Socially-philosophical essence of spiritually-moral formation of the person

The problem of spiritually-moral formation of the person always took a powerful place in pedagogical researches and constantly excited philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, teachers. The theoretical judgement of a problem is directly connected with understanding sotsialnoyofilosofskoj, pedagogical essence of spiritually-moral formation of the person.

In modern philosophy, sociology, psychology, pedagogics terms "spirituality", "morals" are used. Within the limits of our research definition of the maintenance of these concepts is especially significant.

For definition of essence of a definition "spirituality" it is necessary to address to philosophico-historical sources. Studying of semantic space shows, that the origin of the term "spirituality" is closely connected with understanding of essence of "spirit".

The conceptual, terminological registration "spirit" receives already in antiquity and the Middle Ages and has a theological origin.

Platon and Aristotle consider spirit as the force, capable to correct the world. Followers of stoicism take away to spirit a role of the ruling beginning, and neoplatonisty describe penetration of spirit into the lowest spheres of life [143].

Following Socrat, spirituality is based on principles of knowledge, self-knowledge, philosophy studying. "True", "correct" knowledge conducts to virtue. Inspirituality, according to Socrat, arises from ignorance that is kindly also that is angrily. Ignorance pushes the person in the spiritless.

Platon separates spiritual conditions of the person from «the sensual
Pleasures »to develop at itself a habit to be the free person». On the question: «That spirituality development can supervise?», answers - "reason". Hence, on Platon it is necessary to consider as a spirituality measure degree of "rationality" of the person [143, с.194].

At Aristotle the reason possesses spirit. In its opinion, the mind to all concerns in the "external" image, "reason" all "external" does "internal". Such "reason", puts the prime targets before the person and induces actively to realise the spiritual potential. Action - one of leading principles of spiritual development. Except knowledge, «constant exercise of character» [9, с.394] is necessary for the person. Spiritual qualities develop in activity which benefits the individual and all people.

In the course of clearing from theological frames during New time there is a terminology updating. In 17-18 centuries the themes connected with a problem of spirit are formed: a spiritual substance and structure of informative abilities.

The consciousness or thinking instead of the term "spirit" give preference to terms R Descartes, G.Lejbnits, B.Spinosa. G.V.Lejbnits in the work "Monadologija" wrote, that the person «the knowledge of eternal trues», «distinguishes from simple animals possession reason and sciences», it and ennobles the person to knowledge of the God. He is G.V.Lejbnits names reasonable soul or spirit [28].

In works of the German philosopher of of Century-F. Gegel the central place is occupied with a problem of the person. He considered, that spirituality is capable to be entered in public spirit: the general pulls together all people in «general intellectual and moral human nature» [51, с.7].

Evolution of understanding of the term "spirituality" in a science [180] contacts the analysis of various approaches to definition of interaction of the person with the world resisting to the nature, a human soul and a sociality.

The first approach confirms secondariness and dependence of spirit.

The higher displays of human spirit are deduced from elementary requirements: behind spiritual ideals and values pragmatical interest, an economic activities, instincts and will to the power is seen. F.Nitsshe spoke in this occasion to supporters of materialistic views - to see in spirituality unity of theoretical and practical features of realisation by the person of the spiritual possibilities, first of all, intellectual, limited to reflexion, an estimation and aspiration to an ideal.

The second approach is connected with a recognition of action of spirit out of laws of the visible world. Unconscious defines system of vision and reality experience. V.Frankl has entered representation about unconscious spirituality [197].

The third approach is connected with judgement of understanding of spirit as the objective reality accessible to rational judgement and opening the persons in process of formation of individual and public consciousness. Spiritual development consists in "contemplation" (Platon); in an ascension of human spirit to Spirit Divine, up to full merge to It (Filon Alexandria); in sensual knowledge - the special ability directed on comprehension of idea of the God (R.Descartes, T.Gobbs, B.Spinosa, D.Lock, G.Lejbnits); in an ascension to tops of spirit in the course of intellectual activity (I.Kant, F.Schelling, B.Gegel, L.Fejerbah, A.Einstein) »[110, with. 431-432].

The fourth point of view on spirituality is presented by the developed religions which perceive Divine Spirit as the Absolute and creating Person. The spirit, according to this approach is a divine element in the person, it is free and eternal, is the creative beginning ennobling the person to absolute values (to V.S.Solovev [177], N.A.Berdjaev [18], I.A.Ilyin [79], S.L.franc [196]).

Research of references shows, that by present time in a science has developed two basic approaches to understanding 19

Essence «spiritual formation of the person»: sekuljarnyj and religioznoyomistichesky.

Followers of the secular approach connect spirituality of the person with ideal activity of the person, limiting thus sphere nadyndividualnoj a spiritual reality frameworks of public consciousness. Process of familiarising with the objective world interiorizatsiej the developed norms, values and ways of activity is socialisation process.

The religious-mystical approach does not deny essence of socialisation as process of familiarising of the person to the objective world and even considers process of socialisation as a condition of original spiritual formation of the person which is understood as interaction with a spiritual reality, with area of objective superhuman spirit. Spirituality in understanding of this approach leans against religiousness and the belief in existence of an invisible order of things and that our highest blessing consists in the harmonious adaptation to it of ours a being is defined as «. This belief and an internal life in harmonies with it form that name a religious condition of soul» [63, with. 50].

