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tendencies of critical judgement of pedagogical activity in a mirror of representations about the ideal teacher

Today enough considerable quantity of the scientific works answering a question on what should be the effective teacher is published. The American psychologists, sociologists, researchers of essence of an American education, questions of reforming of school, the basic qualities and the requirements shown to the person of the teacher as the main agent of qualitative changes of formation of youth, have designated weight of questions and the theoretical bases on improvement of quality of school education. Researchers consider as the main figure of all positive changes the teacher. How the ideal school teacher of the USA realises in practice all better qualities and the competence, it should face what problems today, and what qualities help it to reach peak efficiency?

For the answer to these important questions to us not to do without the analysis of opinions and belief of teachers about the person of the teacher, secrets of its successful pedagogical activity. The presented data should involve interest not only practising school teachers, but also managers, legislators, developers of modern educational programs and all persons interested in given questions. The sight from within not always coincides with opinions of scientists, teachers, parents and pupils. Thereupon deserve steadfast attention of research about activity of skilled, effective, successful, faultless American teachers. Recent research «Perspectives of Irrevocable Teachers» (Prospects of faultless teachers) gives real data about vision of the pedagogical activity by practising American teachers. Research has been spent in 2013 with participation of 117 best teachers from 36 American states. The best school teachers - winners of various competitions, owners of various teacher's awards, including the most prestigious «the Teacher of year», have answered some question, concerning to their pedagogical activity, sights at the standardised testing, their feelings and moods which they test within usual educational day, that they pawn effective training in concept, and that they think of the trade. All teachers who have accepted

311 participation in interrogation, work at usual schools, including at schools where children from poor families study. Middle age of teachers has made 36 years, from nah 70 % - women and 30 % - men. In the racial relation all teachers have shared on 66 % - white, 10 % - black, 14 % - Latin Americans, 5 % - the Asian origin, and all the others have made 5 % [269, with. 4]. The second research is accented on the main things which skilled successful teachers necessarily are guided. Comparison and the analysis of data will allow us to reveal, first, primary factors which influence efficiency of teaching, secondly, to use results of researches in school practice not only in the USA, and in any high school, and, thirdly, to consider some factors at drawing up of educational programs.

Objectively to estimate effective teaching of school teachers, researchers tried to consider various criteria. As a result of interrogation it was found out, that many teachers consider teaching successful if their pupils at transition in the senior classes show good or excellent achievements. Overwhelming number of teachers recognised, that the success of teaching directly depends on success of pupils at delivery of the standardised testing, though to the testing at them the ambiguous relation. Thus graduates of schools with high to indicators of the mental abilities, arrived in high schools, also serve as criterion of effective teaching of teachers.

96 % of the interrogated teachers at an estimation of success of their pedagogical activity referred to positive responses of parents and colleagues about the work. Teachers feel successful if they gain trust of the pupils if pupils say, that they like to be in a class with the given teacher, and they love it. It is possible to consider teaching successful if the teacher enjoys authority in a class. L.Ferlatstso also underlines importance to be the authoritative teacher, but not the teacher with authoritative style of work. «To be the authoritative teacher means to have in hands the power unilaterally that someone to supervise, demanding obedience without an explanation why its orders are important. To be the authoritative teacher, on the other hand, means to show the control, but to do it, expressing the relation by means of hearing and an explanation» [242, c. 1]. Besides efficiency of pedagogical activity is influenced by belief of the teacher that each child in a class can grow and develop in the intellectual plan.

The standardised tests from the moment of their use in the American high schools were not popular at the public, repeatedly were exposed to criticism, however they is methodical within many decades serve as an estimation of quality of formation in schools and are considered at receipt of young men in colleges and universities. Practising teachers, participants of research, have expressed the opinion concerning tests. Interesting the fact is represented, that opinion of teachers on, whether the standardised tests of more harm or advantage bring, were distributed in regular intervals. In the comments of the teacher shared the concern in quality of tests and their influence on school culture and a climate in classes. Thus many teachers recognise objective utility of tests as one of kinds otsenivanija knowledge of the school program, some teachers consider them as "valuable tools» [269, p. 9] examination and mental abilities. One of teachers has expressed opinion that «too often test pupils, and schools are under the pressure of preparation for tests which actually have very low lath» [Ibid.]. The statement that testing, to be exact preparation for it, beats off desire of children to study has sounded. One more teacher has specified, that testing «has narrowed concepts training and is the reason of that teachers spend more time for superficial judgements as ability to think more difficultly to estimate» [Ibid.]. Teachers hope, that the situation will change, if new tests, soglasujushchiesja with obligatory subjects of the school program are entered. Among positive responses about the standardised testing it is possible to cite one of teachers who considers, that «testing gives to us a lot of given which help us to define, that students know well, and that it is necessary to repeat anew» [Ibid.].

