for the teacher - a component of mentality of Russians. Following to office instructions - the important part of mentality of the American school teacher; infringement of instructions is inadmissible. In modern Russia it is observed variativnoe observance of office instructions by the school teacher - from strict observance before actions on a situation.

The personal contribution of the author. The dissertation is the scientific work written independently. The personal contribution of the competitor consists in definition of the purposes and research problems, search of sources of the information, an object and object of research choice. Theoretical positions and the conclusions containing in the dissertation, grow out of independent research of the competitor. In particular, such as: are established universal konstitutivnye lines of the person of the ideal school teacher, to which are carried () a place and a role of an image of the ideal school teacher in an educational discourse of the state and a society; () characteristics of solved educational problems.; () a role and a place of the teacher in institutsionalnom a pedagogical discourse; () characteristics of educational process in synchronism and diahronii; () participation, a position and a role of the school teacher in educational activity; () features of understanding the teacher of the educational mission / missions; The model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century which allows to comprehend intrinsic invariant and variativnye characteristics of the ideal school teacher of the USA is developed and to characterise their influences on development of the pedagogical theory and educational institutions in modern sotsiokulturnyh conditions; the periodization of history of school education of the USA and corresponding dynamics in development of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA is specified and prointerpretirovana; the basic contradictions in system of school education of the USA that allows to spend further typological and kontrastivnye researches of educational systems in wide krosskulturnom a context are revealed; results of research pawn bases for a reflexion of principles of formation and a choice of adequate approaches in a context of working out of strategy of a development of education of the Russian Federation in modern conditions with the account of experience of the USA and globalizatsionnyh processes.

Scientific novelty of research

1) knowledge on history of development of an American education from the middle of XIX century, in the XX-th century and the beginning of new XXI century in globalizatsionnom a context Is updated and systematised.

2) Are revealed sotsiokulturnye, social and economic and sotsialnoyopoliticheskie conditions of formation of the basic concepts of an ideal of the school teacher and school education in the USA in the XX-th century (the order of the state and a society of the country turning to the world leader; calls of world formation, first of all, in the advanced capitalist countries (England, France, Germany, etc.); a real situation in security sphere pedagogical shots and systems of their preparation; an ideological component of formation of an image of the ideal school teacher of the USA, reflecting its national specificity and colour which is narrowly connected with historical features of sociopolitical development of the American society, served by basis for its formation and development throughout centuries and defined its constant lines).

3) the ideological context of formation of the basic concepts of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA (Christian reformatorstvo and building of a new society on the new earth Is opened; the American Messianizm based on images of search and a finding of the earth promised on new continent; ideology libertarianstva, connected with colonisation of new territories, clearing of the mother country power, movement of abolitionism and development of the American democratic values; ideology of a superpower).

4) the concept «the ideal American school teacher» in pedagogical tradition of the USA Is entered into a scientific turn. (Concept «the ideal school teacher» represents the complex phenomenon in which were reflected as the basic ideological currents generated in the USA and directing development of an American education, and psihologoyopedagogicheskie, philosophical, cultural urological and sotsiokulturnye the concepts, made essential impact on key personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher).

5) complex research of an ideal of the school teacher is carried out the USA, in which:

- Experience of researchers of the American school education from the point of view of the analysis of the person of the teacher and its role in educational process is generalised;

- The contribution of various scientific and pedagogical approaches and paradigms to formation, formation and development of an invariant kernel of a national ideal of the school teacher of the USA the XX-th centuries is proved;

- Key values and belief of the ideal American school teacher are revealed and characterised;

- The theoretical model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA is presented and proved;

- By means of the analysis of standards of a pedagogical education the main personal and professionally important qualities of the teacher opening its ideal image are allocated;

- The critical researches of modern teachers devoted to problems of school teachers are analysed, and also the reflective analysis of opinions of American teachers to pedagogical activity carried out by them is carried out;

6) the substantial and comparative analysis of professionally important qualities of the ideal American school teacher in diahronii is carried out. (Personal and professionally important qualities Are analysed, since 1850 on the newest time and degree of the importance of qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA at a certain historical stage) is defined.

