Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnyj a phenomenon: a general characteristic

In research the concept «Russian abroad» is base. It has been entered into use in bowels of domestic emigration of G.P.Struve and designated, as professor V.V. Shelohaev, «marks a generality of historical, political and personal destiny of representatives enough wide social circles and political forces multinational and polikonfessionalnogo the Russian society», appeared on the various reasons outside of Russia, but remaining
In spiritual communication with it [169, with.

89]. Along with the specified wide definition of considered concept of the modern literature there are its interpretations in narrower value, with reference to various areas of humanitarian knowledge. So, in an istoriko-pedagogical science Russian abroad is understood «as educational institutions and pedagogical thought of Russian emigration after (1917)» [144, with. 296]. In these values - wide and narrow - the given definition is used in the present research.

Closely connected with concept «Russian abroad» is concept «Russian emigration». In the given dissertation after A.A.Pronin Russian emigration is understood as all citizens who have left the country of the Russian state who left abroad on a constant residence or have appeared outside of the native land for more or less long term [176, with. 101]. In the scientific literature it is noticed, that the concept "abroad" is wider and mnogogrannee than concept "emigration".

Formation in many foreign countries of Russian diasporas became a consequence of emigration of compatriots. The concept "diaspora" is treated in the dissertation as the phenomenon, on the one hand, aspiring to keep the basic characteristics inherent given national or an ethnic group (model of behaviour, the attitude form, a national language), with another - getting under influence inokulturnogo line environments, not characteristic for native culture. The diaspora, marks K.E.Sitnichenko, carries out the special role consisting in mission of service through a combination of adaptation to world around with preservation of own identity under condition of absence of the help from the outside [188, with. 18]. As consequence on foreign land the special type of the person with the system of values and behaviour model is formed. V.V. Zhuravlyov specifies, that activity of the majority of diasporas is directed appreciably on preservation of culture of the people: Creation of national schools, the literature edition on the native language, preservation of national consciousness [170, with. 9].

Key in the dissertation concepts "music education" and «musical education» also are. Both concepts are used in research in the treatment given by V.I.Adishchevym. The music education including musical training and musical education, is understood «purposeful, pedagogicheski organised, carried out in establishments of a general educational profile as process of familiarising of children to bases of the musical culture, providing their musical, spiritual development» [134, with. 13]. Musical education is interpreted as activity on introduction of children in the music world through the device for them concerts of professional musicians and visiting by children of opera performances, symphonic and other concerts [134, with. 14].

Principal causes of occurrence of Russian abroad modern researchers name three circumstances: the First World War, October revolution and Civil war.

Owing to these reasons there was a considerable number of the Russian people who have created outside of the country, on P.E.Kovalevskogo's expression, «Russia out of borders» [tsit. On: 198, with. 169].

Researchers allocate some waves of emigration: pre-revolutionary, postrevolutionary, the emigration caused by the Second World War, emigration of 1970-1980th years, and also postreorganization emigration [170, with. 10]. The period of 1917-1939 which is considered in the present dissertation, in the scientific and publicistic literature it is accepted to name emigration of "the first wave». During this period, especially in the first poslerevoljutsionnye the years, one emigrants, not consent with ideology of the Soviet power, have been sent from Russia, others - have selected destiny of refugees. A number of scientists carries to Russian emigration not only those who after events of 1917 has been compelled to leave the Native land, but also those who after revolution was abroad: ambassadors, their family, employees of embassies, representatives of Russian nobility and the bourgeoisie, were at this time in the countries-allies, Russian military attaches, representatives of the economic
Migrations etc. [188, with. 22]. In the beginning of the XX-th century out of Russia also there were known art workers - musicians, artists, ballet masters who long lived abroad, but constantly came back from tours home. Events of the First World War and the subsequent revolutions have found many of them out of Russia, interfered also with their return to the country.

Toughened position of emigrants the decree «About deprivation of the rights of citizenship of some categories of the persons who are abroad», accepted VTSIK and Sovnarkomom RSFSR in 1921. According to the decree of the rights of citizenship lost: the persons who were abroad it is continuous more than five years and not received from the Soviet government the passport till June, 1st, 1922; the persons who have left Russia after November, 7th, 1917 without the permission of the Soviet authorities; the persons voluntary serving in armies, battling against the Soviet power or participating in the counterrevolutionary organisations. The same decree provided possibility of restoration of citizenship, but acceptance of the Soviet ideology [182 thus was required, with. 157 158]. Having appeared abroad, Russian refugees were in a difficult legal status: on the one hand, they have ceased to be citizens of Russia, with another - did not become citizens of any country.

