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the basic maintenance of pedagogical views of Howard Gardner

The history of a development of education is characterised by that the education system of any country, during any historical period, as a rule, has the lacks. We especially feel it now in our country where formation reforms cause far not an unequivocal estimation, both experts, and ordinary citizens.

There was no exception and modern to Howard Gardner an education system in the USA in which the basic educational institute is the modern secular school. In the researches G.Gardner tried to comprehend time and again a condition of modern school and to analyse arising problems.

G.Gardner's interest to school education has begun to be shown far not at once. Only in the beginning 1980th he began to participate actively in educational researches and practice. This participation, according to Gardner, was prostimulirovanno, first, an exit of its book «reason Structure» (1983), and secondly, the publication of the known federal educational report «the Nation in danger» (Nation at Risk), prepared in 1983 on the instructions of Ronald Reagan [154, river HTTT].

Under the statement of authors of the report, the school education in the USA was in crisis and main recesses were necessary to improve its quality. The main objective consisted in defining the problems facing to an American education and to give ways of their decision [136, the river 5]. Under the influence of this Report formation reform began to be considered as a way of maintenance of safety of the country. In these conditions as the parent and the citizen of the country, G.Gardner, as he said, should feel in itself requirement to help the American school and river HTU] has joined in process of research of formation [154.

The problem G.Gardner saw in that not only to describe application of the theory of plural intelligence at school, but to apply in
To educational practice and other results received by it at studying of psychology of development and kognitivnoj of psychology. In attempts to improve possibility of formation it has united with teachers and administration of several schools of different age levels in the northeast USA. Enthusiasm for studying of educational process promoted that G.Gardner has taken part at once in two pedagogical projects: the project the Spectrum and project ATLAS.

The project the Spectrum has begun in 1984 as the project for working out of methods with which help it is possible to estimate an intellectual profile of preschool children. In it Gardner co-operated with David Feldman, Maroj Krechevski, Dzhanet Stork, etc.

The main task facing to participants of the project, consisted in checking up and confirming in practice position of the theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner about presence at preschool children of various intellectual profiles.

During research it has been established, what even children are elderly 4th years the rivers 221] possess various enough set of intelligence [154. So one perceive the world through symbolical system of language, others show a spatial or visual way of perception more, the third perceive the world through mutual relations with other people.

In this connection, it is necessary to notice, that possession of knowledge of presence at preschool children of various intellectual profiles gives the chance to parents to choose an orientation of the future training course, and to teachers to carry out training taking into account intellectual individual distinctions already at early stages of training.

For the purpose of empirical acknowledgement of the given fact, participants of the project had been developed the new educational approach. Its essence consisted that the educational space has been divided into thematic zones: a nature corner, a literary circle, a building corner and others. Being in educational rooms of the project the Spectrum, children have been surrounded by the big
Quantity of the various material, capable to clear up use of various kinds of intelligence.

Feature of the given project was that teachers did not try to stimulate in it purposefully display of a certain kind of intelligence at children, for example, spatial or logikoyomatematicheskogo. Use of materials which realise valuable social roles or podcherkivat definitive conditions for corresponding combinations of intelligence was their problem. So, for example, in a nature corner where various biological samples have been presented, pupils studied them and compared to other materials, thereby developing abilities to feelings and the analysis; in a literary circle where pupils thought out histories, using various properties, linguistic, drama abilities and ability to imagination developed; in a building corner where pupils designed model of their class room, spatial, corporal and personal intelligence [154, the river 221] developed.

Immersing children in this or that thematic zone, teachers observed, who from children in what of platforms proves is better, and, accordingly, it was possible to draw a conclusion on what kind of intelligence is more inherent in this or that child.

By the end of year the information received about each child, was generalised by a research command in a short essay which was called «the Report the Spectrum». This document described personal characteristics strong and weaknesses of the child and offered special recommendations that it is possible to make houses and at school, being based on strengths and during too time, supporting rather weaknesses. Such informal recommendations, were very important, should help pupils and their parents to make a definitive choice about the future training course, being based on researches of their abilities and possibilities.

Training in thematic zones has been constructed so, that younger pupils practically always co-operated during the activity with pupils more advanced age and teachers. As a result of it children had a possibility very quickly to understand appointment of various subjects and to seize corresponding skills. In this sense, G.Gardner marks, here this environment «beginning level» is the steady and independent environment for development kognitivnyh abilities and personal growth [154, the river 222].

It is necessary to underline, that the principles realised in the project the Spectrum, have similarity to pedagogics of the cooperation which basic ideas have been formulated in 80th years of the XX-th century in works of domestic teachers - of innovators: S.A.Soloveychik, V.M.Matveeva, S.A.Amonashvili, V.F.Shatalov, S.N.Lysenkovoj, etc. In a context of these ideas pupils are considered as individual creative persons, requirements and which abilities are necessary to help for opening to the full. Therefore, children study creatively to concern training process, becoming further sozidateljami the future.

These ideas are actual and now. Skills of cooperation with contemporaries, children of younger age, adults in educational, socially useful, uchebno-research, design and other kinds of activity reflect basic requirements FGOS to personal results of development of the basic educational program [100].

The project the Spectrum was applied to children at the age from 4 till 8th years with the purposes of diagnostics, classification and training. It was used among preschool children, pupils with the average abilities, presented children, pupils having physical and intellectual problems and the pupils who are in a zone of potential problems at training at school.

The Project has shown the big advantage in definition of abilities and propensities of pupils which usually lose sight in an average comprehensive school. It on advantage was estimated by pupils,
Parents and teachers. The project allowed to estimate various kognitivnye profiles even among preschool children. Its basic materials and concepts can be used in a considerable quantity of ways obucheny and at different categories of pupils. Nevertheless, as Gardner marked, the project the Spectrum it is faster the developing approach to early formation, than the finished program. «We do not know, - he wrote, - how much successful it can be as the general approach to early formation, to any level it can be continued in the senior classes of an elementary school» [154, the river 225].

In spite of the fact that identical educational pedagogical experts in pedagogics history it is possible to find in programs of progressive formation (Maria Montessori's educational classes, other programs on the basis of Jean Piazhe and John Dewey's approaches and their predecessors: Fridriha Fryobelja and Johann Henry Pestalotstsi), it is possible to allocate a number of distinctive lines of the project the Spectrum: the analysis of propensities of pupils based on theoretical conclusions; the co-ordinated attempt to correlate these propensities with significant roles in an adult life; creation of the curricula, the training centres; procedure development otsenivanija which provides with a trustworthy information about abilities and achievements of pupils; the portfolios of the pupil reflecting its ability at present of its development.