7) Are allocated intrinsic invariant and variativnye characteristics of the ideal American school teacher, are described its nuclear and peripheral professionally important qualities. (Nuclear personal qualities: enthusiasm, vigour, ekstraversija, skill to communicate / oratory, ability to empathy display, optimism, rationalism, diligence, love to children, pedagogical talent, patriotism, aspiration to self-improvement. Nuclear professional qualities: to motivate, ability to make of the decision, ability it is good to explain organising abilities, leadership, ability, possession of effective techniques, critical thinking, knowledge of psychology of the child, perfect knowledge of the subject, increase of professional level and quality of the work).

8) the basic contradictions in system of school education of the USA Are opened, and in treatment of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA the basic approaches to their permission in the tideway of North American pedagogical tradition are offered. (The contradiction between level of financing of school education of the USA and education systems as a whole and qualitative level of received educational results in comparison with the world. Some professionally important qualities are not always applicable in practice at the North American schools, separate qualities are practically unacceptable, for example: readiness for innovations, feeling new, aspiration to self-improvement, increase of professional level and quality of the work, resoluteness, authoritativeness, leadership, rational use of time at a lesson, professional pedagogical culture (including understanding of features of a multicultural society), empathy, stressoustojchivost, tolerance and endurance. Proclaimed from high tribunes throughout many tens years of idea of a humanisation of formation go to a cut with practice of carrying out of the scale standardised testing and not only, and as a whole demonstration by a society of the overestimated trust to results of the automated tests and the estimations which are taken out without understanding of the nature of errors of schoolboys. Creative function of the teacher supported in words, obviously, cannot be high-grade is realised in modern conditions as everywhere as the major indicator of quality of educational process the rate on priority application of possibilities of means of training acts, standardization and stereotypification of educational results; loading of working hours of the teacher by registration of a considerable quantity of documents and reports practises. Assignment of a peripheral place to a creative element of pedagogical process in reverse motion of a reflexion and a technology vicious circle is observed. Means do not promote a gain of the creative
Potential, and are directed on its operation. Without support of the strong motivating teacher it is impossible to expect high successes of its pedagogical activity, hence teachers are powerless to motivate success of the pupils. Ideas declared in the theory and postulates of humanistic pedagogics in many cases remain only on a paper as effective mechanisms of their practical realisation taking into account a real state of affairs at school and structures of the working day of the teacher are not developed. The system of North American school education generates a special sort mifotvorchestvo, entering difficult relations with a daily reality, and thus demanding demifologizatsii with a view of understanding of a real state of affairs in pedagogical activity of the school teacher in the USA. Accompanying a modern educational discourse of the USA the rhetoric appeals to idea of struggle with traditsionalizmom and stagnancy as stagnation sources in a development of education and public relations as a whole, but thus the school remains to one of the most conservative institutes of a society. The traditional image of the ideal North American school teacher in many respects associates with displays of personal initiative, enthusiasm and persistence. For a traditional picture of the world of a North American society rapprochement of images of the teacher and the preacher, the pastor, and also the sacred person, having corresponding high authority also is characteristic, however work of the teacher does not bring high incomes and is not reliable by to financial well-being and prosperity. Unfortunately, in the American schools still long time will be difficult to involve the best minds of the country, the present professionals of the business as wages level mismatches that physical, intellectual, emotional and energicheskim to expenses of the school teacher. In multicultural space the school teacher should observe considerably the big distance in relation to trained in comparison with single-crop traditsionalistskim space of interpersonal pedagogical interaction. The communicative behaviour of the teacher becomes less emotional, less sated with signs and symbols because of necessity of preservation of a neutral distance in relation to pupils who require that them motivated to educational and educational activity. The marked multicultural installation bears in itself a call to constants of an image of the ideal American school teacher of the XX-th century which should show enthusiasm, emotional contact and presence of a strong feedback. The contradiction between pljuralistichnostju administrative requirements to the formation organisation at schools of the USA and invariativnostju (monistichnostju) the basic lines of the ideal school teacher of the USA) is observed.