Among Russian emigrants, marks G.J.Tarle, the certain part was made by representatives of intellectual elite [192, with. 22]. In the early thirties in emigration was about 500 domestic scientists, including about 150 professors. Educational level of Russian refugees was high: 2/3 from them had the secondary education, every seventh - university [188, with. 23]. Together with parents outside of Russia there was a considerable number of children. Only in their Europe was 45-50 thousand [171, with. 26].

Russian diasporas were in unequal conditions. It spoke distinctions in an economic situation of the countries of their stay, religious features, political modes, cultural
Traditions, the policy spent by a management of the countries concerning national minorities in general and Russian people in particular.

Researchers notice, that characteristic line of Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon was adherence of our compatriots to cathedral type of behaviour. Its other characteristic line, despite the fact that what Russian emigration consisted of representatives of various classes, estates and conditions, there was a mental unity [187, with. 13]. Having appeared in foreign countries, emigrants were not dissolved in other cultural environment, they managed to keep the language, cultural and household traditions.

Geography of Russian emigration of "the first wave». Emigrant streams, K.E.Sitnichenko marks, have originally been directed to the states next to Russia: Finland, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Turkey, China. It spoke expectation of fast homecoming. One of the basic streams of refugees lay through Siberia and the Far East to China, in areas KVZHD. In 1920th years in this region the Projapanese state of Manchzhou Th is formed. Harbin becomes cultural and a centre of science of northeast China. There Russian diasporas are formed. Other route of refugees was Black Sea - to Turkey. The great bulk of refugees was made here by military men, and also civilians, including representatives of bourgeoisie, intelligency, court circles, administration of the governments created by A.I.Denikin and P.N.Vrangelem. Further from Turkey refugees directed to Bulgaria, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom SHS). The third route lay severo-to the west Black sea. In east part of Poland and East Germany (after the First World War and military conflicts many prisoners of war have been concentrated to territory of Ukraine). The families joined them, managed to leave the Soviet Russia. The Soviet authorities authorised for departure in the countries
limitrof (the frontier states - Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia) that who had there ground possession [188, with. 32-34].

When hopes of fast returning home have failed (in connection with the Rappalsky peace treaty and a recognition of the USSR foreign powers), many Russian emigrants have been compelled to go to farther countries: Germany, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, then further away: to the USA, Canada, Central and the South America, Australia, India, New Zealand, Africa [188, with. 35].

According to researchers, in 1920 some differentiation of moving of Russian emigrants of "the first wave» was appreciable: military men concentrated mainly on the Balkans and in Harbin, in Czechoslovakia - those who has been connected with constituent assembly Committee, in France and Germany - noblemen and intelligency, in the USA - businessmen [188, with. 35].

Number of emigration. Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnyj a phenomenon considerable scales poslerevoljutsionnoj characterise emigrations. Mass emigration has begun right after events of October, 1917 and proceeded till 1922. After that time the aggregate number of Russian refugees remained concerning a constant, but the territory of their finding that spoke search by emigrants of work, possibility of reception of formation, the best conditions of a life varied. Emigration of "the first wave» Russian refugees has come to the end basically by 1939 - to the Second World War beginning [180, with. 596].

Finding-out of an aggregate number of the Russian emigration as marks I.V.Sabennikova, is a difficult problem for the researchers, completely not solved till now as there is no reliable statistical information. One of the first attempts of definition of number of Russian emigration has been undertaken by League of the Nations, a society of the Red Cross and the International bureau of work. According to first two named organisations, in the beginning of 1921 in the different countries of Europe
Was Russian refugees not less than 785 thousand persons, not considering the Far East where lived 50 thousand Russian refugees. According to the International bureau of work, in 1923 of Russian refugees in Europe was about 1 million persons. I.V.Sabennikova specifies in one figure which German historian H resulted in the research background Rimsha, - the general number of Russian emigrants in Europe in 1921 made 2935000 [182, with. 163].