All teachers recognise, that inefficient teaching is a real problem which «negatively affects reputation of a trade of the teacher» [Ibid. P.10]. Among barriers of inefficient teaching of the teacher mentioned the following: insufficient time for planning and cooperation with other teachers (40 % of respondents); they have in classes of pupils which badly study because of admissions of employment, reducing the general indicator of progress (40 %); bad behaviour of some pupils at lessons (40 %); a bad management of school (25 %); have pupils, whose out-of-school life distracts them from lessons; it is too much pupils in a class (21 %); the insufficient

313 payment (16 %) [269, p. 19]. Also have been named bad management of a class; low expectations; not the reference behind the help to colleagues; charge of pupils in refusal to incur responsibility for the training.

Teaching can not bring any results if the teacher is assured that its power is last and unique instance. Only in conditions «divisions of powers, the account of interests of children, joint discussion of problems» [242, p. 2] and ways of an exit from them it is possible to count on effective activity in which the voice of each child is heard and it is taken into consideration.

The American teachers recognise, that good vocational training has affected quality of their pedagogical activity further. 79 % of the interrogated American teachers have stated satisfaction the programs of training, even more teachers have appeared happy programs of a magistracy which they have finished in addition to a bachelor degree or an alternative way of training. Teachers notice, that professional development is impossible without practice, especially in training. The important factors raising quality of teaching, supervision over work of other teachers, councils and responses of pupils and colleagues is. Perfection in a trade is impossible without increase of the skill. Third interrogated with enthusiasm is perceived by courses of improvement of qualification or master classes, others do not think of the perfection without reading of useful books, articles, researches in the field of psychology and a teaching technique.

As the formal factor of increase of efficiency of pedagogical activity has served otsenivanie works of the teacher as experts from the party. 83 % of teachers have with satisfaction responded about otsenivanii their works as external experts and methodologists. These experts have helped to estimate objectively a technique, receptions and technologies of work of teachers, to reveal their strong and weaknesses, to help to improve training methods. The majority of the interrogated teachers have specified importance to have possibility to observe of work of colleagues (directly or by means of video of lessons) and to be observed with the party.

Among questions which teachers should answer, there was a problem demanding finding-out of feelings and moods which test the teacher in usual educational day at school. Teachers were offered to name three adjectives which completely would reflect the general mood. We will carry out the analysis of the received

314 data. On the first place there were such adjectives, as "tired" and «absorbed in work», on the second place on a mention: "motivirovannyj", "happy", "excited", «an accepting call», «full of enthusiasm». On the third place there were following epithets: "vigorous", "exhausted",

"Concentrated", «realising the possibilities», "ardent", "joyful". Further on rate of a mention there are following adjectives: « The proud "," self-confident "," inspired "," anxious "," carrying out urgent business "," occupied "," inspired "," making of the decision "," being in stress ». By in total teachers are named 111 adjectives to some extent reflecting their internal sensations from teaching. As a whole, teachers are absorbed by the work, and test pleasure from the chosen trade (« joyful "," inspired "," happy "," inspired »). But work with children is hard, takes away many forces and energy, therefore it is no wonder, that many teachers giving all energy to children, test weariness, both physical, and moral to what adjectives« exhausted testify "," tired "," being in stress ». Some adjectives which named the teacher, are reflexion of problems which are tested by teachers in the hard activity. We name some characteristic definitions:« Nervous "," burning out "," it is not enough

Paid "," being without the support "," testing the dizziness "," despaired "," disappointed "," helpless », etc.

Certainly, work of the teacher - is one of the most difficult, but claimed at all times. Unfortunately, only few people can devote it all life. However if the teacher feels the calling and feels itself happy on the workplace the best teacher not to find. Despite numerous difficulties and problems which the school teacher practically faces every day, exists factors which keep teachers in a trade. Most of all voices have typed answers in which teachers recognise, that they are capable to help to develop to the pupils intellectually and academically (55 %). The following factor, forcing teachers to remain in the trade, it is work with pupils who face economic and social problems (50 %). Also the desire to continue to work as the teacher consists in philosophy of school which they completely divide, and respect of colleagues (45 %). Besides, teachers adore the

Subject also are able to force to admire with it the of pupils (39 %). Hardly less percent have typed answers that the teacher has independence in performance of that considers as the best for a class and pupils (18 %). 12 % of percent of teachers have noted such advantage of the trade as in the summertime, allowing it is enough time to give long holiday to a family and children (12 %). Some teachers named possibility to promote (to receive a supervising post in an education sphere) (8 %). The good salary, uncertainty concerning where it would be possible to realise itself, except teaching (4 %) Also were called. As a whole are very satisfied by the work of 46 % of the interrogated American teachers, 45 % are satisfied, not satisfied by the work there were 8 % of respondents, and only 1 % of the interrogated school teachers admitted, that very much are not happy with the trade.

