the Basic maintenance of work

In introduction the research urgency is proved, the problem, object, a subject are defined, formulated the purpose and problems of dissertational work, methodological and theoretical bases of research are characterised, scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance of the received results are opened, the substantive provisions which are taken out on protection are formulated.

In the first chapter «Formation and essence of pedagogical views of Howard Gardner» are revealed sociohistorical conditions of formation of G.Gardner as teacher, defined teoretikoyometodologicheskie bases of formation of its pedagogical sights, the theory of plural intelligence as a basis of its pedagogical views is considered, substantive provisions of its pedagogical concept are presented and analysed.

In the dissertation it is noticed, that in the course of formation of pedagogical views of the scientist following sociohistorical conditions and theoretical preconditions had great value.

First, it is scientific and technical revolution to which approach there were radical changes in a society, the manufactures connected with complication and its direct dependence on a science and discoveries. The scientific and technological revolution has seriously changed labour structure, a way of life and outlook of the person. As a result of these processes at first in the USA, and then and in countries of Western Europe there is a formation of the mass society mass production became which basis, mass consumption and a mass culture. Events these years changes can be considered not only as social and political revolutions, but first of all as the revolution of consciousness accompanying origin of a new postindustrial society.

Secondly, it is crisis of the western pedagogics in which up to the beginning of 60th of the XX-th century a dominating direction was biheviorizm with its orientation to outwardly expressed reactions in reply to this or that stimulation. Training was too biologizirovano, thinking
Practically it has been completely excluded from the training purposes, importance of intellectual development of the trained was ignored. The Bihevioristichesky pedagogics as any authoritative pedagogical model, did not give attention to individually-psychological features of the person, suppressed natural aspiration trained to independence, limited their initiative. She was not so capable to answer the new inquiries of a society connected with self-realisation of the person.

Thirdly, it is change of priorities in formation philosophy. There is a displacement of accents with the subject-objective of the approach to the training, the teacher based on a dominating role, on the subject-subject assuming an active position of the pupil in its interaction with the teacher in the course of achievement of the educational purposes. As a result trained from passive object of training turn to active accomplices of pedagogical process. It corresponded to new political and social and economic realities, created favorable possibilities for self-realisation of the person.

Fourthly, considerable changes in such branches of a science as natural sciences, information technologies, development of ideas about creation of intellectual systems and perfect reason, achievement in cybernetics development, the general development and the logician of development of the psychology have led kognitivnoj to the revolution occurrence kognitivnoj sciences became which result.

It has served as the answer to the requirements shown to a society by scientific and technical revolution as denied simplified bihevioristskuju treatment of development of intelligence of the child that has led to change of a leading direction in psychology and pedagogics.

During research a number of the important events which promoted development kognitivnyh ideas in formation is established. First, conference on questions of reforming of school education in the USA became such event organised by National academy of sciences of the USA in 1959 in Wood Hole. The given conference is historical event in the field of American education reforming. It has mentioned such prominent aspects of school education, as a problem of mastering of knowledge, relations to training as a whole, revision of curriculums according to the new concept of application of reason in training. Secondly, to strengthening of positions kognitivizma in psychology and pedagogics in many respects promoted psihologoyopedagogicheskie researches Dzheroma Brunera. They have found reflexion in its book which has left in 1960 «training Process». A merit of J. Brunera consisted that it had been designated new aspects of application kognitivnogo the approach to training. An overall objective of school of J. Bruner saw in development of powers of thinking trained, formation of the qualities necessary for a life in quickly varying world. This author had been developed psihologo-pedagogical bases of development at trained intuitive thinking, questions on stimulation of interest to acquisition of knowledge, use in the course of training of a method of independent opening were considered. The book of J. Brunera promoted
To prompt growth of interest to kognitivnomu to the approach in the American pedagogical science. Thirdly, the important event which has influenced development kognitivnyh of ideas in formation, became created in 1960 at the Harward university the Center kognitivnyh researches in which representatives of many sciences (psychologists, teachers, linguists, philosophers, mathematicians, physicists) worked. It was the interdisciplinary project created in a counterbalance biheviorizmu, and the basic researches in activity of this centre have been devoted studying of such informative processes, as perception, memory, thinking, speech.