In December, 1925 the Supreme commissioner on bezhenskim to affairs doctor F. Nansen has dispatched to member states Leagues of the Nations the paper-and-pencil test in which the information on quantity of refugees in each country was requested. From 48 states only eleven were informed by data on quantity of the refugees living in their territory. Similar interrogation has been spent in 1928, as a result of it the information from 23 European countries has been received. This information testified, that the general number of Russian refugees on the countries, given data, made in 1926 1138487 persons, and in 1928 754700 persons (without Germany). These data as it is marked in modern researches, are represented relative as in the majority of the European countries of the exact and full account of Russian emigrants it was not conducted [182, with. 163].

Domestic scientists as a result of the researches spent to last years ascertain, that in the early twenties of the XX-th century outside of Russia in emigration it has appeared from ones and a half to two millions Russian citizens [174, with. 225]. In I.V.Sabennikovoj's researches, the recognised expert in Russian abroad, it is shown, that the number of Russian refugees in an emigration initial stage on the moving countries made: to Turkey (Constantinople) - 100 thousand persons, Germany - 250-300 thousand, Poland - 400 thousand, France - 400-450 thousand, Yugoslavia - 35 thousand, Bulgaria - 30-35 thousand, Czechoslovakia - 22 thousand, Romania and Greece - 50 thousand, the Baltic states and Finland - 100 thousand, China - 200 thousand By estimations of the scientist, 95, 5 % of emigration were made by ethnic Russian [180, with. 595].

Educational space of Russian abroad. The major component of Russian abroad as complete sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon was the sphere of education. It included various types and kinds of comprehensive schools, out-of-school establishments, higher educational institutions, the socially-pedagogical organisations, pedagogical journalism.

In Russian abroad did not exist, as in pre-revolutionary Russia, the uniform administrative body presiding an education sphere of rising generation. In the absence of such body the major role in formation and development of business of training and education of children of Russian refugees was played by the socially-pedagogical movement which has arisen in the early twenties in emigration.

Active participants of socially-pedagogical movement were visible political and public figures, teachers, the psychologists who have received popularity still in Russia: I.A.Bazanov, J.I.Ajhenvald, A.V.Zhekulina, V.V. Zenkovsky, A.V.Elchaninov, P.N.Ignatyev, E.P.Kovalevsky, P.N.Miljukov, V.D.Nabokov, S.V.Panin, S.F.Russova, S.O.Seropolko, etc. Direct participation in the decision of theoretical and practical questions of formation in emigration accepted A.N.Antsiferov, A.L.Bem, P.M.Bitsilli, N.A.Gants, S.I. Giessen, M.L.Hoffmann, P.G.Vinogradov, I.I.Lapshin, S.I.Kartsevsky, A.S.Lomshakov, I.M.Malinin, M.M.Novikov, V.V. Rudnev, D.M.Sokoltsov, etc. [171, with. 32]. These figures acted as organizers, were members of scientific, pedagogical, religious societies, were active figures of pedagogical journalism, initiators and participants of teacher's congresses, founders of the teacher's organisations, grammar schools, lycées, schools.

Socially-pedagogical movement of Russian emigration carried out various functions: promoted creation of public associations of teachers, scientific, students, promoted the organisation of Russian teaching and educational establishments, helped to establish communications

And contractual relations with the state and public bodies of host countries concerning activity of Russian schools and social protection of children. The major problems, daring figures of the socially-pedagogical organisations, were working out

Theoretical problems of training and education of rising generation in the conditions of emigration, programmno-methodical maintenance of activity of Russian schools abroad.

To number of others obshcheemigrantskih the organisations, dealing with formation problems, Russian academic groups concerned Association Russian zemskih and city figures (Zemgor), the All-Russia union of cities (Sogor).

The zemsko-city committee has been based in 1921 in Paris, assisted the Russian refugees in the different countries of Europe. He spent work in two directions: 1) rendered material aid for cultural and educational needs to Russian organisations and separate persons; 2) organised a different sort of establishment of teaching and educational, research, cultural-educational and other character. In Zemgore among others V.V. Rudnev who has published variety of the works characterising the basic stages and problems of development of Russian school in emigration was engaged in formation questions.

The committee of the All-Russia union of cities was in Prague. The structure of this committee included public figures, including formations dealing with by problems. Among them were P.D.Dolgorukov, A.V.Zhekulina, S.V.Panin. They spent cultural-educational work among Russian emigration, were initiators of opening of some educational institutions.

Russian academic groups were in the different countries of Europe - Germany, Bulgaria, France, the Great Britain, Yugoslavia, etc. the Purposes of these organisations creation of Russian scientific organisations, the publication of proceedings of domestic and foreign scientists were.