Let's consider essential distinctions between religious and secular understanding of the nature and value of spirituality. Distinctions it is found in substantial filling of concept "spirit". In nekonfessionalnoj philosophies under "spirit" are understood ideal abilities inherent in the person - consciousness and will, and in religious-mystical understanding are meant objective spiritual essence - from spirits of religions to absolute Divine Spirit. Both these of sense are reflected and dissolved in encyclopaedic editions. So, in Cyril's Big Encyclopedia and Mefodija [28] concept "spirit" is defined doubly:

1) as «the higher ability of the person allowing it to become by a source smyslopolaganija, personal self-determination, intelligent transformation of the validity; opening possibility to add a natural basis individual and social being by the world
Moral, cultural and religious values; a playing role of a supervising and focusing principle for other abilities of soul »;

2) as «supernatural force correcting by the world to which the person to be active or it is passively involved».

The theoretical analysis of sources has shown, that in researches by definition of essence of terms "spirit", "spirituality" secular and religious positions coincide in a defining role of the person in the spiritual development, the subjective position in relation to development of own possibilities. As such possibilities self-actualisation, self-development, self-improvement act,

Self-determination, self-determination also are objectively connected with development of the egoism, the personal beginning, originating in spiritual formation of the person.

In the modern philosophical literature three forms of life of spirit are described: spirit of the separate person (personal spirit), the general spirit (objective spirit), obektivirovannyj spirit (set of complete creations of spirit). The personal spirit becomes spirit only through integration of the person into area of objective spirit, into spiritual sphere, culture which it can partially acquire in the course of education and formation. Process of this integration also is «formation by the person as the person is understood as the live being, differing the spirituality» [192, с.146].

In research of spiritual formation of the person we lean against modern not religious understanding of the term "spirituality".

Let's consider understanding of "spirituality" in pedagogics history.

One of ancestors of pedagogics as speaks JA.A.Komensky's sciences about "triplicity" of a human structure. The person consists of a body, soul, and spirit. JA.A.Komensky considers, that the soul concluded in a human body and correcting its actions is a particle of world spirit. He underlines moral sense of spirituality as the most valuable
Personal quality as the spirit or mind, is force and ability to follow the learnt good. JA.A.Komensky opens a love role as major making spirituality of the person. «But all it is more important for all people that, first of all, in everything, in end of all souls filled with love... There will be no love - at all our other works we remain simply the rodents who have got into holes of the vanity» [91, с.167].

I.G.Pestalotstsi especially allocates a role of moral education in «formation of true humanity» the child. He considers, that «forces of soul» grow from inclinations loving, were ashamed and be self-controlled. «Original, true forces» person direct to high thoughts and the purposes. According to Pestalotstsi, the spirit of the person is not concluded in any one its separate force. «Truly humane spirit of our forces is concluded in belief and love. Force of heart, belief and love are for the person... Just what are roots for tree growth. In them the forces extracting from the earth food for all its basic parts» [140, с.31] are concluded.

JAnush Korchak marks a moral essence of spirit of the child, connected with «moral stability and sensitive conscience». Education of this quality should be carried out in the maximum approach by a life. The pedagogical love based on belief in the kind beginning in the child bring up moral bases of spirituality. According to J.Korchaku, children permissibly to be mistaken and joyfully to aspire to correction. In conflicts to conscience he sees development of moral firmness of the pupil. «If the child is not mistaken in the childhood and, in every possible way protected and sponsored, does not study to struggle with temptations, he grows is passive-moral - absence of possibility to sin, instead of aktivnoyonravstvennym - moral, thanks to the strong constraining beginning» [94, с.165].

K.D.Ushinsky has proved idea «spiritual and sincere» developments of the person, having shown, that education which «spiritual development» sets as the purpose, "beret" of the person of everything, «with all its national and individual
Features, its body, soul and mind », addresses to its character [186, с.115]. In character of person K.D.Ushinsky allocates two elements: natural and spiritual, developed under the influence of education and circumstances. To« great tutors », sources of spiritual development of the child the teacher carries the native language, school, the nature, a life, a science and religion which specifies« the prime target to any education »[186, with. 174].

Representatives of school «free education» essentially deny any violence over the child, including the spiritual. K.N.Venttsel considers, that is unique true pedagogicheski lawful is the proved and scientific ascertaining of laws of spiritual development of the child, main objective allocation, «development in it the free creative person» [39, с.15]. Followers of the theory of free education

Put in the forefront in the field of sincere education will development. The will represents the party of a spiritual life thanks to which its elements communicate in one harmonious individual whole.

The science long did not use concept "spirituality" as in it the religious context owing to what it was perceived as a synonym to a word "divinity" was put only. However, the true essence of concept "spirituality" is much wider. Communication of spirituality with religiousness is a concrete historical form of a spiritual life of mankind. The original nature of spirituality is determined by requirements of a public life and realised in values and norms of a life.

Let's consider modern substantial filling of the term "spirituality".