These distinctive lines, according to Gardner, not only provide process of early training by the distinctive method, but also also allow to test children's intuitive theories in comfortable surrounding conditions that provides smooth transition to introduction of the basic skills and training to literacy bases in an elementary school [154, the river 226].

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that Howard Gardner's participation in the educational project the Spectrum has allowed it to receive practical acknowledgement of the thesis on presence and possibility of development of various individual profiles at children at the age from 4 till 8th years.

Project ATLAS (original teaching, training and otsenivanie for all pupils) became other project in which G.Gardner has accepted the most active participation. This project was one of 11 projects of school reform in the USA, chosen in August, 1992 and, the extended experience of complex improvement of a condition of comprehensive schools more than on 150 schools in the country. The project has been based by Howard Gardner together with such known teachers as Teodor Sajzer from Association of elementary schools, Dzhenet Vitla from the Center of a development of education and James Komer from the school education Program at Jelsky university.

The purpose of program ATLAS consisted in creation in the course of training of conditions in which each pupil could realise the individual educational potential. For this purpose within the limits of project ATLAS such model of system changes which would promote constant perfection of educational process at the expense of change of habitual ways of thinking and the organisation of work of teachers and administration of schools has been offered. These changes had complex character and included five basic elements: teaching and training; otsenivanie; professional development; management and decision-making; a family and the training environment [145, the river 59].

It is necessary to underline, that for G.Gardner such complex approach to modernisation of the educational environment which allows to realise effectively interaction of all subjects of educational process that gives the chance to open, consider and develop specific features of pupils is characteristic. This approach has found further the reflexion in the pedagogical concept of

Gardner, and also has been taken as a principle activity of the schools using in the work the theory of plural intelligence.

In practical activities the complex model of system changes in educational process is realised through the school concept "Way" of project ATLAS which traces development of the child by means of uniform program К-12 at its transition from a class in a class and from a subject to a subject. It is necessary to notice, that ATLAS underlines, that process of improvement of school education cannot be uniform for all schools, therefore it had been developed alternative methods for various areas of the country.

In 2005 ATLAS has presented the school concept to teachers, directors of schools and heads of regional administrations. The given concept could be used both as separate methods, and in the form of the complex approach. According to centre standards on reform of quality of a comprehensive school (CSRQ), following basic components of training association ATLAS have been defined: the organisation and management; professional development; the technical help; instructing; school hours planning; otsenivanie pupils; decision-making on the basis of the given computer researches, and also attraction to process of training of parents, families, and societies [145, the river 59]. These basic components are considered as authors of project ATLAS necessary for successful realisation of the given model.

It is necessary to underline, that the scientists entering into community ATLAS, aspire to that pupils in the course of training had possibility to become high-grade the integrated members of global educational space, and further productive employees. For realisation of this purpose ATLAS supports school communities in several directions: 1) creation of communications between initial, average and higher educational institutions for formation of the academic and social communications which provide maintenance successful

Educational activity at each child, since preschool age and to 12th class. Thereupon, the command of project heads "Way" (PLT) simplifies co-education process, levels the curriculum, instructs and estimates for the purpose of creation of the co-ordinated academic programs for each pupil; 2) preparation of teachers for that they became motive power in the course of school education improvement through creations of a various sort of programs of professional development and improvement of professional skill of teachers and also that they corresponded to position requirements «No Child Left Behind»; 3) development of highly skilled school heads which can spend system changes in the school, connected with an accurate and rigid set of the academic standards; 4) creation of community of school partnership which includes active participation of a family and the training environment in process of training of pupils and formation of their further successes [145, the river 56].

Thus, realisation of the principles of project ATLAS set forth above allows to create such educational environment which corresponds to inquiries of a modern society, provides possibility with the pupil is high-grade to open the mental potential and to become further effective employees in this or that field of activity. These principles then have been used by G.Gardner by working out of its pedagogical concept.

CSRQ the centre for an estimation of efficiency of influence of project ATLAS on achievements of pupils had been carried out research in which and achievements of pupils of the schools which are engaged within the limits of project ATLAS, results were compared to results of pupils of the schools which are not engaged within the limits of the given project, located in the same geographical area. This research has been based on comparison of indicators of progress on a basis «Tests by definition of the basic skills» (CTBS) in 2-5 classes during the period for a year prior to the beginning of realisation of the project and including two
Year after the termination of realisation of the project. Tested subjects were reading, language, the mathematics, natural and social sciences. It has been thus revealed, that pupils from the schools trained within the limits of project ATLAS, showed the best results in reading, language, the mathematician and natural-science areas [154, the river 57].

It allows to draw a conclusion on efficiency of educational model and methods of perfection of the educational process, realised within the limits of project ATLAS.

Experience of participation in these projects, the further researches and reflexions about modern to it to an education system promoted formation of sights of Gardner on an essence and the purposes of educational process, a problem of modern formation, the difficulties arising at teaching of separate disciplines.

According to the scientist, for modern school three kinds of knowledge which she aspires to realise in the course of training are characteristic:

1) development of effective possession by a written language and various numerical systems;

2) possession of the basic concepts, ideas and approaches, characteristic for studied disciplines;

3) ability to explain, argue and give reason within the limits of the basic disciplines [154, the river 142-143].

Thus, as Gardner fairly marks, the basic accent in educational process becomes on development of the basic skills in an elementary school and on as it is possible bolshee mastering by the various information at the senior school. For realisation of these purposes, as a rule, it is used so-called «podrazhatelnoe training» at which the teacher reproduces a certain training model, and pupils should repeat it as more as possible precisely. According to G.Gardner, such approach to training is mechanical and sample as the basic accent thus becomes on «exact mastering of the information, slavish
Reproduction of training models, and any deviation from model is there and then rejected and blamed »[154, the river 129]. Their isolation from practical activities becomes result of realisation of such approach excessive teoretizirovannost received knowledge. Pupils in the course of training are compelled to argue on events and characters whom they cannot see and which they hardly will face actually. Thus, the reasons, on which pupils it is necessary to seize this knowledge, for the majority of them are absolutely not clear, that in turn conducts to decrease in level of motivation to training. As fairly mark Silvija Skribner and Michael Cole, for pupils not so the possession knowledge in itself, as ability to apply the given knowledge practically [172, the river 76] is important.