Studying of teoretiko-methodological sights of G.Gardner shows, that formation of its scientific outlook is necessary on 60-70­е of the XX-th century. It is important to underline, that on Howard Gardner's formation as kognitivista the big influence sights of the known expert in the field of psychology of person Eric Ericson have rendered, acquaintance to the theory of psychological development of Lion Semenovicha Vygotsky and researches on nejropsihologii Alexander Romanovicha Lurii, meetings with Jean Piazhe. Its work at the known American psychologist, one of founders kognitivnoj psychology and pedagogics Dzheroma Brunera became the defining factor in formation kognitivistskogo G.Gardner's outlooks,

Its participation in the scientific projects connected with research of problems of formation was the important stages in G.Gardner's formation as kognitivnogo the teacher: «the Person: the research program» (1965) in which it co-operated with J. Brunerom; «the Zero Project» (1967) where it was the assistant at Nelson Goodman; «the Project of human potential» (1979). The theory of plural intelligence developed by G.Gardner became result of these researches also.

Results of dissertational research allow to ascertain, that the withdrawal from approaches dominating on that moment to definition of an essence and concept of intelligence as uniform general ability to create concept became G.Gardner's merit and to solve problems. According to

Gardner, people possess not one, but set concerning independent intelligence. It is underlined, that on the basis of modern scientific researches of the child prodigies, the presented people, patients with brain traumas, cross-country-cultural of supervision and studying of educational process by Howard Gardner it has been allocated eight independent kinds of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, corporally-kinestetichesky, interpersonal and intrapersonal, naturalistic, ekzistentsionalnyj.

During dissertational research it is revealed, that unlike the academic psychology which has apprehended the theory of plural intelligence critically, for teachers this theory has appeared enough significant. The intelligence allocated with G.Gardner radically have changed representation about an intellectual profile of the pupil and have allowed to perceive it much more widely, and not just from the point of view logikoyomatematicheskogo intelligence as it was accepted earlier, that, in turn,
Creates conditions for an individualization of process of training and formation comprehensively developed, socially adapted, the creative person. It motivated G.Gardner on the further research of intelligence and application of this theory in student teaching.

Studying of the scientific literature has allowed to draw following conclusions. Howard Gardner's research activity in the educational project "Spectrum" has given to the scientist possibility for the first time in practice most to check up and confirm efficiency of the theoretical views, namely about training and development of children from 4 till 8 years, and also about methods of perfection of educational process at modern school. In this connection it is underlined, that possession of knowledge of presence at preschool children of various intellectual profiles gives the chance to parents to choose an orientation of the future training course, and to teachers to carry out training taking into account intellectual individual distinctions already at early stages of training.

The analysis carried out in the dissertation has revealed, that G.Gardner's participation in the pedagogical project ATLAS creation in the course of training of the conditions allowing each trained to realise the individual educational potential was which purpose, has provided to the scientist possibility to offer complex model of system changes. This model assumed constant perfection of educational process at the expense of change of habitual ways of thinking and the organisation of work of teachers and administration of schools. Such complex approach to modernisation of the educational environment allows to realise effectively interaction of all subjects of educational process that gives the chance to open, consider and develop specific features of the trained. In research it is underlined, that this approach has found further the reflexion in G.Gardner's pedagogical concept, and also has been taken as a principle activity of the schools using in the work the theory of plural intelligence.

In dissertational research it is established, that participation in these projects has influenced formation of sights of G.Gardner concerning the purpose and problems of modern formation, promoted understanding and revealing of problems and the difficulties arising in activity of a comprehensive school, and also a substantiation of methods and ways of increase of efficiency of educational process.

In the dissertation the overall objective of modern school, according to G.Gardner is noticed, that, consists in formation and development at trained disciplinary thinking. Achievement of this purpose occurs at the expense of realisation of disciplinary training, refusal of stereotypic thinking and application of the standard approach which basis is so-called podrazhatelnoe training. It is underlined, that trained, seized in the disciplinary way of thinking, are capable to operate not simply with the facts, and to reveal the relationships of cause and effect arising between those or other events.

The disciplinary approach to training assumes not only mastering by trained basic concepts and subject structure, but also forms at them type of thinking corresponding to studied discipline that allows trained to think historically, matematicheski, estestvennonauchno and is art. G.Gardner operates with such definition as the disciplinary thinking which considers as basis for deep understanding and the analysis of a studied material, as should provide, in its opinion, the further training within the limits of the interdisciplinary approach.

The undertaken analysis of some G.Gardner's works allows to assert, that it the problem otsenivanija knowledge trained interested. It is necessary to underline an uncooperative altitude of the scientist to the approach dominating in modern school space to otsenivaniju knowledge on the basis of the standardised tests. It has come to conclusion, that such tests allow to establish, how much well trained own the academic knowledge, but do not give possibility to estimate level of understanding of actually substantial senses which have seized trained at studying of concrete discipline. As a result there is a serious difficulty with achievement of the basic tsennostno-target aspect of training - formations conceiving trained.