In summary we will result citations of American school teachers participating in research which could become pedagogical credos for many, devoted the life to teaching. «Pupils - above all and they the best, that are in teaching. They do one day not similar to another, give uncountable possibilities and throw down a challenge to me on equal». «I always feel, that that I do, is the most important career on the earth» [269, p. 15].

Otsenivanie and the analysis of pedagogical activity of the American school teacher the public

In the United States of America throughout long time many officials and experts in the field of school education estimate pedagogical activity of teachers, basically, in connection with results obuchennosti schoolboys, especially at passage of total testing by them. That is, the basic criterion of an estimation of activity of North American school teachers results of the final (standardised) tests of pupils are.

The public, composers of educational programs together with teachers and school managers are uniform in opinion that «methods otsenivanija erudition growth do not keep up with changes in the formation maintenance» [6, with. 91]. Teachers and researchers all over the world work over improvement of the maintenance of educational programs, training methods, kinds, ways and criteria otsenivanija to achieve optimum balance of all components of educational process. However school teachers, the public, and also parents

316 are disturbed by that because of uniform requirements to reports on performance of the curriculum and various programs, otsenivanija obuchennosti schoolboys the teacher cannot make and apply results itself to the full educational and detailed designs, to each pupil individually. The school teacher appears in a situation when it is limited in the activity, in a choice of methods and tutorials, therefore it cannot show the advantageous parties that can be reflected in an estimation of its activity not in the best way.

The researcher of North American formation, the professor of the New York university Diana Ravich, acts with criticism of school education of the USA, especially underlining, that «educational process is reduced exclusively to nataskivaniju on performance of test tasks, and the aspiration at any cost to achieve higher points, can turn back decrease in criteria of an estimation, and is simple writing off» [142]. Officials from the federal government, and also heads of different levels from administration of states wish to see only improvement of results of testing. As a result formation departments in all states undertake every possible measures to justify top management expectations, for example, go on «reduction of the hours which have been taken away on employment by art, physical culture, history, social science and the other subjects which are not subject to uniform testing» [142]. Decrease in level of the general education Is available

The American schoolboys.

For improvement of efficiency of activity of the teacher at school the favorable professional environment should be created. L. R.Singlton specifies in importance of use of reflective dialogue between teachers. «At schools with the developed professional community the collective seriously concerns the work and cares of increase of its productivity. Discussions of the curriculum, quality and teaching and an estimation» [6 are often and regularly spent, with. 41]. One of the positive moments of activity of the teacher are served by an exchange of experience with colleagues which, in turn, gives valuable data, helps «to receive a feedback how it is possible to improve the activity» [In the same place]. Cooperation, readiness to come to the aid of colleagues, discussion, an openness promote professional growth, and, as result, to an appreciation of pedagogical activity of each teacher.

And how affairs with selection on a post of the teacher in the USA are? Unfortunately,

Requirements, are shown to young teachers are low, for example, in comparison with their Finnish colleagues. The prestige of a trade of the teacher in the USA is low. D.Ravich notices, what not in all states it is required magisterskaja degree to receive a place of the teacher in school. Recognising the Finnish education system of one of the best in the world, Ravich specifies, that in Finland the public is interested in high degree of vocational training of the teacher which means also high quality of teaching. In the USA only in few states there are rigid enough requirements to the teacher and its qualification, concluding that applying for a post of the teacher in high school should have magisterskuju degree, «to defend the diploma in a subject which they intend to teach, or to pass certain examination for possession of it» [141]. The Finnish teachers have no fear to be dismissed for discrepancy of a post or for low points of nation-wide testing. They carry out the mission of the teacher, «being guided by internal stimulus» [In the same place].