According to A.A.Gusejnovu, R.G.Apresjanu spirituality should be understood «as obrashchyonnost the person to the higher values - to an ideal as conscious aspiration of the person to improve, to approach the life to this ideal - to be spiritualised» [58, с.382].

Essence of spirituality, according to RL. Livshits, consists in an openness of the person to the world as spirituality is such vital position of the person in the world in which its internal freedom and the creative beginning [102] is realised.

In S.L.franc's treatment [196] spirituality is defined as nadyndividualnaja a reality in which each religious person stays. However S.L.franc's concept supposes possibility nekonfessionalnoj interpretations and conducts to treatment of spirituality as absorption of individual consciousness in a culture body. In the given concept human communications (I - You, I - We), meaning presence of moral aspect, are allocated as sistemoobrazujushchy an element. G.E.Burbulisa, V.E.Kemerova's concept [36] is that, for example. Spirituality, according to their approach, - «is special concentration of intellectual forces of the person, developed in the course of social life...», «special ability of people to concern in the conscious image socio-historical process of a life and to participate in its creative transformation and development» [36, с.91].

In T.I.Vlasovoj's understanding spirituality is «immanently inherent quality of the person, a way of its existence to which there corresponds an internal orientation on the higher values giving to a human life and all human culture the higher measurement, the higher knowledge and sense. Spirituality is a phenomenon of preservation of continuity of generations, positive tendencies of development of the person, maintenance of a human way of a life» [41, с.140].

According to S.B.Crimean, «spirituality leads to connection of an image of the world with the moral law of the person. Spirituality is a way of self-building of the person that connects it with a choice the person of an own image, freedom and a role» [97].

Spirituality, according to V.N.Kolesnikov, is «the basic deep Force of human individuality. Its activity directs the sincere
The world to a limiting condition of evolution - to its Perfection. Spirituality designates requirement of comprehension of sense and appointment of all life »[90, с.10].

Opposition of is material-pragmatical values and values on which basis dare smyslozhiznennye the problems existing in a context of "eternal questions of human life» are essential to definition of concept of spirituality. [35, с.115]. Spirituality, according to L.P.Buevoj, is an indicator of existence of hierarchy of values, the purposes, senses in which the problems concerning a highest level of spiritual development of the world by the person are concretised.

V.A.Tcherkasov gives definition according to which spirituality is «requirement and ability of the person to creativity for various spheres of culture (material, spiritual, sotsionormativnoj); the requirement and ability« to be for others »; requirement for freedom, for freedom of self-realisation, ability to self-education and self-development (result of pedagogical activity)» [204, с.30].

In the pedagogical literature spirituality is understood «as expressiveness in system of motives of the person of two fundamental requirements: ideal requirement of knowledge and social requirement to live and operate« for others »[171].

According to N.G.Dmitrievoj's definition, «spirituality of the person is a system of its values, that core round which the unique human essence is formed. Easier speaking, it is our representations about the world, about myself, about good and harm, all that we love or we reject, than we are inspired also the paternal we long. It is our inner world» [65, с.24].

I.A.Makarova gives the following treatment of the term "spirituality". «Spirituality is that high, final, the higher to what the person aspires. Spirituality always - a subject of human aspirations, a vector (orientation) of his soul, tendency to the selected purposes (values).
If spirituality characterises "vertical" aspirations of the person, morals - sphere of its "horizontal" aspirations: relations with people and a society »[114, с.54].

Researches in the field of psychology concretised and have expanded semantic space of use of concept "spirituality" in pedagogics.

So, for example, there is such definition of the given term. «Spirituality name search, practical activities, experience by means of which the subject carries out in itself the transformations necessary for achievement of true, for self-determination. More precisely, spirituality - spiritually-practical (not utilitarian) activity on self-creation, self-determination, spiritual growth of the person» [29, with. 149].

To a spirituality problem in modern psychology the greatest interest is shown by supporters cultural-historical, dejatelnostnogo and system approaches to studying of the person.

«Spiritual development of the person, - according to S.L.Rubinshtejna, - is shown and made in activity of the person, its practical and creative affairs» [151, с.242]. K.A.abulhanova [1], V.A.Petrovsky [141] also understand spirituality as subektnost, as motive power human in the person.

In psychology spirituality is understood as installation (D.N.Uznadze) [184]; human uniqueness (D.B.Elkonin, V.V. Davidov) [59, 60] private world of the person, its subjectivity (B.S.bratus, V.I.Slobodchikov) [165]; live knowledge (V.P.Zinchenko) [75]; mental activity (B.G.Ananev, h.p. Vygotsky, A.F.Lazursky) [48].

"Spirituality" in understanding of modern researchers - a category concerning morals, «and only moral stimulus of behaviour, aspiration to good, justice, the help to another - are purely spiritual and are completely disinterested. Conscience and a debt name spirituality tools» [63, с.41].