9) standards, requirements and working conditions of the school teacher in the USA and Russia Are analysed.

10) For the first time in istoriko-pedagogical research it is developed

Complete periodization of school education of the USA. (New England (1620-1744); Search of national identity, the adaptation

Protestant values (1744-1778); the "Dzheffersoniansky" period
(1778-1851); the Period of distribution of an obligatory elementary education (1852-1900); the assimilation Period (1900-1920); the Period of sotsio-cultural adaptation (1920-1950); the Period of "new trends» (1950-1980); the Epoch of scale reforms in formation (1983 - present time)).

Novelty istochnikovoj bases of the dissertation also consists in use of researches of 2011-2017 of the edition (T.J. Kane, A.L. Wooten, E.S. Taylor, J.H. Tyler, 2011; J. Hattie, 2013; P.A.Grem, 2011; G.Thomas, 2016; D.Lemov, 2014, 2016; D.Berdzhes, 2015; F.Jackson, 2016; D. Goldstein, 2014; Koen D.K., 2017; A.Kon, 2017)., Etc.) and earlier not quoted rare books (e.d. MHnsfield Edwаrd D., 1853; Barnard H., 1876).

The theoretical importance of research

1) At a support on studying of primary sources the maintenance of an ideal of the American school teacher in a context of history of formation of the USA that is the contribution to the general pedagogical theory is proved and specified and promotes the further development of the given direction of researches of school pedagogics in a context of the domestic theory and formation history.

2) the complex nature Is proved and opened and problem structure «ideal school teacher» is offered. Are established universal konstitutivnye lines of the person of the ideal school teacher to which are carried (a place and a role of an image of the ideal school teacher in an educational discourse of the state and a society; () characteristics of solved educational problems.; () a role and a place of the teacher in institutsionalnom a pedagogical discourse; () characteristics of educational process in synchronism and diahronii; () participation, a position and a role of the school teacher in educational activity; () features of understanding the teacher of the educational mission / missions.

3) On the basis of the analysis of the established dominating pedagogical approaches and concepts of the American theory and formation practice the model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA of the XX-th century is developed. As a part of model the steady and dynamic, nuclear and peripheral components are allocated, allowing to treat history of development of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA in a retrospective show and in synchronism. Personal and professional qualities of the ideal American school teacher are revealed and proved.

4) the Presented model allows to comprehend intrinsic invariant and variativnye characteristics of the ideal school teacher of the USA and to characterise their influences on development of the pedagogical theory and educational institutions in modern sotsiokulturnyh conditions.

5) the role of the ideal American school teacher in development of a North American education system Is proved and characterised.

6) sources, conditions, sotsiokulturnyj a context, valuable and ideological reference points, dynamic aspects, historical stages of formation of an ideal of the school teacher in pedagogical culture of the USA Are described.
The periodization of history of school education of the USA and corresponding dynamics in development of an ideal of the school teacher of the USA is specified and prointerpretirovana.

7) the basic contradictions in system of school education of the USA that allows to spend further typological and kontrastivnye researches of educational systems in wide krosskulturnom a context Are revealed. The account of the described contradictions and achievements of educational system of the USA allows to analyze and criticise positive and negative experience of use of approaches, before applied in system of school education of the USA. The analysis of contradictions promotes working out and a choice of the best methods, ways, approaches and decisions of problems of school education.

8) Results of research pawn bases for a reflexion of principles of formation and a choice of adequate approaches in a context of working out of strategy of a development of education of the Russian Federation in modern conditions with the account of experience of the USA and globalizatsionnyh processes; they will promote deeper understanding of essence of educational reforms and the account of a role and mission of the school teacher in their realisation. Besides, results of research can be used as a theoretical basis for the new researches devoted to the concrete periods in history of North American formation.