Pedagogical movement included also the professional organisations uniting Russian teachers, were in emigration. Almost in all countries where Russian teachers worked, teacher's groups and the unions which were engaged in the device of teachers for work have been created, promoted their dialogue, solved problems of formation and rising generation education, conducted educational work. Number of such organisations concerned «the Union of Russian teachers of average and lowest school in Czechoslovakia», «Association of Russian teaching in Finland», «the Union of Russian teachers in Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia», «the Union of figures of Russian democratic school on the Balkans», etc.

Big razbrosannost moving of Russian emigrants and Russian educational institutions has demanded creation of the uniting pedagogical centres. In 1923 at the First congress of figures of average and lowest Russian school the decision to organise the uniform pedagogical centre abroad, and also the central teacher's professional body abroad was accepted. The place of stay of these centres had been selected Prague. The given organisations have been urged to co-ordinate the pedagogical activity spent in all Russian diasporas, to unite in a single whole all «a foreign emigrant pedagogical family» [69, l. 1].

For the purpose of association of the domestic pedagogical forces which were abroad, Association of Russian teacher's organisations abroad »(chairman A.V.Zhekulina) has been organised«. Association included the unions and groups of Russian teachers of all types of schools of the different countries, teachers of some countries where there were no teacher's organisations, and also the teachers temporarily deprived of possibility to be engaged by pedagogical activity. Problems of the given organisation were: association of the Russian teachers living abroad, their account, studying of conditions of existence, carrying out during a life of actions for improvement

Material and a legal status of teachers; representation and protection of interests of Russian teachers before the foreign government, public organisations (Russian and foreign); acquaintance of Russian teachers with statement of educational business abroad and in Russia; rendering morally-legal and material aid to compatriots; search for teachers-emigrants of corresponding work; care of formation of Russian children abroad; preparation of pedagogical shots [160, with. 70-71].

«Association of Russian teacher's organisations abroad» put also one of problems of the activity convocation of professional congresses, meetings for working out of questions of training and rising generation education. So, in 1920th years by the given association it has been spent five delegatskih meetings. At these meetings reports on work listened with delight, there was an information interchange, activity strategy was developed.

The huge role in a management of pedagogical activity of Russian diasporas abroad belonged to other central body - «to the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad» which was headed by V.V. Zenkovsky. The pedagogical bureau had been organised its representations in 13 countries of Europe. The bureau also kept in contact with the Russian teaching which was in America and on other continents. The bureau, carrying out co-ordinating function, organised research work, practical activities on rendering of the methodical help to teachers, and also cultural-educational activity [171, with. 35].

The pedagogical bureau, as well as «Association of Russian teacher's organisations abroad» promoted creation Russian uchebnoyovospitatelnyh establishments abroad, protected interests of Russian formation before the governments of the foreign states, rendered moral, legal aid to Russian teachers and pupils, convoked pedagogical congresses and meetings, carried out 27

The decisions accepted at these congresses, promoted distribution of pedagogical magazines and books among Russian teachers.

Working out of curricula and programs for Russian emigrant school was one of the major problems who was solved by the Pedagogical bureau. For the decision of this problem at the Bureau the Program commission has been organised. The chairman of the commission was professor I.M.Malinin. For preparation of programmno-methodical materials except members of the Bureau in the commission experts - teachers, methodologists in separate subjects (to the native language, the Russian literature, history, music, etc.) have been involved . The program commission collected operating programs of the Russian emigrant schools which were in the different countries, analyzed them, generalised the received materials, with the account of the received data developed approximate programs and curricula for all schools of Russian abroad [92, with. 5]. The bureau thus underlined, that it does not possess functions of management and the recommendations does not break an autonomy of the local schools which activity should be under construction in compliance with local conditions and laws of the countries in which they are [171, with. 35].

The leading place in structure of formation of Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon was occupied with a comprehensive school. Emigrant general educational educational institutions were created on - a miscellaneous: in one countries they arose spontaneously in the centres of moving of refugees, in others - opened Purposefully zemsko-city committee (Zemgorom), in the third - existed as school of Russian minority in the states entering earlier in structure of Russia (Finland, Poland, Bessarabia, the countries of Baltic).

The first Russian schools in emigration have appeared in 1919-1920 in Turkey and Greece, in places of initial moving of refugees. By data for 1921, Zemgor contained in Istanbul three grammar schools in which it was trained over 900 children, three programmar schools, 10 elementary schools [160, with.