Consideration of a problem of spirituality assumes revealing of its essence in a plane of various approaches. For a pedagogical science and practice the support on results of judgement of a phenomenon of spirituality and ways of its formation by modern philosophers, teachers, psychologists is especially important. The wide spectrum of understanding of spirituality is proved by a variety of approaches among which are allocated:

- aksiologichesky (G.S.Abramova, G.A.Avanesova, A.S.Arsenyev, E.P.Belozertsev, B.S.bratus, L.P.Bueva, E.I.Isaev, B.T.Lihachev, V.I.Slobodchikov, S.L.Soloveychik, S.L.Rubinshtejn, V.G.Fedotova, S.S.Hajrullin, V.N.Sherdakov, N.E.ShChurkova, etc.);

- Potrebnostno-information (O.P.Vjazemsky, A.M. Cousins, P.V.Simonov);

- Gnoseological (M.S.Kagan, V.A.Kutyrev);

- Sociohistorical (V.A.Bachinin, G.E.Burbulis, V.E.Kmerov, V.A.Shabanov);

- Complex (V.S.Barulin, N.D.Nikandrov, G.V.Platonov);

- dejatelnostnyj (V.I.Murashov, I.V.Silujanova).

Representatives aksiologicheskogo the approach connect spirituality occurrence, first of all, with occurrence of the person in the culture world, sphere development «nadyndividualnyh values», moral perfection. L.P.Bueva, V.N.Sherdakov, allocating kulturnoyoantropologichesky aspect of a problem, consider, that spirituality is connected with finding by the person of sense of the life. The belief, Hope, Love and wisdom of a life - Sofia are the basic characteristics of a highest level of development of the world the person. Round them the humanistic sense of spirituality is formed and concentrates. V.G.Fedotova considers, that spirituality formation is interconnected with development of sincere human life. According to V.A.Lektorskogo and G.A.Avanesovoj's researches, spirituality becomes in the person through internal work on self,
Cultivation of feeling of love and the moral relation to world around and relatives, and also through religious experience. B.S.bratus considers, that the way of the relation prevailing for the person to other person is its major moral characteristic, and allocates egocentric, gruppotsentrichesky, prosocial (humanistic), spiritual (eschatological) levels in structure of the person. Spiritual level is characterised by subjective relations of the person good luck, the personal formula of communication with It.

Representatives of the potrebnostno-information approach, P.V.Simonov [163], P.M.Ershov, JU.P.Vjazemsky, assert, that motive forces of human behaviour are requirements. Spirituality is defined mainly by requirement of knowledge, and dushevnost - social requirement to live for others.

Proving the gnoseological approach to definition of essence of spirituality and leaning to the revealed quadrilateral structure of human activity, M.S.Kagan [82] allocates four aspects of display of spirituality: in the course of knowledge of a reality, its transformation, valuable judgement and dialogue of people of their joint actions. A defining condition for intelligence transition in spirit is thinking "two-orientation" - not only in external, world around, but also in internal - on itself.

G.E.Burbulis, V.E.Kemerov as representatives sotsialnoyoistoricheskogo the approach, assert, that spirituality is a special concentration of intellectual possibilities of the person, developed in the course of social life, ability of people to be mindful to socio-historical process, and to participate in its creative transformation and development.

V.S.Barulin represents the characteristic of spirituality within the limits of the complex approach. Spirituality is understood by it as basic quality of the person homosapiens, essentially distinguishing it from the world
Animals. According to V.S.Barulina's definition, in concept spirituality it is necessary to include the maintenance of is intellectual-cogitative, emotionally-sensual, strong-willed activity of the person, all difficult complex of its mentality, a spectrum moral, aesthetic and religious experiences, a science and art.

I.V.Silujanova [162] as the representative dejatelnostnogo the approach considers spirituality as a way of ability to live and underlines the importance of values and ideals, sees its essence in the organisation and management of the person. Spiritual, it agree dejatelnostnomu to the approach, is strong-willed, capable to own the promptings, desires, aspirations the person.

Thus, generalising the studied treatments and definitions, we can draw a conclusion that the spirituality problem is considered in a science, religions, philosophies, sociology, etc. In the pedagogics which methodological basis is the dialectic materialism, spirituality is identified with culture of a life, behaviour, hardly, an aesthetics, morals.

In traditionally philosophical understanding spirituality includes three beginnings - informative, moral, aesthetic. A spirituality core are the morals.

Let's address to historico-philosophical sources for the purpose of definition of essence of concept "morals".

The Russian term "morals" is analogue Latin concept "morals". The morals are object of studying of philosophical discipline of ethics. The all-European tradition in understanding and morals interpretation goes back to early antiquity.

During an epoch of antiquity ethics core were questions on how it is necessary to live to the person as it to concern all occurring with it and round it. It is area of practical knowledge, nauchenija the person to certain actions and education in it is active-strong-willed, sincere
Abilities. Such representation about ethics bore in itself concept about specificity of morals - vital wisdom and practical skill in behaviour.

During an epoch of the Middle Ages the morals acted as a principle of divine authority, system of precepts, personal povedeny, going from the Lord. Moral activity of the person saw in the form of service to the god, and, naturally, moral sights at the world, appointment of the person and a society did not separate from religious outlook.

O three levels of morals on which three concepts are based, we read in works T of Gobbs. In the first sense the morals are inherent in the person in their natural condition, and customs are understood as strongly taken roots habits of behaviour. «If customs are good, them name virtues if they are bad, - defects» [54, t. 1, with. 260]. In the second understanding the morals act as public institute. «Kind customs, i.e. moral virtues, such customs thanks to which once the arisen state organisation is better are can remain» [54, t. 1, with. 262]. From the third point of view what were state laws, submission it there is a virtue, and infringement - defect.