The actual meaning is represented by the circumstances revealed by Howard Gardner and problems which influenced transformation of school into bureaucratic institute, interfering with realisation of effective educational process. First, this considerable quantity of rules, the requirements aimed at reforming of formation which are born not in bowels of educational institutions, and their occurrence is not caused by real requirements of educational system. Such requirements are offered "from above" and, as a rule, answer real inquiries of directly educational process, problems of perfection of training of its basic subject - the growing person a little. Secondly, formation of classes with a considerable quantity trained without their individual propensities, strong and weaknesses. Thirdly, rendering of pressure upon school from the supervising organisations and, as consequence, a concentration of educational process on management and the control. Fourthly, to achievement of high level of modern formation stirs also rupture between saved up at the child during the preschool period sensomotornymi both symbolical knowledge and that material which is offered it by the school program.

Overcoming of these difficulties G.Gardner sees in realisation of training for understanding which consists in ability trained to transfer knowledge available for them and experience to a new situation and to use them for the decision of arising problems. In this connection, on belief of the scientist, it is necessary for modern teacher to carry out the pedagogical activity taking into account potentially possible difficulties arising at schoolboys in the course of training, and also to take into consideration their distinctions in ways of thinking and perception of a material. Great value G.Gardner
Gives to application of the theory of plural intelligence which urged to create conditions for realisation of the effective training based on deep understanding, taking into account individual informative abilities and the trained answering to a mental potential.

The analysis of pedagogical views of G.Gardner has shown, that a major principle laying in their basis, consists that educational process should be under construction so that to provide possibility trained to get the experience demanding involving of different types of intelligence. In practice it is realised through work trained in thematic zones, participation in design activity, "apprenticeship", use by teachers of various ways of teaching. Application of the theory of plural intelligence at training allows to individualise, first, formation process, leaning on personal distinctions; secondly, to develop desirable abilities and talents of the trained; in - the third to master concepts, subjects and disciplines in the various ways, forming this or that type of disciplinary thinking; fourthly, to acquire a studied material at understanding level.

In the second chapter «Practical application of pedagogical views of Howard Gardner in modern formation» experience of successful application of the theory of plural intelligence of Howard Gardner in student teaching of some schools of the USA and China is presented.

Studying of experience of schools of the USA and China, world powers two most developed and influential today, shows, that introduction of the theory of plural intelligence in educational practice demands deep understanding of this theory and methods of its practical application.

The analysis of experience of American schools The Key School and New City School and schools of China at the heart of which work the theory of plural intelligence lays, allows to assert, that the important condition of successful realisation of the given theory in educational practice is application of the complex approach to modernisation of the educational environment. This approach includes following directions: teaching and training; otsenivanie;

Professional development; a family and the training environment.

The carried out research allows to ascertain, that in the field of teaching and training following measures have been carried out:

- The program of training covering each of kinds of intelligence is developed, and also taking into account it the lesson schedule which allows to create the environment providing possibility for the maximum development of each kind of intelligence has been made;

- At school the thematic curriculum, a choice is entered by that occurs at active participation of parents and trained, that allows to generate the lichnostno-significant relation to training process at children, raises level of their motivation;

- As the basic component of curricula the theory of stream Mihaja CHiksentmihaji according to which the person is so involved in the activity is used, that practically loses time account, receiving thus
The maximum of pleasure from that, than it is engaged. It provides trained possibility freely to study the intelligence, allows teachers to analyze a choice trained, to define their leading types of intelligence;

- The class is included in the program of the general secondary education for choice ”The Pod” ("Cocoon"), employment in which provide trained conditions for a choice: whether to investigate it the leading types of intelligence or any another which draws their attention; in the course of training uneven-age classes and "apprenticeship" where trained younger age during the educational activity co-operate with seniors that promotes faster mastering of knowledge have been created.

Research has shown, that one of the important components of successful realisation of the theory of plural intelligence in educational practice is change of approaches to otsenivaniju knowledge trained. At schools where at the heart of work the theory of plural intelligence lays, such methods otsenivanija, as have been developed and applied: 1) the report about kognitivnom development trained in each of kinds of intelligence which reflects level of motivation trained and degree of their progress for the certain educational period; 2) the portfolio trained which contains the information about trained for every year training and allows to track dynamics of development of all kinds of intelligence; 3) a video portfolio in which successes trained in design activity for all period of training are reflected. The given kind of a portfolio promotes development in trained introspection of the achievements, and also gives the chance to use it as progressing kognitivnuju model which reflects development of the trained.