The negative and sceptical relation to such «podrazhatelnomu to training» which still is prevailing in the Russian schools, time and again stated in the works and leading domestic teachers. As fairly specifies E.D Bozhovich, «D.N.Bogojavlensky, V.Okon, P.I.Pidkasistyj noticed, that action on the sample is mechanically podrazhatelnym and does not demand independence and intellectual activity of pupils» [23, c.136]. P.J.Galperin, as she said, focuses attention that «at training on the sample management of process of formation of action practically is absent - the focused part of action in these conditions is carried out by« blind »tests and errors» [23, with. 136].

The conclusion to which Gardner comes, consists that the standard approach to the training, applied in the majority of schools not sposobformirovaniju and development of abilities to use received knowledge in practice. In its opinion, one of the reasons of such situation in school education absence of high-grade discussion and discussion in the course of studying of various disciplines between the teacher and the pupil is. «School language is torn off from daily experience, and any discussion is reduced to an exchange of standard cliches between the teacher and the pupil» [154, the river 146]. In
Much it is connected with those restrictions and rules to which teachers in the course of training are compelled to follow. As the researcher of formation Linda Mak Nejl marks, teachers are in the majority of modern schools in enough not a simple situation. On the one hand, in interests of increase of level of a learning efficiency the school system creates a considerable quantity of rules and procedures. And though the majority of them have only remote relation directly to the training process, all teachers and administration of schools should adhere to them. At the same time it is supposed, that teachers will show the initiative and to aspire to realise the creative approach to training. In such situation the majority of teachers use so-called «protective teaching» and the rivers XVIII] follow a technique of "the is correct-reciprocal compromise» [166.

Thus, for G.Gardner one of the cores to problems of modern school education is, on the one hand, use of the traditional approach to training in which basis lays so-called «podrazhatelnoe training», and on the other hand, the mutually exclusive and inconsistent requirements shown to teachers which prevent to introduce it new approaches to training.

Having analysed a condition of a modern education system, Gardner concludes, that intellectual mission of modern school education is a formation at trained to ability to think in the disciplinary way. When pupils have already seized literacy principal views, acquisition of scientific, mathematical, historical and art type of thinking should take the central place [154, ^XX].

It is necessary to notice, that it considers features of disciplinary training through comparison of "disciplines" with "subjects". Studying various subjects (the mathematician, history, biology, physics etc.) by means of lectures, tests, exercises, problems, pupils, frequently, acquire only actual information (formulas, historic facts, laws and
Etc.). In due course, if them not to repeat, this information is forgotten. Besides, the more it is necessary for actual information to learn, the it is less than something else they can acquire [154, the river XX].

Disciplinary training it is absolute other approach. Discipline as G.Gardner marks, it absolutely other way of thinking about the world, an especial way of its analysis [154, river KK].

As the science observes of the world, creates concepts and theories, experimentally checks them, spends the further supervision, creates new classifications and puts new experiences the people who have seized in the disciplinary way of thinking, Gardner believes, are capable to operate not simply with the facts, and to reveal causally-investigatory communications and to understand the reasons of this or that phenomenon and event [36, c.35].

Thus, without a disciplinary method of an explanation the facts remain simply «inert knowledge» and get sense and value only when them place in the necessary historical, cultural or natural-science context.

As comparison the scientist results a historical and natural-science way of thinking and the analysis. So the historian tries to recreate the historical past, using not only written sources, but also other various forms of the information. It analyze historical figures from the point of view of motives and the purposes of their activity, tries to recreate restrictions which historical figures faced and as they overcame them. Thus the historian considers a considerable quantity of circumstances independent of the historic figure. He knows, that the history cannot be repeated and that any reconstruction will be necessarily incomplete and very approximate.

The approach of the representative of natural sciences absolutely another. He tries to create real model of one or more worlds - the world of the nature, physical objects, social relations or the individual person. It considers, how the world functions, forms hypotheses,
Then finds out how to check up these hypotheses, to look, where they have acknowledgement and where is not present. Unlike the historian, the empirical scientist can often repeat the experiments until he is not becomes absolutely assured of the conclusions. Such scientist expects, that the current version of model will be better, than that, that has been created earlier, and that in the future, possibly, there will be the best and more universal model [154, river HH].

In it the essence and distinction of these most widespread ways of disciplinary thinking, characteristic scientists for these types consists: as they think, carry out researches that put in the disciplines. As independently to be trained to think historically, scientifically or matematicheski it is practically impossible, a school main objective, Gardner believes, - the problem is to develop mind of the child so that it thought in terms of the basic school disciplines. It the disciplinary knowledge and understanding cardinally differs from storing, learning and vydavanija the actual information, characteristic for «subject knowledge» which makes a basis of educational process in overwhelming majority of schools [154, river HHT].

Proceeding from it, G.Gardner gives the big attention to stereotypes and problems at studying of separate disciplines. The main task here he sees possibility to be beyond a narration and to understand the reasons of events, an essence of the phenomena and processes, therefore a lesson main objective is ability formation to understand a problem, to set and put questions and to search on them for answers. Even at college level, the scientist marks, the majority of students, for example, considers history as streamlining of already known facts in the co-ordinated chronology. For many of them history it only the facts, and a question of interpretation of these facts does not arise at all for the majority of them. Sometimes students are incapable to correlate the text with their own experience or distantsirovat the text from it, and from their own judgement about a human nature [154, the river 188].

It is necessary to notice, that here G.Gardner connects the basic problem with those simple schemes of the behaviour, which pupils have acquired in the childhood. They believe, that everything, that it the teacher has told, is exact and settling. For the majority of pupils, he underlines, to accept that is told for «a pure coin» much easier and not to search for difficult explanations. It leads to literal interpretation read, both inability to perceive symbolical and allegorical values [154, the river 189].

It is important to underline, that aspiration to refuse stereotypic thinking and to construct training by the disciplined image demands from teachers and pupils of readiness with ease to pass from one form of giving of a material to another. Success of such training, G.Gardner believes, consists that the teacher or is intended, or intuitively helps pupils to develop in advance the ways of thinking connected with understanding, and thus already to perceive a teaching material in concepts of disciplines as those [154, the river 195].