Top of philosophy of morals of New time were I.Kanta's ethics. I.Kant has specified in generality of the moral requirements distinguishing morals from other, social specifications similar to it (customs, traditions, ethnically-local specifications, etc.). I.Kant has focused attention to roles of personal consciousness and self-compulsion in morals, on specific character of moral freedom, on communication of this freedom with features of moral obligation. Consciousness, on the Edging, - the necessary precondition of morals and moral responsibility.

I.Kant in the doctrine about a categorical imperative has altered «a gold rule» morals. The maintenance of a categorical imperative is shown to I.Kantom in variety of various treatments:
«Arrive so that maksima your will could become the form of the general legislation», «become worthy happiness», «promote highest blessing realisation», «concern other person not only as to means, but always as well as to the purpose» etc. [84].

In morals the person acts «as the amateur person possessing own moral consciousness - belief, feelings, propensities, conscience... The Morals develop of moral activity, behaviour of people, characteristic for morals of a way of regulation of behaviour» [167, with. 169].

Core in morals - «not reflexion, not a reasoning, and action, an act. The morals are ability to arrive with skill» [77, с.20].

The morals, according to JU.V.Christmas, are defined as «set of spiritual qualities of the person who has well seized all kinds of morals, clearly realising true moral values and the preference which are able creatively and skilfully to apply morals categories to real vital situations» [151, с.64].

M.N.Rosenko compares a role of morals to a compass which helps the person to orient with everyday storms, decisions of various social problems, spiritual searches.

Let's consider treatments of essence of morals and morals in works of teachers.

In L.N.Tolstoy's products it is readable: «the Most simple and short rule of morals consists in forcing to serve itself of others as small as possible and to serve another as much as possible» [181].

By Kodzhaspirovoj G. M's definition, the morals «develops of three basic parties:

1) moral activity...,

2) moral relations of people...;

3) moral (moral) consciousness... The Morals act as a basis of the maintenance of moral education of the person »[89, with. 196].

D.A.Beluhin identifies morals with norms and rules «ability to live and behaviour of the people, duties defining them and relations...», and morals - as «set of real relations which arise between people, according to the standard norms...» [18, with. 256].

In a pedagogical science "morals" performance of these rules is treated as defining behaviour of the person, the spiritual and sincere qualities, necessary it in a society, and also. The morals are defined as set of norms of behaviour in a society (R.Roland, H.Shtolts). S.Anisimov interprets morals as the personal characteristic uniting kindness, decency, honesty, truthfulness, justice, diligence,

Discipline, the collectivism, regulating individual behaviour of the person.

The concept "morals" more often «defines behaviour and the relation of people, its parts are customs - rules and norms by which people in daily acts and mutual relations in different spheres of a life and various situations» [138 are guided, с.10].

In the ethical literature (L.M.Arkhangelsk, N.V. Fishermen) [10, 146] there is a point of view about three elements (consciousness, the relation, practice) and three levels of system of morals:

1) intrinsic - knowledge, feelings, qualities, ideals, belief;

2) objective - an act, behaviour, activity;

3) subjective - interests, requirements, motives, the purposes, installations, orientations, estimations).

The morals are shown in three spheres - in sphere of moral acts, in sphere of personal moral properties, in sphere of moral consciousness.

The spiritual subject represents one of the most perfect samoorganizujushchihsja systems and conformity between wished and actual

Gets special importance. Intensity and refinement of special supervising mechanisms of moral consciousness (conscience and shame) - an authentic indicator of moral perfection of the person.

The theoretical analysis of the philosophical, pedagogical literature has shown the following. Spirituality is difficult, multidimensional quality of the person which is shown in an ascension to the higher human ideals and values; in unity emotional and rational, material and ideal; in aspiration to comprehend true; in comprehension itself as parts space, a unification with the nature world; harmonisations of mutual relations with other people; experiences of kindness, conscientiousness, love, humanity; in activity. The morals in modern understanding are a set of spiritual qualities of the person who has well seized all kinds of morals, clearly realising true moral values and the preference which are able creatively and skilfully to apply morals categories to real vital situations.

The precondition of studying of a problem of spiritually-moral formation of the person of the younger schoolboy is development of philosophical anthropology in which channel the anthropological approach in pedagogics and psychology develops. Now concepts «spirituality of the person», «spiritually-moral formation of the person» are an integral part of scientific views on development of the person and a place of the person in a life. In a science plurality of interpretations of the maintenance of a category «spiritually-moral formation of the person» is characteristic. It is connected, first of all, with various approaches to research of the given concept.

Spiritually-moral formation of the person in pedagogics is considered as bilateral process in which external social factors and own cogitative, emotional and strong-willed activity of the person actively co-operate.

There is a set of interpretations of concept "process", however
Their essence is reduced to consecutive change of the phenomena, conditions in development something.

Proceeding from a problem of our research, there is a necessity of the analysis of the maintenance of concept "formation" for a context of pedagogical research.

