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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION

In introduction the urgency of a theme of research is proved, its problem, object, a subject, the purpose, problems, chronological and territorial frameworks are defined, teoretiko-methodological bases, research methods are specified, to race
Scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance, sformuliroyovany the positions which are taken out on protection are covered.

In chapter 1 «Theoretical bases of music education at schools of Russian abroad» definition is given to key concepts issledoyovanija, are characterised a phenomenon of Russian abroad, its educational proyostranstvo, ideas and positions of domestic thinkers - of emigrants (philosophers, scientists-teachers), made a theoretical basis of music education at Russian schools abroad are analyzed.

In research the concept «Russian abroad», entered by G.P.Struve in the first years of emigration and designating as marks V.V. ShelohaYoev, «a generality of historical, political and personal destiny of representatives enough wide social circles and political forces mnoyogonatsionalnogo and polikonfessionalnogo the Russian society», appeared outside of Fatherland [3] is base. In the modern pedagogical literature Russian abroad in its narrow value is understood «as educational institutions and pedagogicheyoskaja thought in Russian emigration after (1917)» [4]. In these values (wide and narrow) the given definition is used in the present research. Closely svjayozannym with concept «Russian abroad» is concept «Russian emigration». In the given dissertation after A.A. Pronin under Russian emigration ponimajutyosja «all citizens who have left the country of the Russian state who left abroad on a constant residence or have appeared outside of the native land for more or less long term» [5]. Key in the dissertation concepts "music education" and «musical education», which ispolzujutyosja in V.I.Adishcheva's treatment also are. The music education including muyozykalnoe training and musical education, is understood purposeful, pedagogicheski organised, carried out in establishments obshcheobrazovayotelnogo a profile as process of familiarising of children to bases of the musical culture, providing their musical, spiritual development. Musical education is interpreted as activity on introduction of children in the music world through the device for them concerts of professional musicians and visiting detyomi opera performances, symphonic and other concerts [6].

In emigration of "the first wave» by different estimations it has appeared from ones and a half to two millions citizens of Russia. Its certain part made predstaviteyoli intellectual elite. Among them there were outstanding scientists, pedagogical figures, musicians, including A.L.Bem, S.I. Giessen, N.O.Lossky, V.V. Zen-
kovsky, S.V.Rakhmaninov, F.I.Shalyapin. Uniqueness of a phenomenon of Russian zaruyobezhja consisted in scale, long stay of ours sootecheyostvennikov abroad, in ability to perceive the phenomena of other culture and to keep thus the culture, national traditions.

One of the basic centres of moving of emigrants was Europe. According to the International bureau of work in 1923 of Russian refugees in the different countries of this continent was about 1 million persons. In Berlin, PariYOzhe, Prague various Russian establishments, the organisations, obedineyonija - educational, cultural, scientific, educational, church, blagotvoriyotelnye, etc.

One of directions of activity of many these organisations javljayolos training and education of children which in Russian diasporas of the European countries was within 45-50 thousand have been opened.

In Russian abroad there was no uniform administrative body which would carry out a management of all business of formation and education podyorastajushchego generations. But already in first half 1920th in emigration two pedagogical centres which carried out coordination deyojatelnost concerning school business in Russian diasporas have been created. Association of Russian teacher's organisations abroad »(chairman A.V.Zhekulina) into which teachers entered, the unions and groups of Russian teachers of all types of the schools existing in Russian diasporas was one of them«. Association of Russian teachers and Russian schools abroad, their improvement legal and a financial position, care about obrayozovanii and education of Russian children abroad were main objectives dejayotelnosti this organisation. Other central body was «the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad» which was headed by V.V. Zenkovsky. The structure of the Pedagogical bureau included A.L.Bem's visible scientists, S.I. Giessen, V.V. Zenkovsky, etc. the Bureau, osuyoshchestvljaja coordination of all Russian school business abroad, prepared and spent pedagogical congresses, developed curricula and programs for Russian schools, organised cultural-educational actions in the Russian emigrant environment. For preparation programmno-methodical materiayolov as a part of the Bureau there was a Program commission, in which structure vhodiyola the commission on the art, including music section.

