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the Appendix 2.

Tasks for pupils of 10 classes on reformatting and information transformation

Reformatting of the text information

The task 1. So now we know about history of an origin of the person?

Read texts:

Rudiments of scientific knowledge of the person have arisen in ancient philosophy bowels.

During those far times rudiments of evolutionary sights and idea of occurrence of the person by consecutive transformations of animals arose.

For development of ideas about an origin of the person K.Linneja's works had huge value. In the scientific work «nature System», developing the binary nomenclature, Linnej has allocated kind Homo sapiens (the Person reasonable) and has divided it into four races. Though Linnej was one of outstanding scientists of XVIII century, nevertheless he believed, that the person, unlike all animals, is created just like divine, that in it «the divine reason» is put in pawn. However distributing animals on classes, Linnej on the basis of similarity of a corporal structure of the person and the higher animals has united them in one class of mammals. Thereby Linnej, that not wishing, has proved, that the person - the animal mammal most close standing to monkeys. During an epoch of domination of Christianity it was very courageous step, not casually work Linneja for long time has been forbidden by Vatican.

The first hypothesis about an origin of the person has been developed by Z.B.Lamarkom in its work «zoology Philosophy» (1809) where representations about the natural factors which have defined occurrence of the person for the first time have been developed, - prjamohozhdenie, features of a food, a public life; the assumption of an origin of the person from a monkey is come out. Hypothesis Lamarka, had no success, but it has made known impact on naturalists which dealt with further a problem antropogeneza.

The big contribution to the permission of a problem of an origin of the person has made C.Darvin. In the works it has generalised the huge material which has collected to 70th of XIX century, and has proved, that the person essentially does not differ from other kinds of organisms and its evolution goes under the influence of already known factors — variability, a heredity, struggle for existence and
Natural selection. Representations of Darwin about an origin of the person were not speculative guesses, and proved to be true numerous proofs. He has stated the sights in works «the Origin of the person and sexual selection» and «About expression of emotion at the person and animals» (1872). In the general view proofs of an origin of the person furnished by it can be broken into three groups: 1) similarity in a structure of the person and other animals; 2) similarity of germs of the person and animals; 3) presence of rudimentary bodies.

Analyzing ways of evolution of the person, Darwin considered an exercise role on evolution of bodies, correlative variability, sexual selection, advantages of vertical position of a body, hand formation, development of a brain and articulate speech. However it did not manage to answer correctly all questions on an origin of the person. Of them it has given some lamarkistskuju treatment, speaking about direct influence of environment and exercises on development of bodies of the person.

These discrepancies do not belittle value of its theory as he considers as a major factor of evolution of the person natural selection, and all the others play an auxiliary role.

(Sm: a web-sajt:http://lektsii.org/5-16767.html)

Especially it is necessary to stop on the labour theory of Engels and its not finished work "the Role of work in the course of transformation of a monkey into the person". In its opinion, vertical gait of the primitive person was the precondition of occurrence of speech and consciousness development. It has made possible differentiation of a hand which of body of movement at monkeys became at the person body of work and has had an opportunity to produce work tools. Begun together with development of a hand and work domination of the person over the nature expanded its outlook, and work promoted rallying of members of a society. Formed people had a requirement something to tell each other. The requirement has created to itself the body: not developed throat of a monkey slowly, but steadily learnt to say one articulate sound behind another.

Engels writes: "At first work, and then and together with it articulate speech were two most important stimulus under which influence the brain of the person has gradually turned to a human brain"...

(Sm: a web-sajt:http://animals-world.ru/f-engels-o-roli-truda-v-processe-prevrashheniya-obezyany-v-cheloveka/)

Fill the table:

Works of scientific biologists on antropogenezu

Authors The name of works Data on antropogenezu
K.Linnej
Z.B.Lamark
C.Darvin
F.Engels

? Answer the following question: What value for the decision of a question on an origin of the person K.Linneja, Z.B.Lamarka, C.Darvina and F.Engelsa's works had?

The task 2. Formation of adaptations of organisms to an inhabitancy.