Formation - the category of dialectics designating process of formation of material or ideal object. Any formation assumes possibility transition in the validity in development. In G.Gegel's logic doctrine formation is defined as movement in which initial antithesises of conceiving spirit - «pure life» and "anything" - pass each other thanks to what formation appears border of their mutual parity. Formation at G.Gegel acts as process of rationing of a subject, as «transition of thought from uncertainty of definiteness», i.e. transition of "pure life» in any its certain form, «cash life» [51]. In its idealistic system formation is expansion of absolute idea. Itself absolute (true) is treated by it as carried out, becoming whole, including oposredovanie all moments and steps of the realisation.

Problems of formation, development, formation of the person are debatable. E.I.Isaevym, V.I.Slobodchikovym [81] formation is considered as maturing and growth; transition from one condition to higher level; as unity already carried out and potentially possible; as unity of the making reason and natural consequences in the development certificate. Formation process is organically connected with formation processes (as registration and perfection, as unities of socially significant purposes and result of development) and transformations (as self-development, overcoming of the developed mode of ability to live according to certain hierarchy of values and senses of life of the person) [165].

In the dictionary on pedagogics following definition of the term is resulted
"Formation". «Formation - acquisition of new signs and forms in development; approach process to a certain condition» [89, with. 323].

From the point of view of V.M.Bogarova, «formation - the term reflecting achievement by the child of such level of development when it begins capable to live independently in a society, independently to build the behaviour, to realise the relation with the world and to make rather steady valuable choice» [21, with. 202].

There is a necessity of definition of sense of the term "development". In modern pedagogics "development" the change representing transition from simple to more difficult, from the lowest to the higher, gradual transition from the saved up quantitative changes to approach of qualitative changes »[89 is treated as«, with. 284-285].

S.L.Rubinshtejn [152], V.F.Lomova [109] underlined remedial character of formation of the person. The remedial aspect of spiritually-moral formation of schoolboys objectively reflects natural sequence of continuously replaced stages following one after another.

Let's consider V.I.Vernadsky's [38] philosophical sights, its working out of the complete doctrine about biosphere and biosphere evolution in a noosphere in which the human reason and activity become the defining factor of development, comparable on the influence on the nature with geological processes. Conceptual frameworks of concept "biosphere" in our research are synonymous, by V.I.Vernadsky's definition, concepts «life area», "world around" [56, с.234].

Activity of the person, according to V.I.Vernadsky, this natural phenomenon because the person is a nature part, a biosphere part. Activity of the person expresses «a real parity between human live substance - set of live people - and surrounding nature, first of all, a noosphere... The Parity
The person ^noosfera - unseparably »[123, с.318].

Concept "noosphere" as an ideal globe ideal, "conceiving" cover, it is closely connected with occurrence and development of human consciousness [14].noosfera, according to encyclopaedic data [40], this new evolutionary condition of biosphere at which reasonable activity of the person becomes the defining factor of its development. The concept of a noosphere is entered by the French scientists E.Lerua and P.Tejjarom de SHardenom (1927), V.I.Vernadsky has developed representation about a noosphere as to the new form of organisation which arises at nature and person interaction, as a result of creative activity, reformative the world and leaning against scientific thought.

Biosphere transition in a noosphere stage, under V.I.Vernadsky's statement, is the important and irreversible stage of evolution. The noosphere is the phenomenon in which the person «can and should reconstruct the work and thought area of the life...» [56, с.238]. At a stage of a noosphere the person understands, that, being the separate person, it is inseparable from all mankind. «The mankind the life became single whole. The person as the inhabitant of a planet can and should think and operate in new aspect, not only in aspect of the separate person, a family or a sort, the states or their unions, but also in planetary aspect» [193].

To problems of activity of human reason Socrat, Platon, Aristotle's works, Plutarha, Avgustina Blissful are devoted, to M.Avrelija, Asanga, Averroesa, T.Kampanelly, I.Kanta, B.Paskalja, G.V.Lejbnitsa, F.V.Schelling, of Century-F. Gegel, I.V.Kireevsky, A.S.Homjakova, V.S.Soloveva, P.A.Florenskogo, S.N.Bulgakov, V.N.Lossky, V.I.Vernadsky, A.L.Chizhevsky, etc.

N.N.Moiseyev writes, about such epoch of a noosphere, «when the person can provide such mutual relation with surrounding validity which will allow to develop both to a society, and the nature» [119, с.24]. It is process of development of new principles of the coordination of the actions, new behaviour
People, «new morals». A problem of Person N.N.Moiseyev considers through a prism of "a moral imperative», a consequence of "an ecological imperative» (sets of the conditions which infringement will have catastrophic consequences for mankind). Maintenance of these conditions through system of institutes "Teachers" becomes the maintenance purpose of "Reason strategy» - actions of people for the sake of the Person-. To the logician of development of "a moral imperative» N.N.Moiseyev sees in observance by the Person of a principle of benevolence and respect of other Person («grow fond near as of itself») [119, s.258-268].

«Penetration of spirit into a human society and the nature: oduhotvorenie, transformation, renewal of everything having valuable sense», according to V.P.Bolshakova, is process of formation of a noosphere which proves in «the valid rationality of a life» [27].