26]. In connection with moving of Russian emigrants from Turkey to the Western Europe the number of children visiting educational institutions, was reduced. According to Zemgora, in Europe on the beginning of 1924 43 average worked educational institutions and 47 lowest schools. In these educational institutions 8835 children [160 were trained, with. 28]. In 1928-1929 in the West European countries already there were 118 Russian educational institutions: 29 preschool centres, 52 elementary schools and 37 high schools. In these educational institutions 7673 children were trained. About 1500 children it was trained at Russian schools limitrof, about 1000 children attended Russian courses where national subjects [160 were taught, with. 29]. By the end of 1920th years many Russian parents preferred to give children to be trained to schools of the country of residing for the purpose of their occurrence in culture of the people of this country.

In Russian abroad existed two basic types of Russian schools - initial and average. To an elementary school as researchers mark, children's homes, actually elementary schools and so-called school groups concerned. The children's home structure included a kindergarten, a younger and senior preparatory class, sometimes - three-five classes of a grammar school. The elementary school was made usually by two groups - younger and senior. In younger group there were children of 5-7 years. The senior group was visited by children 8­9 the years, preparing for receipt in a preparatory or first class of Russian grammar school. School groups were created there where concentration of Russian emigration was low and schools to contain it was unprofitable [171, with. 61]. Employment in these groups had preparatory, tutorial character and pursued the aim not to give children to forget earlier acquired knowledge, to prepare them for receipt in a grammar school.

The basic role in formation of children of Russian emigration was played by high school which has usually been organised as Russian pre-revolutionary grammar school with eight-year term of training with two kontsentrami for four years in everyone. Principal views of these schools were: a classical grammar school with two languages; a real grammar school with 29

Latin language; a grammar school of new type without classic languages, but with an increased requirement on two modern languages and mathematics; real school - with one modern language and the expanded programme on the mathematician. There were also mixed and humanitarian grammar schools. The first kontsentr grammar schools in the basis were humanitarian, the second kontsentr, there, where conditions allowed, shared on two directions - real and humanitarian. However because of a lack of means the preference was given any to one of the named directions or attempts to connect at one school both directions [171 became, with. 60-61].

In Russian abroad there was a small number of the closed educational institutions which have left Russia - military schools and female institutes. After revolution the part of pupils and teachers of several Russian military schools have emigrated to Yugoslavia. On the basis of these cases the military school and the Crimean military school have been created the First Russian of grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovicha. The first of the named cases has been formed in June, 1920 in the city of Sarajevo. It consisted of a part of pupils of the Odessa, Vladimir Kiev and Polotsk cases. In 1933 the part of cadets of the Don military school has joined case structure. In 1929 the First Russian military school has been moved in White Church where remained up to the closing in 1944. The Crimean military school has been formed in to an Oreanda of a part of pupils of the Poltava, Vladikavkaz and Sumy military schools. In November, 1920 the given case in quantity about seven hundred persons also has moved to Yugoslavia.

Cadet cases in emigration have kept the curriculum, the schedule of work of pre-revolutionary Russian military schools in the basis. But were and changes are made - programs on the mathematician are filled up, studying of the Russian literature, history, geography of Russia, and also singing and drawing is expanded. In connection with expansion of the program of training 8th class has been added. Cadet cases in emigration on
To the formation maintenance came nearer to Russian real school of the beginning of the XX-th century.

In emigration two female institutes - Don and Kharkov operated also. These educational institutions have been evacuated to Serbia by spring of 1920. In October, 1921 in Great Kikinda one more educational institution as female institute - «the First Russian-Serbian maiden grammar school-boarding school» has been opened. Institutes kept many traditions and lines of pre-revolutionary institutes of noble maidens. But in their work, as well as in work of military schools, corrective amendments were entered: in the training program there were new subjects (Latin language, history and Kingdom SHS geography), has been expanded the training maintenance on mathematics, physics, natural study, 8th class is added. Changes were brought with the account of the requirements shown by the Serbian law on test for the school-leaving certificate.

In Russian abroad the approximate curriculum has been developed for emigrant schools. The given plan included world, state (the residing countries) and national formation components. Depending on conditions and requirements of this or that country of a finding of Russian schools in this plan it was supposed to make changes and to create on its basis individual curricula for each emigrant school.