The word, discipline, marks Gardner, besides epistemiologicheskogo has also behavioural value. It consists that the disciplined person works regularly and responsibly over performance of tasks, projects, but thus, following an own policy. Anybody, underlines G.Gardner, cannot reach good possession of a theme, skill without sufficient level of discipline [154, ^XXI].

Thereupon, speaking about disciplinary mind, G.Gardner considers advantages of double value of this word. The formation purpose is to develop in the pupil of any age ability to mastering by disciplinary thinking, and also mastering by skills in the manner diligent and brought to perfection [154, [λXXI ∣.

It is necessary to notice, that the disciplinary approach offered by G.Gardner to training forms absolutely different way of thinking, the analysis, perception and mastering of knowledge that allows them at pupils
To own the studied material at level of deep understanding and raises efficiency of use of this knowledge further.

It is necessary to underline, that the ideas of disciplinary training formulated by G.Gardner are very conformable with the positions of metasubject technology developed in a domestic education of J.V.Gromyko and A.F.farm [42, 43, 124]. According to these positions, training main objectives are: formation at pupils of system-complete thinking, ability to see interrelation to understand tendencies, to create plans, to find roots of a problem and to develop ways of its decision. Therefore, training turns to process of self-development for the pupil, expands horizons of its knowledge and gives the chance to use effectively the received knowledge in the further life.

However, unlike the metasubject technology, the disciplinary approach offered by Howard Gardner to training, assumes not only mastering by pupils by the basic concepts and subject structure, but also forms at them type of thinking corresponding to studied discipline that allows pupils to think historically, matematicheski, estestvennonauchno and is art.

G.Gardner allocates 4 steps for ways of formation of disciplinary thinking: «1) it is necessary to define the most important questions and concepts within the limits of discipline; 2) not to regret time for training; 3) to consider each theme from the various points of view; 4) to establish« judgement indicators »- to allow to pupils to show the understanding of a subject in various conditions» [36, c.38-39].

Pays attention, that for G.Gardner nesformirovannost disciplinary thinking during training it is equivalent to ignorance. «The people who have not seized disciplinary thinking during intellectual development, - G.Gardner writes, - nearby have left from barbarians. They are not capable to analyse the current events, new discoveries, to estimate technological breaks and new laws» [36,
с.41]. On the contrary, mastering by disciplinary thinking, the scientist marks, «allows people to understand laws on which there lives a planet, and fully armed to meet new problems and difficulties, and professional disciplines help to achieve success in work» [36, с.41].

G.Gardner sceptically concerns interdisciplinary training popular recently in which basis integration of subject matters and synthesis of scientific knowledge on the basis of intersubject communications lays. That, in his opinion, it is only under the name. Even to seize one discipline within the limits of the school program difficult enough. On it years leave. Therefore, according to the scientist, nobody should show claims on mezhdistsiplinarnost until pupil and teacher not in condition comfortably to work in more than one discipline. School training should be devoted perfect mastering by the basic disciplines, and interdisciplinary work is a destiny of colleges and the subsequent training [154, p. XXT].

G.Gardner marks importance of this work in the subsequent training. After all almost all problems which the mankind today faces, demand occurrence more than in one discipline. The people participating in such "problemno-designated" projects should own interdisciplinary type of thinking [154, p. XXTT]. It does not deny, that there are pupils who are allocated by special ability to interdisciplinary thinking within the limits of school education, and possibility to participate in interdisciplinary work before leaving school should be given to such pupils. However the researches carried out by him have confirmed, that the majority from this, that is called "interdisciplinary" in high school is the simply thematically - based work and has no relation to mezhdistsiplinarnosti, and that is called as "interdisciplinary" better to name "multiperspective". In this case, the pupil has possibility to consider a theme from the different points of view, but these prospects not
Embody original possession of any discipline, not mentioning possibility properly to integrate disciplines [154, p. XXII].

The analysis Howard Gardner problems of interdisciplinary training at modern school allows to draw a conclusion that such training is interdisciplinary only under the name, but not as a matter of fact as in modern school education the disciplinary approach to training is not developed and the disciplinary thinking even within the limits of one discipline is not generated at pupils.

Thus, mastering by disciplinary thinking is basis for deep understanding and the analysis of a studied material, and also lays the foundation for the further training within the limits of the interdisciplinary approach.

In the researches G.Gardner has not avoided also approaches to otsenivaniju knowledge of pupils which varied together with development of school system. So in the last centuries, he marks, formation at school had effective enough character and was accessible to only exclusive levels of population. In those days at schools the small amount of pupils, and a teaching material which they should seize was trained, was simple enough as training of pupils to reading and writing bases was the purpose of the majority of schools at that time: reading, the letter, the account i.t.p. And as pupils within 5-8 years worked over development only these basic skills, it was absolutely obvious, what even "weak" pupils will possess them sufficiently. Besides, the numerical structure of classes was rather small, that allowed to carry out the control over mastering of knowledge practically every day within the limits of the most educational process, thus, there was no necessity for use of any separately standing methods of an estimation of knowledge of pupils [154, the river 155].

Gardner underlines, that in the modern world the school education system has undergone the big changes. It has ceased to have elite character and is accessible for a wide range of the population.
Changes have concerned also the school program. It became much more sated and difficult under the maintenance, at the expense of increase in quantity of disciplines and expansion of a studied material. It was promoted by many important factors: the increasing volume of knowledge, abilities, skills which pupils should acquire, and also results of researches about the childhood nature. It is considered, Gardner writes, that «by the moment of the termination of high school its graduate should seize a minimum 10 subjects: from Latin to the modern languages, from mathematics to history» [154, p.156].

The approach to an estimation of mastering of knowledge pupils has as a result changed also. At modern schools the most widespread form of an estimation of knowledge and the control of their dynamics is testing. It can have different forms: from enough simple and having informal character, such as weekly kvizy and interrogations, to very serious and official, such as entrance examinations in HIGH SCHOOLS. In most cases for an estimation of knowledge «the standardised tests», based on a technique of a plural choice are used so-called. It is considered, that by means of the given tests it is possible to estimate precisely enough level of knowledge of pupils as at use of such tests all examinees answer the same tasks, during identical time and in identical conditions, and with identical rules otsenivanija answers. And processing of results by means of the computer allows to avoid value judgment. Despite a wide circulation and application of the standardised tests in school education system, in pedagogical community there is an ambiguous relation to them. So G.Gardner considers, that the basic lack of such testing is that it checks only how much well pupils have acquired the academic knowledge as an overall objective of the standardised tests is the establishment of level of knowledge of pupils. But it is not capable to estimate level of understanding of the tested
Disciplines as «tested academic knowledge, as a rule, is checked out of a context» [154, p. 145].