The American teachers are constantly occupied by thoughts on forthcoming tests and preparation for them; «their Finnish colleagues do not know this misfortune and consequently have possibility as it is necessary to think over plans of the employment and to discuss successes of the pupils» [142]. Ravich compares the American pedagogics to "double-exit courtyard" [141]. Approximately half of teachers are not late at schools more than for five USA test turnover of staff especially at the big city schools where pupils show low results of testing. In secondary education sphere one of the highest indicators of turnover of staff is observed. About complexity and mnogoaspektnosti works of the teacher the set of researches is devoted.

Michael Fullan in the book «New understanding of reforms in formation» (2006) refers to the researches, spent in 2000 Scott, Stone and Dinhemom about activity of teachers in four countries of the world (Australia, the Great Britain, the USA and New Zealand). One of problems of the work at schools teachers from the USA have noted excessive congestion various kinds of activity besides the training. «School teachers are filled simply up by paper work. We spend such large quantity of time for filling of useless documents what to be engaged in planning, an estimation and training already simply there is no time» [190, with. 119]. Nevertheless, teachers try to carry out well the duties and to give
Time suffices planning and a reflexion.

Ways of increase of professionalism of the American teacher

Problems in the American school education can be overcome, but demand realistic ways of the decision. The school is one of the main social institutes, and the teacher, undoubtedly, play the major role in improvement of quality of a life of teenagers. D.Ravich has come to conclusion, that low results of the standardised testing «directly are connected with poverty» [141]. For formation improvement of quality it is necessary to undertake a number of concrete measures, including at the highest level. The public, leading researchers of formation urge «to toughen criteria of selection on pedagogical faculties» [In the same place] as without good theoretical and practical vocational training it is impossible to prepare effective teachers. Besides, it is necessary to lift the status of a pedagogical trade, having created necessary conditions, both to teachers, and schoolboys.

In the USA since 1989 the program «operates Learn for the sake of America» in which the arrogant, academically presented young men can take part and to try the forces in a teacher's trade. These young men pass short-term training and go to work in different schools of the country. The program has a number of positive results. Inflow of young vigorous teachers to schools, including absolutely unsuccessful, has allowed to eliminate shortage of teachers and has brought a live stream in teaching. But, unfortunately, young teachers do not remain to work at schools more than two or three years, and among them many «consider this work only as an intermediate step before receipt in postgraduate study or a choice of any other more favourable employment» [In the same place].

Many supporters of reforms see in the program «Learn for the sake of America» and system of charter schools rescue from set of problems which the secondary education faces. The charter school is a school which receives state financing, but functions irrespective of the established state school system. They operate according to the contract with the state, area or other legal body. In this contract (charter) it is described, how the school will operate, namely: the organisation of its activity, management, expectations of pupils and as the success of pupils will be estimated. Many charter schools

319 are released from various laws and the positions mentioning other comprehensive schools if they continue to satisfy a condition of the charters (charters).

But the paradox consists that there is an infringement of the rights of professional teachers, and charter schools somewhat discredit the state system of training. D.Ravich considers, that invaluable experience of the professional school teachers having the big experience of teaching work, it is necessary to use and introduce among young teachers, and innovations should be exposed to a critical estimation and be combined with the techniques checked up by time and technologies. D.Ravich results statistics on teachers where we see, that «in 1987-1988 « the typical teacher »at our school was the teacher with pjatnadtsatiletnim the experience in 2007-2008 the majority was made by the teachers, working the first year.« Witch-hunt », extended in a society under a rappberry of" business reformers », forces professionals which experience so require both their wards, and young colleagues, simply to run from schools» [141].

Coming back to a testing problem, we will notice, that in the majority of American states results of testing of schoolboys influence an estimation of activity of the teacher almost on 50 %. However, data of examinations are often inexact, changeable and unreliable. «Depending on what children have preferred your subject, today you can seem absolutely effective, and in a year - full neumehoj» [In the same place]. The Finnish experience has already proved the efficiency, therefore, according to Diana Ravich, it is not necessary to estimate activity of the American teacher, leaning, mainly, on results of the standardised tests raising the doubts. Criteria otsenivanija the objective data including professional qualities of the teacher, its personal characteristics, psihologoyopedagogicheskuju should include preparation, application of the newest methods and technologies of training.

In addition to the opinions of visible North American experts set forth above in the field of school education it is reversible to conclusions to which as a result of the research of history of a trade of the teacher Dana Goldstein comes to the USA [246]. D.Goldstein, left a family of school teachers, knows problems of a teacher's trade first-hand. Having chosen journalism, D.Goldstein

320 has decided to specialise on formation questions, and heightened interest to the specified problematics has caused an exit of its book «The Teacher Wars. A history of America’s most embattled profession» (2014).