F.J.Shipunov analyzes questions of morals and spirituality during a noosphere epoch in frameworks of "biospheric ethics». According to the theory about biospheric ethics, as principles of activity of the Person postulates act: «operate so that the world around, each Person, all live as carriers of organisation of the nature, were the purpose of all and everyone, and not just activity means of all and everyone» [210, с.83].

Criterion of morals is the true representing itself as personal spirit and a regulator of behaviour and shown in the form of repentance or pleasure. As ethics basis internal relations of the Person to, search and formation spiritual "I" (an ideal of the person) act. Relations of the Person to Others spiritual "I", to world around are morals outer side., characteristic for the present stage of development of a society spiritually-moral crisis, comes when under the influence of external factors the Person «loses the« likovost », the person» [182], do not recognise Others spiritual "I" and world around and their rights on
Worthy spiritually-moral existence.

The person, being live addition of biosphere, is the individuality bearing in improved microcosm and the creative spiritual beginning - the Person. The reason of the Person acts as a conductor of a moral and spiritual coordination [136].

Summing up the above-stated, it is possible to generalise, that the problem of spiritually-moral formation of the person is caused by set objective philosophical, sociohistorical, psihologoyopedagogicheskih preconditions. In the research we adhere to following understanding of essence «spiritually-moral formation of the person». Spiritually-moral formation of the person is a dialectic process of an ascension of the person to the higher human values and ideals, comprehension of as parts of the World, a unification with the world of the nature, harmonisation of mutual relations with Others, the realised application of categories of morals in real vital conditions.

Purposeful spiritually-moral formation of the person of the person is carried out in the course of spiritually-moral education. We will define semantic space of the term "education". In a broad sense it is necessary to understand as the term "education" «process of socialisation of the individual, formation and its development as persons throughout all life, during own activity and under the influence of the natural, social and cultural environment, including specially organised purposeful activity of parents and teachers». In more concrete understanding education is «finding by the individual of social values socially recognised and approved by given community, moral and rules of law, qualities of the person and samples of behaviour in formation processes» [96].

According to V.G.Belinsky [17], «the tool and the intermediary» education is the love, and the purpose - humanity acts. «We understand live connection under humanity in one person of those general elements of spirit, which
Are equally necessary for any person, whatever it was the nations, whatever it was ranks, conditions, at whatever age of a life and at what circumstances was, - those general elements which should make its internal life, its most precious treasure and without which it not the person »

P.F.Lesgaft asserts, that the education purpose is assistance to development of the reasonable person, differing wisdom, independence. «It is necessary to remember, that it is impossible to make the child the person, and it is possible only for it to promote and not to stir, that he in itself(himself) has developed the person» [105].

B. A.Beljaeva has defined «as process of the organised purposeful influence of the teacher on the spiritually-moral sphere of the person which are sistemoobrazujushchej of private world of the person» [129, with. 50].

C. N.Nikitenko has defined spiritually-moral formation of the person as «system and integrativnyj development and the self-development, including assignment by the person of spiritual and moral values, definition of the spiritual ideal and purposeful process of realisation of aspiration to spiritual self-improvement» [129, with. 50].

According to A.V.Glumnogo's definition spiritually-moral education is «assistance process to spiritually-moral formation of the person, formation at it moral feelings (conscience, a debt, belief, responsibility, civilisation and patriotism), moral shape (patience, mercy, mildness), a moral position (ability to distinguish good and harm, display of self-denying love, readiness to overcome vital tests), moral behaviour (readiness of service to people, Fatherland, spiritual judiciousness, obedience, good will)» [53].

The education end result, according to B.T.Badmaeva, is morals [13, with. 118].

Result of spiritually-moral formation of the person, according to the modern humanistic approach in formation, it is considered to be formation of moral shape of the person who is not bringing harm to him, to other people, a society.

From the beginning of 90th years of the XX-th century in K.A.abulhanovoj's [1] works, B.S.bratusja [34], M.I.Volovikovoj [37], V.V. Znakova [76], V.P.Zinchenko [75], E.I.Isaeva [81], V.I.Slobodchikova of [165] and other scientists began to be developed psychological bases of spiritually-moral development of the person.

The decision of a question of a problem of spiritually-moral formation of the person at substantial level is expressed in awareness of schoolboys on moral standards, moral relations, spiritual qualities of the person and moral behaviour (V.A.Bljumkin, S.P.Vinokurova, L.G.Grinberg, T.V.Tsyrlina, etc.)

In N.I.Boldyreva's [24] works, L.A.Vysotinoj, A.S.Makarenko [113], V.A.Suhomlinskogo [178], etc. the theory of moral education has found the reflexion. These scientists open principles, forms and methods of process of moral education, moral development of the person of the schoolboy, a technique of formation of moral consciousness, feelings and behaviour.

In O.S.Bogdanovoj, E.V.Bondarevsky, L.I.Kataevoj's works, RH. Lepehinoj [104], by V.I.Petrovoj, etc. are opened theoretical and nauchnoyometodicheskie bases of formation of moral consciousness and behaviour of schoolboys. Various aspects of moral education in uchebnoyovospitatelnoj activity were studied by L.I.Bozhovich [22], A.A.Kalyuzhny [83], N.G.Kapustinoj, M.I.Shilovoj [209], etc.