It is necessary to notice, that the standardised tests, at present, occupy a leading position and are a principal view of an estimation of level of knowledge of pupils. It, in turn, should be reflected in educational process. In the majority of schools preparation for testing in which course teachers "train" pupils on successful passage of testing becomes the total purpose of training. At such approach the primary goal of the teacher begins to contain in reason of pupils as it is possible bolshee quantity of the various facts and the greatest possible volume of the information. As a result «the graduate of school reminds the vessel well filled by knowledge capable if necessary to show of them as it is done by successful participants of quizes» [154, p.127]. Such pupils are capable to carry out of task which are torn off from a context, to solve the problems easily entered in the general rules, and also successfully to cope with test tasks, that, according to Gardner, not only has no relation to formation of really successful pupil, but also in every possible way interferes with it. So, in its opinion, it is necessary to consider as the successful pupil not the one who owns a considerable quantity of the information and the various facts, and the one who: «knows as to use research materials, libraries, computer files, and also knowledge of teachers and schoolmates to seize those school tasks which are not obvious and simple» [154, p. 148].

Research of the modern approach by G.Gardner to otsenivaniju knowledge of pupils allows to draw a conclusion that orientation of educational process to successful passage of total testing leads to reorientation of formation from understanding to knowledge. Thus it is necessary to notice, that such knowledge has no applied character, and is exclusively formal. As a result of domination in the educational
To the environment of a similar sort of testings today training process keeps away from the overall objective - formations of the conceiving pupil possessing deep understanding of the studied material more and more. Thus, the generation which is learning on intuitive things to leave on right answers and not seeing any sense in deep and intelligent studying of a subject is formed.

Investigating problems of modern school, G.Gardner notices, that they concern not only pupils as the modern school is difficult enough and many-sided organism. Today school it is not simple a place in which training process is carried out, but also bureaucratic institute. As schools, as a rule, are not self-supporting and require financing from the state, they are compelled to submit to requirements shown to them which, sometimes, not only do not help effective realisation of educational process, but also stir to it. Such situation is connected by that the majority of rules, regulations, and also long-term reforms of formation grows ripe not within the limits of educational institutions, and spread to schools "from above", and founders of such reforms, as a rule, are far from daily educational process. As a result teachers are in a difficult situation as to them frequently make mutually exclusive demands, that, in turn, is reflected in efficiency of educational process. So, for example, on the one hand, teachers and administration of schools should follow strictly to shown rules and regulations, and on the other hand, it is expected, that teachers will show the initiative and to carry out the creative approach to training process. In such situation: «they feel connected. As it is a lot of time and forces leaves on strict following to rules, that them practically does not remain for realisation of creative ideas» [154, p.152].

From here the conclusion follows, that as a result of such reforms the budget of teacher's time radically varies. There is a carrying over of the big
Time expenses of direct preparation for educational activity for filling of a different sort of documents and observance of regulations.

Other, not less important problem which teachers during realisation of educational process as Gardner marks face, the considerable quantity of children in classes which are united together without their features weak and strengths is. Thus, on the one hand, it is supposed, that all children should be trained together, under identical curriculums, in identical rate, but, on the other hand, from the teacher expect individual approach realisation to each pupil: «children with problems in training should be included in the general stream, but during too time it is necessary for teacher to trace talented children» [154, p.153].

Until then, G.Gardner while the class consists of one teacher, pays attention of 30-40 pupils and one textbook, to achieve the account the teacher of specific features of the child extremely difficult. Only the teacher with huge talent and enormous energy presumes to realise an individual approach to training in such ungrateful conditions. Overcome it revealing of educational styles of pupils which are necessary for considering to schools at the organisation of educational process can to help. Schools will organise and do accessible human and technological resources which approach to the various educational styles existing at each pupil [154, p.264].

G.Gardner allocates 5 various ways of teaching (narrative, logiko-arithmetic, fundamental,

Aesthetic, experimental) which can help to present to the teacher a new material in such a way at which this material with ease will be perceived by a considerable quantity of pupils with different type of intelligence. Each of these ways can be used in the suitable theme, one in natural sciences (as an example it takes
Evolution) and one in social studies (here as an example democracy consideration serves) [154, p.265].

In a narrative way each pupil represents history or the story about considered concept. In case of evolution everyone can draw a small example of an evolutionary tree, or, for example, generations of special organisms. In case of the democracy, each pupil can tell history about its formation in ancient Greece, or, let us assume, about an origin of the constitutional government in the USA.

Using the logiko-arithmetic approach, the pupil approaches to a case in point with use of numerical calculations and a deductive method of reasonings. Evolution, for example, can be considered by means of studying of distribution of various versions of live beings in various parts of the world or in various geographical epoch. Everyone can consider pros and cons of concrete statements concerning evolution process. In a case with the democracy, everyone can consider procedures of parliamentary voting during the certain period of time or democracy pros and cons of "Fathers of Founders».

The fundamental approach allows pupils to consider philosophical and terminological aspects of a studied question. This method, Gardner marks, well approaches for those people who like to put fundamental questions. The fundamental approach to an evolution problem can consider, for example, a difference between evolution and revolution, and the fundamental approach to democracy - a reference value of this word, its semantic value, the relation of democracy to other forms of decision-making and board.

At use of the aesthetic approach the basic accent becomes on perception and the attention of those pupils which have the art relation to life experience draws. In a case with evolution it
There can be a studying of structure of various evolutionary trees, or studying change of morphology of organisms during time. Concerning democracy, for example, comparison of various forms of balance and disbalansa in various blocks of voters.

As the final approach G.Gardner considers the experimental approach. In its opinion, some pupils, both younger, and the senior school age is better are trained, when they carry out any kind of activity by hands, working directly with the materials connected with a case in point. So, for example, those who considers an evolution question, can grow up some generations Drozofily and observe, what mutations at them occur from generation to generation. Those who studies social problems, can generate groups according to various governmental procedures, observing positive and democracy negative sides, comparing it with others more hierarchically organised, board forms [154, the river 266].