It is given Goldstein notices, that in the American educational circles there is a mantra, that money does not matter, with what the author do not agree. As the main argument D.Goldstein cites the data, testifying that the USA spend for one pupil more than many other things the countries, whose children win on the international tests and advance the American contemporaries. North American schools spend money for many things, and only not for improvement of the academic progress: a uniform for commands on chirlidingu, football equipment, etc. the Researcher, referring to Bruce Bejkera's statements, the expert in the field of financing of North American formation, specifies in one prominent aspect of financing - payment of the teacher of high school which in absolute value is connected with high results of progress of pupils. D. Goldstein insists to turn a close attention of the federal government on system a payment of school teachers as the salary of teachers does not reach level of a payment of workers of the higher middle class and does not correspond in any way with our expectations concerning their work.

According to the statistical data resulted in the book D.Goldstein, in 2012 the average income of the North American school teacher was $54000 in a year that is comparable with the salary of the policeman or the librarian, but is considerable below the bookkeeper ($64000), diplomaed medical sister ($65000), not speaking already about the lawyer ($114000), the programmer ($74000), or the professor of university ($69000) [See 246, p. 264]. The growing inequality of the salary of the teacher in comparison with other trades causes a loss on prestige of work of the teacher. For comparison in South Korea salaries of school teachers begin from $55000 at the beginning teacher, and reaches to $155000 in the end of career. The salary of the Korean teacher is between incomes of the engineer and the doctor.

Besides, the salary of the school teacher in the USA is strictly structured, and depends from mogih components, for example the experience, qualification or concrete staff. In Northern Carolina the teacher should work at school fifteen years that the salary has increased with $30000 to $40000 [246, p. 264]. Besides, the salary

321 school teachers varies from staff to staff. In California, for example, the teacher receives much more, than its colleagues in other states. One more feature of the salary of the school teacher is connected from stagnation in comparison with other graduates of universities who seriously reflect on creation of a family and house purchase. For this reason some arrogant young men leave a pedagogical trade, having worked at school only two-three years, or exclude it from possible variants of construction of career; besides rather low salary of the school teacher does this trade not so respected in a society as followed.

Way to a trade of the teacher long enough. One perspective teachers specialise on pedagogics as that, others specialise in concrete subject domains and get degree of the master of education. Also young men can become teachers after participation in programs, type «Learn for the sake of America» or others. Besides, some future teachers work as teachers-trainees within a year, and others practise during a semestre or become school teachers without preliminary training. D.Goldstein notices, that many American school teachers are convinced, that the purpose of their trade consists in reducing rupture in the academic achievements between rich and poor children. Their some colleagues challenge an urgency of the given purpose as it does not approach for safe schools, and pursuing it, presented children will not receive due attention from school teachers. Nevertheless, many school teachers consider, that socially-emotional development of children, critical thinking and understanding of the civil rights is much more important for pupils, than izmerimye the academic achievements. All these sights remain relevant both have the substantiation and root in culture and history of the American state.

Taking into consideration, that teaching is more decentralised in a technique and the purposes, than other formal trades, such, for example, as medicine or the jurisprudence, known sociologists and scientists have put forward the idea which is still exposed to discussion, about «plural professionalism» [Ibid. P. 265] for teachers. The given thought is under construction that for practice passage pedagogical communities are formed round schools with special thinking in which training is under construction on methods of projects or schools «without justifications» [246, the river 265]. In

The given context as D.Goldstein marks, programs of preparation of teachers and twelve years schools should work in common. Pedagogical colleges choose schools in which the best techniques concentrate and develop. Therefore colleges have possibility to observe of work of the best teachers. The best lessons are discussed together with the researchers, practising teachers and the future teachers. «Plural professionalism», in opinion D.Goldstein and other researchers, promotes growth teacher's intellektualizma and will help to enter perspective teachers into pedagogical activity, having armed with their necessary terminology, ethics, answers to the important questions on how to estimate activity of pupils.

Today's charter schools «without justifications» have close approached to model application «plural professionalism». Many colleges have close connections with charter schools and carry out a joint practical training for future teachers. As there is no unique effective ideology of teaching, and there are various models of behaviour the teachers based on numerous researches programs of preparation of teachers should be as much as possible concrete, directed on development of professional skills. Nevertheless, as D.Goldstein notices, they should be various in the intellectual plan as various societies have various expectations from the schools, varying from strict discipline to Montessori's schools.