Abroad there were two types of Russian schools: initial and average. To the first type, along with an elementary school, so-called school groups concerned. Principal views of high schools were a classical grammar school with preyopodavaniem two classic languages, a real grammar school with Latin language, gimnayozija new type without classic languages, but with an increased requirement on two noyovym to languages, etc. There were also mixed and humanitarian grammar schools, neyomnogochislennye female institutes and cadet cases.

Study in high schools of Russian abroad was under construction in znachiyotelnoj to a measure on the basis of the curriculum and curriculums Russian gimnayozii, prepared in 1915 the commission under the guidance of P.N.Ignatyev. But the changes caused by features of school business of this or that European country were made to these materials. The curriculum of Russian emigrant school included world, state (the residing countries) and national
Formation components. In the national component which has received the name "Rossika", entered along with the Russian literature, history, geography and a subject "Singing".

In emigration the network of Russian out-of-school establishments which solved problems of creation of the national cultural and educational environment, obespeyochenija conditions for realisation of cultural requirements of children and adults rusyoskojemigratsii has been created. Russian public universities, Russian houses, the children's and youthful organisations concerned principal views of out-of-school establishments, detyoskie camp, numerous mugs, cultural-educational associations, etc. Many of these establishments spent regular work on priobshcheyoniju children of refugees to musical art.

The important role in development of domestic school and pedagogics abroad igyorala Russian pedagogical journalism. During the considered period in Russian abroad left more than 30 pedagogical editions from which most avtoyoritetnymi magazines «the Bulletin of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs sredyonej and the lowest Russian school abroad» (Prague, 1923-1927), «the Bulletin of the Pedagoyogichesky bureau» (Prague, 1927-1931), «Russian school abroad» (Prague, 1923­1931 were), «the Russian choral bulletin» (Prague, 1928). The certain place on straniyotsah these editions was occupied with questions of music education of children at school and out of it.

In Russian abroad of 1920-1930th years activity on theoretical judgement of fundamental questions of formation and vospitayonija rising generation in the conditions of emigration was carried out. The big contribution to working out of these questions was brought by the Russian philosophers who were abroad and A.L.Bem's scientific - teachers, S.I. Giessen, etc. the Given thinkers has been put forward V.V. Zenkovsky, I.A.Ilyin, A.V.Zhekulina, S.I.Kartsevsky, I.M.Malinin and a number of the ideas which have made a theoretical basis musical obrazovayonija at Russian schools and out-of-school establishments abroad is proved. Among these teoyoreticheskih positions were:

Idea about necessity to keep in the conditions of emigration of Russian children rusyoskimi through construction of all vospitatelno-educational activity emiyograntskih schools and out-of-school establishments on the basis of national cultural wealth (the native language, Russian culture and art, including music);

Position about a priority role of education of children of emigrants on the doctrine and cultural achievements of Russian orthodox church, about necessity oznayokomlenija rising generation with Russian church music;

The thesis about expediency of development at Russian emigrant schools not only a national cultural heritage, but also language, history, art (including music) the people of those countries in which lived and children of refugees were trained;

Idea about the important role of art, first of all music, in a life, training and education of children of refugees which was considered not only as the significant factor of national, moral, aesthetic education, emotsionalnoyochuvstvennogo developments of pupils, but also as an effective remedy which is carrying out psychoregulating function, consoling, supporting, inspiring children, okazavyoshihsja owing to historical cataclysms in difficult vital circumstances.

In works of philosophers and teachers it was underlined also, that vospitatelnoyoobrazovatelnaja activity of emigrant schools and out-of-school establishments should be carried out in a support on such put forward and proved still in doreyovoljutsionnoj Russia ideas, as:

Idea of the complete person and complete formation, in which art javyoljaetsja a necessary component of the general education growing up pokoyolenija;

Idea sobornosti which focused is musical-educational prakyotiku on collective forms of work with pupils, on prioritetnost choral singing as historically developed practice of playing music, in the greatest measure corresponding to a way of life of Russian people.

Stated above idea of thinkers of Russian abroad "opredmechivayolis", were concretised, received private-methodical interpretation primeniyotelno to subjects (including to a subject "Singing") Russian emigrantyoskoj schools. In a support on these ideas methodical aspects prepoyodavanija musical art at Russian schools abroad were developed.