The list of the basic approaches considered above to teaching, according to G.Gardner, should help to generate various components which would promote full understanding of a theme, both from pupils, and from teachers. The qualified teacher - is such teacher who considers the basic concepts not only by means of definition of these concepts, or only their examples, but also uses simultaneously some various approaches to consideration of these concepts. Until then, he while teachers will use only one approach to a case in point or a problem writes, it is absolutely obvious, that pupils, thus, will perceive this question in rather limited context [154, the river 266].

It is possible to ascertain, that for G.Gardner that fact according to which, full understanding of any question, any complexity, finally, we can not be shown to uniform model is obvious
Knowledge or to a way of representation of this question. Such situation, marks Gardner, often meets at realisation of the traditional approach to training when teachers demand from pupils to answer within the limits of a material studied at present, to acquire and remember a certain set of terms and that, and then to answer on them according to the set requirements. Thus they do not demand, that pupils co-ordinated knowledge and the understanding, received by them earlier with a school teaching material. Teachers, at such approach to training, work only with recently received forms of knowledge of pupils, hoping that they will co-ordinate them further with the earlier received forms of knowledge. Such approach, according to G.Gardner, in many respects is convenient enough both for teachers, and for pupils as it is accurately entered in standard frameworks, operating in which all are in quiet position, in advance knowing, that it is possible to consider as training. « Both teachers and pupils, - the scientist writes, - consider training successful if pupils are capable to formulate those answers which are considered correct »[154, p.163].

It is necessary to notice, that for G.Gardner of ability formation to think and process of formal mastering of the knowledge provided by curriculums, netozhdestvenny. It is in many respects conformable to the words, told two more with superfluous thousand years ago known Ancient Greek philosopher Geraklitom Efessky: «Multiknowledge to mind not nauchaet» [5, с.40]. Moreover, formal learning of knowledge as fairly notices E.V.Ilenkov, «is one of most« true »ways of deformation of a brain and intelligence» [60, с.9]. Mechanical mastering of the actual information without its understanding leads to that pupils get used to think and operate only in narrowly standard frameworks and situations. «The brain gets used to move only on blazed (other brains) to ways. Everything, that lays to the right and to the left from them, it does not interest any more» [60, с.9].

Thus, as a result of such training at pupils ability to independent judgements is not formed, and also ability competently to correlate the knowledge acquired by them to a reality.

The carried out analysis of modern school education has allowed G.Gardner to formulate the principal causes causing difficulties, stirring to effective training:

1) the teaching material most part is perceived by pupils as useless and not clear as it is taught without a context and without the knowledge which has been saved up by pupils earlier;

2) many pupils are not capable to apprehend a teaching material as their intellectual propensities and ways of perception of a material do not coincide with standard approaches. So, for example, pupils at whom spatial, musical or interpersonal spheres of intelligence are more developed, will test more difficulties, than pupils with the developed linguistic or logic spheres of intelligence;

3) in the course of training there is a contradiction between saved up at the child during the preschool period sensomotornymi both symbolical knowledge and that knowledge which are offered it by the school program [154, the river 161].

For overcoming of these difficulties in many respects stirring realisations of effective formation, Gardner also suggests to use training for understanding. In development of understanding he sees the main task of modern formation. Deep understanding, he writes, should be our main objective; we should achieve that understanding, that in this or that cultural context it is considered true or false, fine or ugly, good or bad. It motivates individuals to study and understand the world surrounding them [152, the river 186].

It is important to underline, that for understanding it closely co-ordinates the training offered by G.Gardner to positions of the theory of plural intelligence which, according to Gardner, is an effective remedy for realisation of such training. At the heart of the given theory the postulate lays about
The volume, that instead of uniform base mental abilities exists set of the various mental abilities meeting in different combinations thanks to what pupils have a possibility for mastering by a studied material by set of various ways.

Training for understanding is an ability trained to apply the received knowledge during the decision of a new problem or in new conditions. For maintenance of such level of understanding educational process should be directed not on width, and on depth of development of a material. The problem of teachers to provide pupils with all necessary possibilities for research of a certain theme by different ways, using their various mental abilities.

It is necessary to notice, that training for G.Gardner's understanding in many respects corresponds with sights at process of training of such known domestic scientists, as L.D Vygotsky, P.J.Galperin, L. In Zankov, A.N.Leontev, I.JA Lerner, D.B.Elkonin, etc. according to which, training is as well development. So, for example, I.J.Lerner, marks: «It occurs in that case when training not only leads naucheniju the person to any way of activity to which it directly learnt, but also provides ability of the person to self-organising for realisation of the activity which is falling outside the limits the acquired information and for limits of conditions in which it habitually occurred» [73, с.66].

It is necessary to underline, that for Gardner formation of training for understanding it not only a scientific or pedagogical question, but also a question political. Lacks of modern system of school education are, he believes, reflexion of lacks of a society as a whole, reflexion of our systems of values. As schools do not carry out the activity in vacuum the natural partner of any educational system is the society. And if a society the best combination from fine teachers, the excellent curriculum does not support aspirations and standards of the educational environment, even and
Correct methods otsenivanija knowledge of pupils are not sufficient for effective formation. Thus, interaction of a society and teachers, is concluded by G.Gardner, should be mutual: teachers should share the sights, and the society, in turn, should wish to apply alternative pedagogical experts and estimated means [154, the river 274].

Problem today, the scientist marks, in itself training at school is not, a problem is combination of standard and conceptual knowledge in which train at school, with the fixed forms of intuitive knowledge which have been got spontaneously within early years of a life. And if we find, he confirms, ways with which it is possible to help for pupils to unite their various forms of knowledge, we can create and realise training for understanding [154, the river 269].

Using our extending knowledge of human development, individual distinctions and cultural influence by search of ways of improvement of understanding of a considerable quantity of pupils we can, he writes, the rivers 186] will far promote on a way of formation of originally effective training [152.

To reach it, training, G.Gardner believes, should be under construction on two bases. On the one hand, teachers, realising difficulties which pupils face at mastering of a new material, should achieve original understanding of the important themes and concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary for teachers to take into consideration a difference in ways of thinking and perception at pupils, and as soon as possible to organise such training which will be accessible very much to a considerable quantity of pupils [152, the river 186].