The circle of duties of the teacher which remains practically invariable within five, ten, twenty years promotes burning out of the teacher on work, and beats off desire becomes the manager in a pedagogical trade. D.Goldstein it is convinced, that if we want, that arrogant, intellectual people became teachers and remained to work in high schools, we should offer them career prospect which would bewitch, allowed to prove from the different parties during a certain interval of time and would include possibilities to become the leader in community of adults and children. In Baltimore, for example, teachers have a possibility to be promoted, remaining the teacher in a class on half-day, and thus it is more time to spend as the teacher of the methodologist, helping colleagues in planning of lessons or acting as the trainer of young teachers. All good teachers if they want it, «instead of a handful should have such possibilities

323 favourites of managers »[246, p. 267].

D.Goldstein does a conclusion that it is necessary to lift standards for receipt on pedagogical faculties of universities or in general to close programs of preparation of teachers.

Teachers show the best results of the work if work under the guidance of the leader (the director or the head) which proclaims accurate mission in which teachers trust and try to realise it in every way. If principals in the past had good experience of pedagogical activity they in bolshej degrees cause respect of pedagogical collective as such director not only carries out functions of the manager, but also knows pedagogical work from within. Effective teachers with exclusive liderskimi qualities and the organising abilities showing good results of the work and inspired on advancement, can pass on administratorskuju work and to become good the head of educational institutions.

It is given Goldstein the same as also Diana Ravich, with criticism responds about the standardised testing of schoolboys. Goldstein notices, that from the moment of testing introduction at schools there were disputes concerning that actually these tests measure. It was supposed, that tests should show that know and pupils are able, and teachers, in turn, by results of tests do conclusions about that, on what it is necessary to give more attention in the course of training and in the course of preparation for total testing. And if school managers use results of tests to apply retaliatory measures to teachers and to use the obtained data as the reason for dismissal such state of affairs leads to that results of tests can be forged. In that case tests will not help schoolboys to study better. Results of tests, according to D. Goldstein, should be exposed to the critical analysis teachers and managers and to serve as stimulus for more effective work of teachers and improvement of a technique of teaching.

Young teachers as D.Goldstein notices, can gather much if will observe of work of skilled effective colleagues. Therefore it is necessary to give possibility the beginning teacher to visit employment of colleagues, and skilled teachers should be present from time to time at lessons of young teachers and

To give valuable advice about improvement of a technique of teaching and to act in a role of skilled instructors.

The USA, being the country multicultural and multinational, requires that representatives of all cultures worked in an education sphere. It is important to children to see teachers of different colour of a skin and different culture. It is given Goldstein has revealed, that «only 17 % of teachers of high schools - not white, in comparison with 40 % of not white schoolboys» [246, p. 270]. Unfortunately, at the American schools 24 % of teachers-men work only. D.Goldstein it is convinced, that if payment of teachers would be above, and process of preparation of teachers more competitive and intellectual, in that at schools it would be possible to observe more men and representatives of all cultures.

D.Goldstein concludes, that activity of the American teachers often are exposed to criticism as pupils not always show good results of the total standardised testing. However, it is incorrect to estimate teachers only by results of tests as they are not perfect. Criteria of an assessment of works of the teacher are not developed properly.

In the given context the comparative analysis of standards, requirements and working conditions of the school teacher in the USA and Russia which is is short presented in the form of the following table is of interest.

Table 8 - kontrastivnyj the analysis of standards, requirements and working conditions of the school teacher in the USA and Russia

The North American teacher The Russian teacher
Can not have the experience of pedagogical work; can interrupt work at school in favour of other activity, and also can and come back after any time. (Continuous) pedagogical experience is appreciated.
Often it is required to pass examination for professional suitability, including for licence reception to teach at the concrete schools one or several states. It is necessary to pass courses of improvement of qualification. With certain periodicity passes courses of improvement of qualification.
Is guided by the standards of formation accepted in concrete staff by local bodies. Pedagogical activity is under construction with a support on FGOSy.

Working conditions of teachers, payment of their work and the quality standards are established by each separate staff or municipality. Working conditions of teachers, payment of their work is established at the state level and consists of three parts: the salary,

Compensatory payments and stimulating extra charges (with small amendments at local levels).

The enthusiasm, pedagogical passion, activity is appreciated. Not co-ordinated pedagogical initiative happens is punishable.
Demands made to the teacher

bjurokratizirovany. Thus working conditions of the teacher do not lag behind shown requirements.