Read the text:

The more impressing and bright tail the man's individual of a peacock possesses, the it is more probability to find to itself the partner. Occurrence of this part of a body - result of natural selection. Females of peacocks choose to themselves the friend, being based on colour of feathers of the potential groom, and also attentively studying its physical power. According to experts, brightness of plumage, possibly, lets to females know that at an animal very good genes. It does its ideal for continuation of a sort and for maintenance of a survival to posterity, therefore them "assort" first of all when speech comes about pairing. But actually, not at all males bright and big tails, and especially it was shown several millenia ago. And as females were more inclined to choose to themselves partners with impressing tails those who did not possess similar advantage, were less inclined to pairing and sort continuation. As a result of their quantity gradually decreased, from one generation to another, as a result today the man's individual of a peacock without a bright tail is a rarity.

(Sm: a web-sajt:http://www.pravda.ru/science/planet/environment/07-08-2013/1167482-pavo_cristatus-0/)

Make the scheme reflecting the mechanism of formation of adaptations at

Organisms.

? Answer the following question: whether It is possible to assert, that in struggle for existence "strongest" survives. Prove the reasoning.

Reformatting of the graphic information

The task 3. T.Maltusa's law.

Consider drawings. Find the necessary information for filling of admissions in the text.

Translate the book and author name.

Define under schedules, in what progression there is a growth of the population and manufacture of a foodstuff?

Assume, what will occur after crossing of two lines?


What influences number of the population?

Fig. 1. Balance on Maltusu

Insert the passed words into the text.

The book under the name «» became Thomas Maltusa's main work. In its opinion, as in fauna and plants, and

In a human society there is a law of the nature which «consists in constant aspiration of live beings to reproduction, but it is not supposed by a quantity of food at their disposal». With reference to human society Maltus asserted, that the population grows in a progression ___, whereas means

Existence, in its opinion, grow in a progression ___________________.

The overpopulation causes economic and social conflicts. Well-being increase is possible only as a result of compulsory regulation of the population for the account _________________________ and ____________.

The basic conclusion what has made Maltus of the research, consisted that poverty, poverty of workers of weights is a result of inevitable laws of the nature, instead of the social organisation of a society.

? Answer the following question: What value for C.Darvina T.Maltusa's work had?

The task 4. antropogenez.

Consider examples of caricatures on C.Darvina and its theory, published in a press in XIX century.

284

Using knowledge of K.Linneja, Z.B.Lamarka, C.Darvina and F.Engelsa's works, analyse drawings for the purpose of definition of reliability and objectivity of the information presented to them about theory CH of Darwin. Establish errors and write reviews of the given caricatures.

Tasks for pupils of 10 classes on comparison and information generalisation

Information generalisation

The task 1. The synthetic theory of evolution STE.

Consider drawings:

Connect drawings in the uniform logic scheme reflecting modern representations about the theory of evolution, using the text information about STE from Internet sources.

The task 2. Natural processes and their interaction.

Read the text:

The nature constantly varies, all in it moves - from a bird to mountain or continent. Nothing stops for a minute - neither live substance, nor inert. This movement, these changes are characterised by natural processes which inherently can be physical, chemical, biological or complex. For realisation of any process the energy which natural primary source is the Sun and the Earth is necessary. Thanks to energy the substance moves, turns, collapses, created in continuous process of natural circulations. The solar energy is the reason of moving of air weights in atmosphere. From that, air how much will get warm, its temperature and, as a rule, density depends. Easy air rises upwards, heavy - downwards. In planetary scale this phenomenon is shown that tropical areas most of all get warm, and the constant powerful stream nagretogo air upwards on some kilometres there is observed. At height of 10-17 kilometres of air spreads from equator to the south and to the north. On change to warm air on equator dvizhutsja a terrestrial surface counter streams of colder air. Planet rotation rejects streams - top become western, and bottom - east which are called as trade winds. Having risen over tropics on height more than 10 kilometres, air is strongly cooled and loses almost all moisture. Dry air decreases, heats up at a terrestrial surface and moves further as a dry wind. At these widths (25-30 degrees) deserts Saharas and Kalahari in Africa, Arabian and Tar in Asia, desert in Australia take places. Clouds - accumulation of very small droplets of water which cover almost half of surface of a planet are the important element of troposphere. Clouds gather superficial winds which, in turn, are caused by pressure decrease in separate territory of a terrestrial surface. The area of the lowered pressure is called as a cyclone. As anticyclone is called the area of the raised atmospheric pressure at a surface of the Earth. In an anticyclone dry air falls from the top layers of troposphere. Therefore here the clear, cloudless sky. Cyclones and anticyclones have the sizes to three thousand kilometres and average term of a life about one week. Therefore say, that "memory" of atmosphere does not exceed week. As a result of a thunder-storm sometimes there is such dangerous natural phenomenon, as a whirlwind, or a tornado, when on
Small territory two layers of air of various temperature, humidity and density are formed. Vertically-circular currents of air with speed of 50-100 metres per second develop. In a whirlwind the next weights of air take a great interest, and it starts to move over an earth surface. Over territory of the USA in a year it is carried by about 700 tornadoes that causes the big harm to the nature and people. The considered physical processes in atmosphere occur simultaneously to chemical transformations. At height of 30-50 kilometres under the influence of an ultra-violet part of a sunlight of a molecule of water break up to hydrogen and oxygen. Easy hydrogen in number of one kg a second rises upwards in thermosphere, and oxygen remains. Under the influence of lightning discharges and ultra-violet radiation oxygen turns to ozone. At height of 30 kilometres its layer makes at thickness about three centimetres.