The named approximate curriculum («the Table of week hours accepted by the commission of the Pedagogical bureau») included following disciplines [54, l. 207]:

[The name of subjects] [Classes] In total


Zak [it] Bozh [y] 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2 1/2 14
Russian jaz [yk] 5/6 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 33
Local jaz [yk] 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 24
[First] 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 24

inostr [annyj] jaz [yk] (objaz [atelnyj])
[Second] inostr [annyj] jaz [yk] (neob [jazatelnyj]) 3 3 3 3 3 3 18
Latin [language] 6 5 5 4 20
History 2 2 2 2/3 3 3 3 3 20
Geography 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16
The naturalist [enie] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16
Physics 3 2 4 3 12
Chemistry 2 2
Mathematics 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 32
Filosofsk [aja] proped [evtika] 2 2
Jurisprudence 2 2
Drawing 2 2 2 2 2 2 8+4
Plotting 1 1 2 4
Calligraphy 2 2
In total

objazat [elnyh]

24 26 28 29 29 30 32 33 231
Unessential] 3 3 5 5 3 3 22
Singing 2 2 2 [3] 6
Gymnastics 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16
In total

objazat [elnyh]

28 30 32 31 31 32 34 35 253

The school education purpose at Russian emigrant schools consisted, on the one hand, in the general education of pupils, their preparation for a real life on foreign land, with another - in the help to the children isolated from Russia to remain Russian, to bring up in them national consciousness and love to the Native land. Development of Russian school abroad as researchers mark, represented first of all search of ways of creation of national school [171, with. 56]. The central place in curricula of Russian foreign schools was occupied with a cycle of national subjects which has received the name "Rossika". This cycle included following subject matters: the Law Divine, Russian, history, geography, the literature, singing. These subjects have been urged to promote education of national consciousness of Russian children, to interfere with their denationalisation.

The Russian scientists-emigrants considered, that in a basis of education of rising generation the doctrine of Russian orthodox church should be necessary. Church, they believed, should not stand aside of a life and development of the child. Therefore religious education of children at Russian emigrant schools, as well as in pre-revolutionary Russia, was carried out in educational and during nonlearning time. In curricula of these schools in frameworks "Rossiki" as it is noted above, the subject «the Law Divine» has been entered.

Comprehensive schools of Russian abroad existed in difficult conditions. The major problem as marks M.I.Raev, financing of schools was. In the majority of the countries where there were emigrant schools, she dared with the big work. An exception Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia where schools received financing from the authorities on a level with local educational institutions, and also made the frontier states (first of all Latvia) in which schools of emigrants have been equal to schools of ethnic minority, were considered as a part of the state education system and provided with financing.
In other places emigrant schools have been compelled to combat for a survival alone, receiving only minimum help from local authorities. Any school could not exist without tuition fee collection [116, with. 77]. The high tuition fee was a serious obstacle for development of Russian schools as training at local schools was much cheaper. It served as the precondition to the termination of activity of a network of Russian schools in the various countries of residing of emigrants.

Problems of children in emigration drew attention of the various charitable organisations. The greatest quantity of schools has been opened and subsequently was financed by such charitable Russian organisation, as Zemsko-city committee. In some states the initiative on opening and the maintenance of Russian schools the international organisations, in particular, incurred the Red Cross. Nevertheless the problem of financing of Russian schools abroad as a whole dared with huge difficulties.

Heavy working conditions of Russian emigrant schools were other problem. Difficulties were expressed in a lack of textbooks, grants, the equipment, a stationery, literatures on the native language. Teachers together with pupils quite often had to make various tables, preparations, an evident material, sometimes textbooks. Some institutions have been deprived school furniture, badly heated, lessons were conducted in the close rooms not adapted for employment, there were no libraries [175, with. 200].

The financial position of teaching structure of Russian schools abroad was heavy: teachers received the low salary, delays with salary delivery were frequent, there were no means of subsistence from - for closings of educational institutions [175, with. 200]. Difficulties for teachers created also mobility and heterogeneity of structure of pupils both on age, and on preparation level. Pupils of one class quite often
Were completed from educational institutions of various type. The part of children was not trained at schools within 4-5 years. Inconstancy of class structure of the city and rural schools, connected with a heavy financial position of families of emigrants, reception in schools of new pupils within all academic year, permanent outflow of pupils - all it essentially complicated work of teachers [175, with. 201].