It is observed over bjurokratizatsija a control system and the control over the educational process, leaving there are not enough places for independent search of new ways and creative self-disclosing of the teacher. Process of permanent reforming of formation constantly brings set new treyobovany which conditions of performance are not created yet, and criteria of an estimation of performance are not developed. The teacher is compelled to work in stressogennyh conditions.
Vocational training variants: pedagogical college (the bachelor, the master), pedagogical faculty in high school (the bachelor, the master, PhD).

Almost in all states of advantage at an employment in schools have the teacher c the higher pedagogical education.

Vocational training variants: pedagogical college (an average profyoobrazovanie), pedagogical institute

(The bachelor, the master), pedagogical faculty in high school; higher education without pedagoyogicheskoj preparations (e.g. chemistry, the applied mathematics, economy, physics, biology, geography, etc.), spetsialitet. At schools candidates of sciences seldom work.

Poorly formalizable requirements: entuziyoazm, personal authority, "missionary work", ekstravertirovannost. Formalizable requirements to knowledge and kompetentsijam.
Evolution of image from the preacher,

The missionary to the teacher-instructor.

Evolution of image from city and rural intelligency (teacher's estate) to "state employee".
Increased requirements adequately osuyoshchestvljat pedagogical activity with observance corrected political correctnesses and tolerances in multicultural obshcheyostve. Not formalizable requirements of love to children, creativity, emotional return, and now and tolerances.
The teacher - a component of concepts «educational services», commodity-money relations. The image of the teacher worries crisis, but in a stereotype the teacher still rassmayotrivaetsja as an authoritative figure, respect for the teacher - a component of mentality of Russians.

Following to office instructions - the important part of mentality of the American teacher; infringement of instructions is inadmissible. Variativnoe observance office instrukyotsy - from strict observance before actions on a situation.

The short conclusion under the paragraph

Modern researches of activity of the American schools and the American school teacher give data file which allow to reveal problems and prospects of development of school education and to state an estimation of activity of the school teacher. The analysis spent by North American scientists in 2013 of research «Perspectives of Irrevocable Teachers», the relation of the best American teachers devoted to revealing to the pedagogical activity at schools, has shown following results. The majority of teachers love the trade and are not going to leave school. Nevertheless, overwhelming number of teachers recognised, that are anxious by many school to problems, and the success of their teaching directly depends on success of pupils at delivery of the standardised testing, though to the testing at them the ambiguous relation.

Among answers to a question on what three adjectives of the teacher would describe the relation to work and that they feel, being in the school, most often meeting characteristics such: "tired", «absorbed in work»,

"motivirovannyj", "happy", "excited", «the accepting call» full of enthusiasm ». Hardly there are also such epithets less often:"vigorous","exhausted","concentrated",« realising the possibilities »,"ardent","joyful". The Total of the adjectives used by teachers at the description of their feelings to school, totals 111 invariant adjectives which under a different corner of sight describe internal sensations of teachers from their activity at school, including in them some problems are reflected:"nervous","burning out",« a little paid "," being without the support "," testing

The dizziness "," despaired "," disappointed "," helpless », etc.

Excessive requirements to the school teacher and educational programs essentially limit activity of the school teacher, subordinating a choice of means and work methods to standard documents or the reporting. Because of restrictions in a choice of methods and tutorials the teacher cannot show the advantageous

327 parties that is not in the best way reflected in an estimation of its activity. Thus it is possible to conclude, that the ideal of the American school teacher cannot be to the full realised because of variety of restrictions.

The public of the USA, even at the highest level, often criticises school teachers, shifting all problems of formation on their fragile shoulders. The school hours most part North American teachers are occupied by thoughts on forthcoming tests and preparation for them. Besides, a lot of time leaves on filling of little significant documents.

Attempt to lift the requirement to students - to the future teachers can to be one of effective ways improve quality of teaching at schools and to lead additional selection on professional suitability. Besides, it is necessary to raise material compensation of the teacher which to the full would cover intellectual and power expenses of the teacher, promoted career growth.

Conclusions

In the third chapter the model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal American school teacher which includes following components is reconstructed: valuable installations and belief of the ideal school teacher of the USA; myths about ideal the school teacher of the USA and their dethronement; personal qualities of the ideal American school teacher; professional qualities of the ideal American school teacher; priority pedagogical style of dialogue of the ideal American teacher.

Obligatory condition of growth of the teacher as professional of the business is the special pedagogical education. Value of teaching activity of the ideal teacher consists not in financial compensation, and in moral satisfaction from a trade and sensation of advantage of this hard work for all society. Among traditional, eternal values of a pedagogical trade the following is allocated: love to children, sincerity and justice in relations with pupils, high professionalism and creativity.