(Sm: a web-sajt:http://studbooks.net/27454/ekologiya/prirodnye protsessy)

Write out offers in which the basic information on classification of natural processes and their interaction is concluded.

The task 3. Social and biological factors antropogeneza. It is known, that some animals carry out labour activity. Than work of animals differs from work of the person, and in what its similarity? For the answer to a question use a fragment of the text of article.

«Revolution which the person brings in the nature, consists, first of all, that work of the person other, than at animals, is a work with application of tools of work, and besides produced by those who should own them, and thereby work progressing and public. As whatever skilful architects we considered ants and bees, but they do not know, that speak: their work instinctive, their art not conscious, and they work as all organism, purely biologically, not applying the work tool that is why no progress in their work is present».

(A source: F.Engels the Role of work in the course of transformation of a monkey into the person.

Sm: a web-sajt:http://www.studfiles.ru/preview/5080593/page:7/)

Information comparison

The task 4. The cellular theory.

Read the text:

The cellular theory — one of the conventional biological generalisations confirming unity of a principle of a structure and development of flora, animal and other live organisms with a cellular structure in which the cage is considered as a uniform structural element of live organisms.

Positions of cellular theory Shlejdena-Shvanna:

• All animals and plants consist of cages;

• Grow and plants and animals by occurrence of new cages develop;

• the Cage is the smallest unit live, and the whole organism is a set of cages.

Substantive provisions of the modern cellular theory:

• the Cage is elementary, a functional unit of a structure of all live. The metaphyte represents difficult system from set of the cages united and integrated into systems of fabrics and bodies, connected with each other (except viruses which have no cellular structure);

• the Cage — uniform system, it includes set of the elements naturally connected among themselves representing complete formation, consisting of the interfaced functional units

— organoidov;

• Cages of all organisms gomologichny;

• the Cage occurs only by division of a parent cage.

Additional positions of the cellular theory:

• Cages prokariot and eukariot are systems of different level of complexity and not completely gomologichny each other;

• At the heart of division of a cage and reproduction of organisms copying of the hereditary information — molecules of nucleinic acids («each molecule from a molecule») lays. Positions about a genetic continuity concerns not only a cage as a whole, but also to some of its smaller components

— To mitohondrijam, hloroplastam, to genes and chromosomes;

• Cages multicellular totipotentny, that is possess genetic potentialities of all cages of the given organism, are equivalent under the genetic information, but differ from each other a different expression (work) of various genes that leads to their morphological and functional variety — to a differentiation.

(Sm: a web site: І SH і ^://sh. \\ікірес1іа.огцЛуікі/1

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A source: Sineva Larisa Sergeevna. Formation key educational kompetentsy senior pupils resources of a network the Internet. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2018. 2018

More on topic the Appendix 2.:

  1. the Appendix
  2. the Appendix 4
  3. the Appendix
  4. THE APPENDIX
  5. the Appendix
  6. THE APPENDIX
  7. the APPENDIX 4
  8. the Appendix
  9. the Appendix
  10. the Appendix
  11. the Appendix
  12. THE APPENDIX
  13. the Appendix