The important and indispensable making successful realisation of the theory of plural intelligence in training practice vocational training and development of teachers is. In work with teachers the basic accent becomes on how to help them to estimate strong and weak intellectual profiles trained, how to use the disciplinary approach in training.

In research it is underlined, that process of realisation of the theory of plural intelligence demands from teachers of change of their student teaching, and also the big expenses of time for realisation of planning and preparation for lessons. The important condition is balance observance between methods and the receptions of training based on positions of the theory of plural intelligence, and traditional educational experts.

Results of research allow to draw a conclusion that carrying over of ready educational programs on the basis of the theory of the plural intelligence, used at one schools, in pedagogical activity of other educational institutions not only does not bring expected effect from realisation of the given theory, but also causes problems during its practical application. In each concrete case the educational program which corresponds to the educational purposes and problems of the given educational institution should be developed.

During research it is established, that one more necessary condition of realisation of the theory of plural intelligence in school education is involving of parents in educational process. It helps them to understand an essence of the theory of plural intelligence and its application, to realise requirements and expectations of teachers, that, in turn, allows to create in a family corresponding educational possibilities.

Results of research have convinced, that the important distinctive line of the theory of plural intelligence is possibility of its realisation taking into account cultural features of that country in which it takes root. The analysis of practical application of the given theory in the American and Chinese educational experts allows to draw the following conclusion. The theory of plural intelligence equally well satisfies requirements both the individually-focused western approach to formation, and based on konfutsianskoj traditions of the Chinese educational approach. Within the limits of this tradition the intelligence is considered as attribute of the family which members represent uniform educational space. The understanding of the central role of a family in intellectual development and formation of the child induces the Chinese teachers to frequent use at training of a group method. Within the limits of group, working together and carrying out roles of brothers and sisters, trained supplement and support strengths and knowledge each other in educational activity. Development of individual training through collective is a unique example of realisation of the theory of the plural intelligence based on the Chinese value of harmony.

In the dissertation it is underlined, that conclusive advantage of the theory of plural intelligence is possibility of its application not only in general educational, but also at specialised schools, for example for children with backlog in intellectual development. Use of the concept of the given theory in the course of educational activity at such schools has allowed teachers to reconsider the purposes and training problems. The new curriculums providing effective social adaptation of the trained have been as a result developed.

Research has shown, that positive experience of schools of the USA and China at the heart of which educational activity the theory of plural intelligence lays, allows to draw a conclusion on efficiency of application of the given theory in school education, and also prospects of its further distribution and use in other countries.

In the dissertation conclusion results of research are generalised and the basic conclusions are drawn.

The analysis of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner allows to assert, that the scientist managed to create own pedagogical concept which essence is reduced to following positions:

- There is a set of the various mental abilities meeting in various combinations, instead of uniform base mental abilities;

- Instead of negation or ignoring of these distinctions and conviction, that all pupils should think equally, it is necessary for training to aspire to creation of the various informative possibilities as much as possible corresponding to an individual mental potential of the trained;

- The organisation of educational process should be directed on creation of conditions in which the trained have possibility of acquisition of the experience demanding involving of various types of intelligence;

- One of school problems, besides realisation of educational process taking into account an individual intellectual profile, the help in comprehension trained their abilities for a support in the course of training on the strengths and development weak is;

- Possibility of use in the course of training more than one way nauchenija;

- Approach change to otsenivaniju knowledge trained - use of authentic methods otsenivanija (a portfolio, a method of projects, reports on development of types of intelligence), allowing to estimate real achievements trained and providing revealing sformirovannosti their skills in the situations as much as possible approached by a real life, daily or professional, instead of uzkonapravlennyh the standardised tests;

- School education mission consists in formation at trained a disciplinary way of thinking (scientific, mathematical, historical, art), that allows to seize the studied material at level of original understanding and raises efficiency of use of the received knowledge further;

- The total purpose of school education consists in realisation of training for understanding, that is in formation at trained to ability to apply the received knowledge at the decision of new problems or in new conditions.

Application of the theory of plural intelligence at training allows to build educational process so that different styles of the training have been considered, trained possibility to get the new experience demanding involving of different types of intelligence has been given, to learn, study something in that way and by what it is closest, convenient and in which they feel comfortably. It is the process helping both development of pupils, and to professional growth of the teacher. An indispensable condition for successful realisation of process of the training based on this theory, is involving of parents of pupils in educational process.

The approaches offered by Howard Gardner to training allow to create such educational environment where everyone is successful at school. The understanding formed in this environment trained strengths of the person and the abilities becomes the base to their further success in an adult life.

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A source: Dorokhova Olga Aleksandrovna. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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