The most important value of the teacher is the humanism. The Teacher-humanist completely is responsible for the thoughts and activity. Aspirations of the teacher-humanist are directed on love to children, kind affairs, care of young generation. To

To 328 humanistic values the love, kindness, sympathy, care, altruism, conscience, honesty, justice and others concern. The Teacher-humanist has the generated humanistic outlook, is moral valuable orientations, a civil liability. The ideal teacher-humanist is distinguished by the social activity, a rich inner world and readiness for constant self-education and the self-improvement, the developed intuition, a pedagogical step,

Purposefulness, sociability, justice, patience, ability to be self-controlled, optimism and sense of humour. It possesses the organising abilities which basis is made by ability to co-operate with children.

The American ideal school teacher is the democrat on the belief. Teachers-predmetniki urged to develop language, historical, mathematical and world outlook culture with an overall aim of formation of democratic belief of pupils.

The invariant personal qualities of the teacher presented to models considerably prevail over its professional qualities / kompetentsijami, that specifies that is the most important for the teacher what it, instead of its knowledge and professional abilities. The accent on intrinsic characteristics of the person of the teacher allows to open an ideal image, to allocate priority qualities which were actual throughout all history of world pedagogical thought. Out of time there are priority following personal and professional qualities: enthusiasm, love to children and to a trade, knowledge of psychology, ability to explain, patience, perfect knowledge of the discipline and the best techniques of teaching, high motivation, responsibility, vigour.

The carried out comparative analysis of priority personal, professional qualities of the ideal school teacher in standards of a pedagogical education of the USA and in model has shown, that the majority of invariant characteristics is present at standards. The key personal and professional qualities of the American teacher presented in standards of a pedagogical education, were distributed so: 23 - personal qualities and 19 - professional characteristics. The model of the ideal teacher includes 58 personal and professionally important 26 qualities where personal qualities considerably prevail over professional kompetentsijami.

The analysis the maintenance of educational programs of colleges, the pedagogical faculties specialising on preparation of school teachers is carried out and are revealed essential the competence of ideal American school teachers. Modern educational programs of a pedagogical education in the USA have undergone changes for last twenty years and have been added by the major kompetentsijami the teacher aimed at successful pedagogical activity in a new millenium. In programs considerably increase in the hours which have been taken away on student teaching that should affect effective work of young school teachers positively. In educational programs of preparation of pedagogical shots in the USA we would not notice what differences, invariable there are following basic requirements to graduates: excellent knowledge of a subject of the chosen specialisation; knowledge of psychology of development of the child and age features of the person; ability to select and use adequate methods of training; To be able to approach individually to pupils; to conduct the lichnostno-focused training; to own skills of verbal and nonverbal dialogue, the resolution of conflicts, to develop skills of productive dialogue with colleagues, pupils and their parents. Besides, from the teacher the knowledge of pedagogical ethics is expected, the tactful behaviour, ability to solve daily pedagogical problems to make the weighed and adequate decisions.

For completeness of a picture it is necessary to consider also insider vision of existing problems of pedagogical activity at school of the USA American teachers. The results of the interrogation spent by North American researchers about efficiency of activity of school teachers in the USA presented in work (in 2013) in which result teachers have answered set of the questions, directly concerning their works at school, namely: pedagogical problems and ways of their decision, the relation of teachers to the standardised testing, an emotional condition of school teachers, the reasons of their daily successes and failures. Generalisation of data has allowed to conclude, that the North American school undergoes internal changes, tries to solve problems at local level, at level of a city, district or staff, and, at times, achieves essential positive shifts in the permission of practical problems, in achievement of the best quality indicators of results of training. Global

330 problems of North American school education are not resolved yet, the school, on - former, concedes on quality indicators to higher education of the USA.

Completeness of illumination of model of personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher of the USA demands an establishment of its basic differences from the model of the person of the ideal domestic school teacher most habitual to us. These differences are implanted in wider distinctions between systems and traditions of school education of two states.

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A source: ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019. 2019

More on topic tendencies of critical judgement of pedagogical activity in a mirror of representations about the ideal teacher:

  1. 2.1 Pedagogical model of formation of creative competence of the teacher of an elementary school in self-educational activity and pedagogical conditions of its realisation
  2. ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019, 2019
  3. Astapenko Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
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  6. KAZANTSEV Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Voronezh - 2013, 2013
  7. Kazantsev Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2014, 2014
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