In the second chapter «Methodical and practical aspects of music education of children in Russian abroad» the contribution of musicians - of teachers of Russian abroad to working out of questions of a technique of the general muzykalyonogo formations of children reveals, curriculums on singing for rusyoskih emigrant schools are analyzed, real practice of familiarising of children of refugees to musical art is considered, use ways pozitivnoyogo experience of music education of Russian abroad in the modern theory and practice of musical training and rising generation education are outlined.

Questions of a technique of music education of children in the conditions of emigration have received illumination in books and articles of variety of musicians-teachers of Rusyosky abroad. The most considerable contribution to judgement of these questions vnesyoli S.P.eagle, M.V.Chernosvitova and A.D.Aleksandrovich, combining ispolniyotelskuju work in sphere of musical art with music teaching in emiyograntskih general educational and professional educational institutions. In disyosertatsii pedagogical sights of each of named muzyyokalnyh figures are analysed. The conclusion is drawn, that their methodical installations in the generalised kind were reduced to following positions on which basis it was offered osuyoshchestvljat music education of children in the conditions of emigration: the general musical development of children should be the purpose muzyyokalnogo formations; it is necessary to put Russian music in a basis of the maintenance of musical training of children (secular and spiritual), and also music of the countries of residing of emigrants; It is necessary to give special attention to acquaintance of pupils with Russian national pesyonej; to leaders by familiarising of children with music should become their own isyopolnitelskaja activity (in student's choruses, ensembles, orchestras); tselesoyoobrazno to combine class, out-of-class and out-of-school forms musical zayonjaty; with children in emigration dolzhyono to become the major mission of all musical work preservation of children by Russian, their training and education as carriers of national cultural wealth.

In Russian abroad curriculums on singing for rusyoskih schools have been created, separate teaching materials for pupils are prepared. In this deyojatelnosti musicians-teachers leant against achievements teoretikoyometodicheskoj thoughts and experts domestic school musical obrazoyovanija a pre-revolutionary time, on own experience of pedagogical work, experience of foreign musical figures (in particular, E.Jacque-Dalkroza), and also "operating time" of separate Soviet musicians-teachers (V.N.Shatskoj, N.N.to lomanovoj).

The analysis of sources has shown, that in activity of musicians-teachers of Rusyosky abroad on programmno-methodical maintenance of lessons of singing in rusyoskih schools was two stages. During the first stage (till 1923) at these schools programs on the singing, created independently in this or that country the separate teachers which activity went nobody and not kooryodinirovalas were used. During the comparative analysis of the maintenance of programs on singing for Russian schools of the European countries (Bulgaria, Latvia, Estonia) it is established, that the basic accent in these programs became on detailed enough oznakomleyonie pupils with the musical reading and writing, on development in them of skills of choral singing (odnogolosnogo and mnogogolosnogo) on examples of national songs, compositions oteyochestvennyh and foreign composers. The given programs on the soderzhayoniju were substantially similar to programs on singing, which priyomenjalis in initial and high schools of Russia of the end XIX - the XX-th century beginnings.

The second stage of work on programmno-methodical maintenance of a subject "Singing" at Russian emigrant schools has begun after 1923 and has been connected with aspiration of the socially-pedagogical centres of Russian abroad unifitsiyorovat curricula and programs of schools of the Russian diasporas located in razyolichnyh the European countries, to give to the given programs more expressed Russian beginning as to the middle of 1920th years in emigration more and more javyostvenno threat of loss by children of Russian refugees of national originality began to be designated. At the Second congress of figures of average and lowest Russian school abroad (Prague, 1925) has been considered, approved and recommended to ispolzoyovaniju at all Russian emigrant schools the program on the singing, the made S.P.Orlovym. Its basic positions have been stated in "Conclusion" proyogrammnoj of the commission of the specified congress.

The analysis of the given base document has shown, that in it the special importance of musical art in training and education of children in conditions inokulturnoj as their mighty factor national vospitayonija has been underlined environments, the question on the status of musical employment in obshcheobrazovayotelnyh schools of Russian abroad is distinctly designated - they should be obligatory and prepoyodavatsja to all children within all years of school training. We will notice, that in doreyovoljutsionnyh Russian initial national schools and governmental gimyonazijah the subject "Singing" was among unessential to studying distsiyoplin. Installation of musicians-teachers of emigration was in this question a step forward. Obligatory after 1917 singing lessons have been declared and at uniform labour school of the Soviet Russia.