Pays attention, that, arguing about training for understanding, Gardner constantly underlines importance of use of the theory of plural intelligence for realisation of such training. According to G.Gardner, the given theory is capable to improve training by three cores
In the ways. First, the pedagogical decision on is very important in what way it is better to present a new material. On it depends, whether pupils will be interested by this theme or at them interest will quickly be gone. The theory of plural intelligence just also offers a large quantity of ways with which help it is possible to expand perception of a theme. To such ways of school at the heart of which educational activity the theory of plural intelligence lays, carry: design activity, "apprenticeship", work in thematic zones, etc.

Secondly, it is necessary to offer suitable analogies. Unfamiliar topiki or themes are understood often for the first time by means of a similar theme which pupils have better understood or which is is better familiar to them. The models resulted from already familiar material as can help pupils with primary mastering of an unfamiliar material.

Thirdly, the theory of plural intelligence provides the various approach to representation of key ideas and those. It gives deeper and all-round understanding of a studied material [152, the river 187].

Thus, creation of the various informative abilities as much as possible answering to an individual mental potential, in many respects promotes achievement such necessary and actual in the modern educational environment to training for understanding. Therefore, there is more effective mastering by present and future generations of pupils of subject matters and humanitarian values.

It is necessary to notice, that training for G.Gardner's understanding allows to realise in the purpose and problem practice, developed in frameworks kompetentnostnogo the approach and corresponding today to requirements FGOS. The basic result of training, thus, is not knowledge, abilities, skills, and intelligent experience of activity. The graduate of modern school is, first of all, the person, able to put before itself the purposes, to reach them; effectively to live and communicate in the information and polycultural world; to make the realised choice and to bear for it
Responsibility and also to solve problems, including the non-standard. Therefore to become the primary goal of school uneasy maintenance of pupils with knowledge, and their preparation for the further independent life.

One more problem for a modern American education, according to Gardner, is the problem of the relation of school and the organisations supervising it. At display of the initiative assumed, on the one hand, and creative realisation, on the other hand, each action of the teacher is exposed to the severe control from the supervising organisations. As Linda Mak Nejl fairly marks: «When the organisation of educational process becomes concentrated to management and the control, teachers and pupils start to perceive school less seriously. They follow ritual of teaching and training which corresponds to the minimum standards and the river 18] demands the least efforts» [166.

At constant pressure upon school from the various supervising organisations and planting of a different sort of rules, requirements and reforms, Gardner marks, at school the strong protective mechanism against such reforms has developed. But, unfortunately, in aspiration to protect from unnecessary innovations, the school can reject and really standing changes. Even if really making sense reform or the new interesting approach to formation of educational process in the developed conditions, they, most likely, will be rejected in advance [154, the river 152] will be offered school system. All it, according to G.Gardner, is negatively reflected in a condition of modern secular school. It not in a condition to provide a high educational level which is necessary in a modern society, but thus training at school is difficult for many pupils.

The analysis of pedagogical views of G.Gardner has shown, that a major principle laying in their basis, consists that training process is necessary for building so that to provide with the pupil
Possibility of acquisition of experience which would demand involving of different types of intelligence. In practice it is realised through work of pupils in thematic zones, participation in design activity, "apprenticeship", use by teachers of various ways of teaching etc. Application of the theory of plural intelligence at training allows, in - the first, to individualise formation process, leaning on personal distinctions; in the-second to develop desirable abilities and talents of pupils; thirdly, to master concepts, subjects and disciplines in the various ways, forming this or that type of disciplinary thinking; in - the fourth, provides mastering of a studied material at understanding level.

G.Gardner's sights at the purposes and problems of modern formation, definition of the basic problems by it on a way to realisation of the effective training based on understanding, and the offered ways of their decision did not remain not noticed among pedagogical community. It has found practical application in created not only in the USA, but also is far behind their limits schools at the heart of which work the theory of plural intelligence lays.

Conclusions

In dissertation chapter 1 «Formation and essence of pedagogical views of G.Gardner» have been revealed sotsialnoyoistoricheskie conditions of formation of G.Gardner as teacher, teoretiko-methodological bases of formation of its pedagogical sights are defined, the theory of plural intelligence as a basis of its pedagogical views is considered, substantive provisions of its pedagogical concept are presented and analysed.

Studying and the analysis of the scientific literature allows to assert, that great value in the course of formation of pedagogical views of the scientist following sociohistorical conditions and theoretical preconditions took place.

First, it is scientific and technical revolution to which approach there were radical changes in a society, the manufactures connected with complication and its direct dependence on a science and discoveries. The scientific and technological revolution has seriously changed labour structure, a way of life and outlook of the person. As a result of these processes, at first in the USA, and then and in countries of Western Europe, there is a formation of the mass society mass production became which basis, mass consumption and a mass culture. Events these years changes can be considered not only as social and political revolutions, but first of all, as the revolution of consciousness accompanying origin of a new postindustrial society.

Secondly, it is crisis of the western pedagogics in which up to the beginning of 60th of the XX-th century a dominating direction was biheviorizm with its orientation to outwardly expressed reactions in reply to this or that stimulation. Training was too biologizirovano, the thinking practically has been completely excluded from the training purposes, importance of intellectual development of the trained was ignored. Bihevioristichesky
The pedagogics as any authoritative pedagogical model, did not give attention to individually-psychological features of the person, suppressed natural aspiration of pupils to independence, limited their initiative. She was not so capable to answer the new inquiries of a society connected with self-realisation of the person.

Thirdly, it is change of priorities in formation philosophy. There is a displacement of accents with the subject-objective of the approach to the training, the teacher based on a dominating role, on the subject-subject assuming an active position of the pupil in its interaction with the teacher in the course of achievement of the educational purposes. Therefore, pupils from passive object of training turn to active accomplices of pedagogical process. It corresponded to new political and socially-economic realities, created favorable possibilities for self-realisation of the person.

Fourthly, considerable changes in such branches of a science as the natural sciences, are information-computing technologies, development of ideas about creation of intellectual systems and perfect reason, achievement in cybernetics development, the general development and the logician of development of the psychology have led kognitivnoj to the revolution occurrence kognitivnoj sciences became which result. It has served as the answer to the requirements shown to a society of a scientific and technological revolution as denied simplified bihevioristskuju treatment of development of intelligence of the child that has led to change of a leading direction in psychology and pedagogics.