I.P.podlasyj, for example, moral education treats as «purposeful and regular influence on consciousness, feelings and behaviour of pupils for the purpose of formation at them the moral qualities corresponding to requirements of public morals» [145, with. 598].

V.V. Voronov results following definition. Moral
Education is «pedagogical activity on formation at pupils of system of moral knowledge, feelings and estimations, correct behaviour» [43, с.62].

According to K.B.Zharykbaevu, that person who not only has acquired certain knowledge is moral-brought up, but also operates according to them as they directly induce it. It is possible to judge morals of schoolboys and on presence at them certain "set" of moral qualities: goodwill, companionable mutual aid, responsiveness, a collectivism, patriotism, mercy, etc. (UO. Asanov, H.T Atemova, N.I.Boldyrev, N.V.Efremenko, N.I. Monks, etc.) . R Toleubekova, Z.Z.Kuatova [99], I.F.Kharlamov connect morals with development of lichnostno-ethical qualities; N.N.Bogdanova, T.I.Ilyin, N.V.Ivlev [78], V.P.Karibzhanova [86], I.A.Kairova, B.T.Lihachev - with formation of habits, feelings, correct estimations and relations to surrounding. N.E.Kovalev, L.H.Salimova, G.K.Nurgalieva [134], Kim V. A [87], consider moral education as process of development at schoolboys of skills and behaviour habits. L.P.Illarionov, I.S.Marenko, N.E.ShChurkova, R.K.Turyszhanova [183], S.A.Kirabaeva [88] relations in collective, to people consider moral education as process of development of the moral relation to the Native land...

In the pedagogical literature there is a division - education spiritual and education moral. So, it is necessary to understand as spiritual education «education of the valuable relation to a life, providing steady and harmonious development of the person; education... The qualities, capable to give the higher sense to affairs and thoughts of the person». Education moral is «purposeful formation of system of moral relations, abilities to their perfection and abilities to arrive with the account of moral requirements and norms, strong system of habitual daily moral behaviour» [89, с.40].

G.B.Ospanova gives following definition to concept «duhovnoyonravstvennoe education». «Spiritually-moral education is the two-uniform process focused on not passing human values, directed on formation of moral consciousness, moral feelings, the moral behaviour, providing highest level of aspiration of the person to perfection, development and self-control, the positive relation to and the surrounding validity» [138, с.12].

The maintenance of spiritually-moral formation of the person is represented the system formation which volume is defined by emotions, requirements, knowledge and features of environment in which there is this process. In the scientific literature especially significant name following components: emotionally-sensual, motivatsionno - potrebnostnyj, mental and behavioural, characterised an emotional condition, requirements, knowledge of spirituality, in the ways of display (drawing 1).

DuhovnoYOnravstvennoe formation of the person

At ______________

Emotional conditions

Requirements, motives, desires

Knowledge about

Spirituality, morals



∕ X

Ways of display

Fig. 1 - Components of process of spiritually-moral formation

The emotionally-sensual component consists in influence of the teacher on emotions and feelings of the younger schoolboy and formation of spiritual, moral relations and comprehension of this process by the schoolboy. H.p. Vygotsky spoke: «If you wish to cause the forms of behaviour necessary to you in the pupil, always take care of that these reactions (adequate emotional experiences) left a trace in the pupil» [47, with. 140]. Emotions are closely connected with expression of the relation of the schoolboy to themselves,
To another, to the World. Emotions and feelings, according to A.N.Leontevu, carry out reguljativnuju function of activity by reflexion of the importance of external and internal situations for realisation of its ability to live [102].

Motivatsionno-potrebnostnyj the component consists in maintenance with the teacher of saturation (creative) requirements of the younger schoolboy.

The mental component is realised in the organisation by the teacher of knowledge of essence and the importance for the schoolboy of spirituality and morals. The basic function of the given component - maintenance of schoolboys with knowledge of spirituality, morals, their categories.

The behavioural component includes the organisation and stimulation by the teacher of moral activity of the schoolboy on the basis of the acquired spiritually-moral knowledge, formation of sensibleness of acts, aspirations of the schoolboy to operate according to accepted spiritually-ethical standards, installations.

Thus, in the research we adhere to following understanding of a definition «spiritually-moral formation of the person». Spiritually-moral formation of the person is a dialectic process of an ascension of the person to the higher human values and ideals, comprehension of as parts of the World, a unification with the world of the nature, harmonisation of mutual relations with Others, the realised application of categories of morals in real vital conditions.

The maintenance of process of spiritually-moral formation of the person is defined by emotions, experiences, requirements, knowledge and real vital situations.

The following section is devoted research of aspects duhovnoyonravstvennogo formation of the person of the younger schoolboy.


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A source: Salish Saltanat Salishevna. PEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE to SPIRITUALLY-MORAL FORMATION of the PERSON of the YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY IN OUT-OF-CLASS ACTIVITY. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014. 2014

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  9. SALISH Saltanat Salishevna. PEDAGOGICAL ASSISTANCE to SPIRITUALLY-MORAL FORMATION of the PERSON of the YOUNGER SCHOOLBOY IN OUT-OF-CLASS ACTIVITY. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014
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