The practical importance of research

1) Results of work can be used for working out of lectures on elektivnym to disciplines on history of pedagogics ХІХ-ХХ of centuries, and also on history of pedagogics of the English-speaking countries; histories of pedagogics of the USA of the XX-th century; by preparation of courses of lectures on the general and comparative pedagogics, philosophy of formation, history of foreign pedagogics at pedagogical universities and at faculties of improvement of professional skill, and also at a writing of course works, final qualifying works, and also magisterskih dissertations.

2) Substantive provisions of dissertational research can be useful by working out of the maintenance, techniques and technologies of a pedagogical education taking into account innovative processes in formation.

3) Results of work can be used in a context of management of formation and workings out of new technologies and techniques in student teaching.

Reliability of scientific results is caused by the careful analysis of wide sample of original sources in English, critical perusal of the corresponding scientific and pedagogical literature, proceedings of the domestic scientists specialising on studying of history of foreign and comparative pedagogics. Also reliability is predetermined by the proved choice of methodological receptions, use of methods of the research answering the purpose and problems of work. Theoretical conclusions and positions are interconnected with available scientific data and the student teaching facts.

Approbation of results of research. Substantive provisions and results of dissertational research are reflected in publications and presented in the form of reports on annual International nauchnoyoprakticheskih conferences «the Language discourse in social practice» (Tver, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017); at II international-practical conference «Actual problems of psychology and pedagogics in the modern world» (Moscow, RUDN, 2015), at IV International scientifically-practical conference «the New word in a science: development prospects» (Cheboksary, 2015), at IV International scientifically-practical conference «Pedagogical skill and pedagogical technologies» (Cheboksary, 2015), at III International scientifically-practical conference «Pedagogical experience: The theory, technique, practice (Cheboksary, 2015), at II Interdunarodnoyopraktichesky conference «Innovative technologies in science and education» (Cheboksary, 2015), at the International scientifically-practical conference «the New science: a theoretical and practical sight» (Sterlitamak, 2015), at the International conference «Innovative activity in economy, management and formation» (Rostov-on-Don, 2015), at V International scientifically-practical conference «Pedagogics and psychology» (Cheboksary, 2015) At V International scientifically-practical conference «Pedagogical skill and pedagogical technologies» (Cheboksary, 2015), at the International scientifically-practical conference «Modern technologies in world scientific space» (Tomsk, 2016), at III International scientifically-practical conference «the Basic questions of the theory and pedagogics and psychology practice» (Omsk, 2016), at the International scientifically-practical conference - XXXI Sessions of scientific council on problems of history of formation and a pedagogical science of the Russian Open Society «the Teacher and its formation: historical experience of transfer of erudition and culture» (Tver, 2016), IV Scientifically-practical conference «Actual problems of psychology and pedagogics in the modern world» (Moscow, RUDN, 2017).

Materials of dissertational research are used for working out of a course of lectures «Applied aspects of foreign pedagogics and formation psychology» for magistrantov, trained on a direction «Management in formation» at Institute of a pedagogical education and social technologies of the Tver state university, and also a course of lectures «the Ideal of the teacher in domestic and foreign pedagogics» for the post-graduate students trained in a direction 44.06.01 Formation and pedagogical sciences of the program of postgraduate study «the General pedagogics, pedagogics and formation history» the Tver state university. Courses of lectures are approved in 2017-2019 at the Tver state university.

On a dissertation theme 40 works, among them 2 monographies, 38 articles, among which 17 articles in the magazines reviewed VAK are published. Separate fragments of work, its theoretical and practical conclusions are reflected in magazines «the formation World. Formation in the world» (2014, 2015), «News

The Russian Open Society »(2015),« European Social Science Journal »(2015),« London Review of Education and Science »(2015),« the Science and the world »(2015, 2016).

The research structure corresponds to logic scientific istorikoyopedagogicheskogo researches. Dissertational work consists of the introduction, three heads, conclusions under heads, the conclusions, the list of the literature and contains 362 pages. The literature list includes 316 names, from which 111 in English. The dissertation text contains 8 tables.

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A source: Astapenko Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019. 2019

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