During research a number of the important events promoting development kognitivnyh of ideas in formation is established: 1) organised by National Academy of sciences of the USA in 1959г. In Wood Hole conference on questions of reforming of school education in the USA. The given conference is historical event in the field of American education reforming. It has mentioned such prominent aspects of school education as a problem of mastering of knowledge, relations to
To training as a whole, revision of curriculums according to the new concept of application of reason in training; 2) strengthening of positions kognitivizma in psychology and pedagogics in many respects was promoted by psihologo-pedagogical researches Dzheroma Brunera. They have found reflexion in the book which has left in 1960 «training Process». Merit Brunera consisted that it were about boznacheny new aspects of application kognitivnogo the approach to training. School Bruner overall objective saw in development of powers of thinking of pupils, in formation of the qualities necessary for a life in bystromenjajushchemsja the world. Thereupon it had been developed psihologo-pedagogical bases of development in pupils of intuitive thinking, works on stimulation of interest to acquisition of knowledge, use in the course of training of a method of independent opening are published. Book Brunera promoted prompt growth of interest to kognitivnomu to the approach in the American pedagogical science; 3) created in 1960 At the Harward university the Center kognitivnyh researches in which representatives of many sciences (psychologists, teachers, linguists, philosophers, mathematicians, physicists) worked. It was the interdisciplinary project created in a counterbalance biheviorizmu. The basic researches within the limits of this centre have been devoted studying of such informative processes as perception, memory, thinking, speech.

Studying of teoretiko-methodological sights of G.Gardner shows, that formation of its scientific outlook is necessary for 60YO70 th of the XX-th century. On Howard Gardner's formation as kognitivista the big influence sights of the known expert in the field of psychology of person Eric Ericson, work at the known American psychologist, one of founders kognitivnoj have rendered psychology and pedagogics Dzheroma Brunera, meetings with Jean Piazhe, acquaintance to the theory of psychological development of the Lion Vygotsky and researches on nejropsihologii Alexander Lurii.

Its participation in the scientific projects connected with research of problems of formation was the important stages in Gardner's formation as kognitivnogo the teacher: «the Person: the research program» (1965) in which it co-operated with J. Brunerom; «the Zero Project» (1967) where it was the assistant at Nelson Goodman; «the Project of human potential» (1979). The theory of plural intelligence became result of these researches also.

It is underlined, that the withdrawal from approaches dominating on that moment to definition of an essence and concept of intelligence as uniform general ability to create concept and to solve problems became Gardner's merit. According to Gardner, people possess not one, but set concerning independent intelligence. Cross-country-cultural supervision and studying of educational process is underlined, that on the basis of modern scientific researches of the child prodigies, the presented people, patients with brain traumas, by Howard Gardner has been allocated eight independent kinds of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, corporally-kinestetichesky, mezhlichnostyj and vnutrilichnostyj, naturalistic, ekzistentsionalnyj.

On the basis of the analysis of the scientific literature it is noticed, that unlike the academic psychology which has apprehended the theory of plural intelligence critically, for teachers this theory has appeared enough significant. The intelligence allocated with G.Gardner radically have changed representation about an intellectual profile of the pupil and have allowed to perceive it much more widely, and not just from the point of view logiko - mathematical intelligence as it was accepted earlier. That, in turn, allows to create conditions for an individualization of process of training and formation comprehensively developed, socially adapted, the creative person. It has pushed Gardner on the further research of intelligence and application of this theory in student teaching.

Studying of the scientific literature allows to draw a conclusion that Howard Gardner's research activity in the educational
Projects "Spectrum" and ATLAS »has given to the scientist possibility for the first time in practice most to check up and confirm efficiency of the theoretical views as about training and development of children from 4 till 8th years, and about methods of perfection of educational process at modern school. Participation in these projects has influenced formation of sights of Gardner on the purposes and problems of modern formation, promoted understanding and revealing of problems and difficulties which the comprehensive school faces today, and also methods and ways of increase of efficiency of educational process.

The overall objective of modern school, according to the scientist is noticed, that, consists in formation and development in pupils of disciplinary thinking. Achievement of this purpose occurs at the expense of realisation of disciplinary training, refusal of stereotypic thinking and application of the standard approach which basis is, so-called, podrazhatelnoe training.

The undertaken analysis of some G.Gardner's works allows to assert, that it the problem otsenivanija knowledge of pupils interested. The uncooperative altitude of the scientist to the approach dominating in modern school space to otsenivaniju knowledge on the basis of the standardised tests is marked. It has come to conclusion, that such tests allow to establish, how much well pupils own the academic knowledge, but do not give possibility to estimate level of understanding of disciplines subject to testing. As a result there is a withdrawal from a training overall objective - formations of the conceiving pupil.

During research it is established, that Howard Gardner had been revealed following circumstances and the problems arising at school as at bureaucratic institute of a society and stirring realisation of effective educational process: in the-first, this considerable quantity of rules, requirements and reforms of formation which are not born in bowels of educational institutions, and their occurrence not
It is caused by real requirements of educational system, and are spread "from above" and, as a rule, answer real inquiries of educational process a little; secondly, formation of classes with a considerable quantity of pupils without their individual propensities, strong and weaknesses; thirdly, rendering of pressure upon school from the supervising organisations and, as consequence, a concentration of educational process on management and the control.

Besides it it is underlined, that to achievement of high level of modern formation stirs also rupture between saved up at the child during the preschool period sensomotornymi both symbolical knowledge and that material which is offered it by the school program.

Overcoming of these difficulties Gardner sees in realisation of training for understanding which consists in ability of pupils to transfer knowledge available for them and experience in a new situation and to use them for the decision of arising problems.

It is underlined, that for achievement of it it is necessary for modern teacher to carry out the pedagogical activity taking into account potentially possible difficulties arising at pupils in the course of training, and also to take into consideration their distinctions in ways of thinking and perception of a material. It is noticed, that an invaluable role in it Gardner sees in the theory of plural intelligence which urged to create conditions for realisation of the effective training based on deep understanding, taking into account individual informative abilities and pupils answering to a mental potential.

The analysis of the materials resulted in the present chapter of the dissertation, causes requirement for consideration of practical application of pedagogical views of G.Gardner for educational practice. The second chapter of research is devoted the answer to the given questions.

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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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