Certain difficulty was represented by remoteness of a residence of pupils from an educational institution. Quite often pupils, not having necessary clothes and means for journey payment, passed lessons. The exit from this position saw in creation of boarding schools at educational institutions, and also hostels for families of schoolboys. Such hostels and boarding schools in a number of places have been created. Their presence helped to resolve a number of other problems bezhenskogo existence: to cut down the general expenses on the maintenance of a school network in connection with creation of large educational institutions with boarding schools and liquidation of small schools, to reach higher results in training and education of children and youthes, to improve as a whole position of emigrant families [175, with. 201].

Significant element of educational sphere of Russian abroad as sotsiokulturnogo a phenomenon were out-of-school establishments. In emigration the network of such establishments which have spent in addition to comprehensive schools work on training and education of children of Russian refugees has been created. To principal views of the establishments which are carrying out nonscholastic adult education in emigration, the public universities, a different sort of studio (musical, the fine arts, literary, etc.) concerned; establishments of club type - national houses, clubs; establishments of a special orientation - child care centres internatnogo type, children's homes, children's improving camp. The essential role in nonscholastic adult education was played also by cultural and educational associations of emigrants - societies of national houses, musical
Drama, is art-literary, choral societies and mugs, mugs rodinovedenija, library and pedagogical societies.

The special place in nonscholastic adult education was occupied with courses in Russian subjects. Courses opened for the Russian children trained at schools of the countries of residing. Employment were spent in free from lessons at these schools day. The basic subjects on these courses were Russian (reading, a spoken language, grammar, the literature theory), the Russian literature, geography of Russia (rodinovedenie), history of Russia, singing. Among nonscholastic adult education establishments there were also Russian public universities. The given universities conducted the big educational work on distribution among adults and children of knowledge of Russian and world culture, talks, lectures, seminars were given, mugs were organised.

Integral part of nonscholastic adult education of Russian abroad were Russian houses which have continued traditions of pre-revolutionary Russian of "national houses». Under their roof reading rooms worked, the youthful and youth organisations, folk theatres, etc. the Primary goal of Russian houses national enlightenment was. In these houses lectures were regularly read, literary evenings were arranged, spent, as well as in public universities, conversations about Russian history and culture for an adult and children's audience.

During summer vacations for children of refugees camp nurseries in which dialogue occurred only in Russian were quite often organised. Camp worked under special programs in the course of which realisation it was carried out social, religious, physical, art, education of children.

The certain role in preservation by Russian youth of national consciousness, in mastering by it achievements of domestic culture was played by Russian children's and youthful organisations. The greatest distribution to Russian abroad was received by the organisations of scouts,
Youthful and children's departments of Russian student's Christian movement (RSHD), and also such organisations, as "Heroes" and «Russian falcons».

The important role in development of Russian school and pedagogics abroad was played by pedagogical journalism. During the considered period in Russian abroad it was published more than 30 periodic pedagogical editions. Magazines «the Bulletin of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad» (Prague, 1923-1927), «the Bulletin of the Pedagogical bureau» (Prague, 1927-1931), «Russian school abroad» (Prague, 1923-1931), «Russian school» (Prague, 1934-1940) were the most authoritative among them. On pages of pedagogical magazines, bulletins, bulletins questions of formation of Russian school abroad were considered, the purposes, problems, the maintenance of its activity, a problem of financing, programmno-methodical and personnel maintenance revealed. In the conditions of emigration the pedagogical journalism carried out function of maintenance of Russian teachers, students, scientific the new literature and was effective means of a unification of Russian schools and Russian teaching.

The certain place on pages of pedagogical magazines of Russian abroad was occupied with questions of musical training and education of children in the conditions of emigration. Such questions as value of music in national education of rising generation were taken up, in particular, development of musical abilities of children, use of musical art in out-of-school work, etc. Short time it was published addressed to musicians, singing-masters magazine «Russian choral bulletin» (Prague, 1928) in which data on Russian choral collectives abroad were published, their creative activity, questions of school music education were taken up.

Let's bring results. The analysis of the literature and sources has shown, that Russian abroad of the considered period represented sotsiokulturnyj a phenomenon in which a number of features was inherent. It is large number of the Russian citizens who have left abroad after October, 1917, width of their moving and, as consequence, formation of numerous Russian diasporas in the countries of Europe and other continents. To Russian emigration were peculiar mental unity, cathedral type of behaviour, strongly pronounced aspiration to keep national originality in conditions inokulturnoj environments.


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A source: MAMAYEVA Nadezhda PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018. 2018

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