In the considered document the purpose school muzyyokalnyh employment - the general musical development of children is accurately formulated. The document aimed emiyograntskie schools at considerable expansion of the maintenance musical obrazoyovanija, on that pupils acquainted in sufficient volume with the theory and istoyoriej musical art, regularly learnt them to execute, listen, anayolizirovat pieces of music. The similar approach has been put and in osnoyovu programs on the singing (music), prepared in 1918 in bowels the People's commissar - of millet of RSFSR for the Soviet schools. In the analyzed document the thought on necessity of construction of music education at schools of Russian abroad both on secular, and on a sacred music was important. Such approach differed from program installations of the Soviet school of 1920-1930th years, according to koyotorymi the sacred music has been excluded from the maintenance of school training that has led to that the existing centuries-old domestic tradition of familiarising of rising generation simultaneously to secular and spiritual muyozyke has been interrupted. At Russian emigrant schools this tradition podderzhivayolas up to the termination of activity of the majority of these schools in the late thirties.

Basic value for Russian schools soderzhashchajayosja in the considered document installation abroad had to pay priority attention in rayobote with children to domestic musical art, especially rising generation education on samples Russian national pesennogo creativity, and also music of the slavic people. Today it is difficult to agree with the thesis containing in the document that the West European music can be supposed in schools as «a material illustrative» that it is necessary to acquaint children with this music, but «on it not to bring up». Probably, activity conditions bezhenskih schools abroad were so uneasy, that for preservation of Russian children by Russian it was required to bring an attention to the question in such plane. The conclusion that the advanced methodical installations of pre-revolutionary time have found in positions containing in the document (generality, nepreryvyonost reflexion, width of school music education), and also approaches, obuslovyolennye specificity of activity of Russian schools abroad (prioritetnost oteyochestvennoj music, special attention to Russian national song, etc.) becomes.

The analysis revealed during research archival and published istochyonikov has shown, that practical work on familiarising of children with music at schools of Russian abroad was spent in two directions: at lessons of singing and during out-of-class time. The greatest development at emigrant schools have received razyonoobraznye forms of out-of-class musical activity, first of all ucheniyocheskie choruses and orchestras. In activity of these collectives has received continuation existing in Russian pre-revolutionary comprehensive schools trayoditsija introductions of children in the music world through active playing music in school choruses and orchestras. In real educational practice Russian bezhenskih schools methodical installations considered above proyogrammy on singing have been in many respects realised. Musical work at these schools was substantially spent on a material Russian national pesennogo creativity, proizvedeyony domestic composers, promoting preservation national idenyo
tichnosti Russian youth in conditions inokulturnoj environments. Thus at Russian schools music of slavic and other people sounded. At the same time in emigrantyoskih schools it was not possible to carry out in a due measure general, obligatory and continuous musical training of children. The place of lessons of singing in various shkoyolah was unequal, its teaching is frequent was limited to the first goyodami training of children. The modest resource base, frequently absence of teachers, musical instruments, teaching materials did not allow in necessary scales to develop work on music education of pupils emigrantyoskih schools.

The essential contribution to music education and education of children rusyoskih refugees brought out-of-school and educational establishments and organizayotsii Russian abroad. The basic forms of their activity were lectures and conversations about music, concerts, holidays, excursions, musical employment. podgoyotovka and carrying out of these actions have been directed on, that sposobstvoyovat to wider acquaintance of children and the youthes, appeared abroad, with a cultural heritage of Russia. The leading place in all forms of out-of-school muyozykalno-educational and educational work was taken away to acquaintance of children with Russian musical art - national songs, spiritual muzyyokoj, products of domestic composers. The conclusion that spent work helped, on the one hand, to formation of national consciousness of children becomes, with another - promoted preservation of Russian musical culture, its distribution, propagation among the population (children and adults) foreign countries.

In the end of the head ways of possible use teoretikoyometodicheskogo and practical experience of music education of Russian zaruyobezhja reveal now. It is shown, that application of this experience (at kriticheyoskom its judgement) is possible in two directions:

By working out of concepts, programmno-methodical documents, proveyodenii practical work on musical training and education of children in soyovremennyh the Russian schools and additional education establishments (opoyora on ideas about the complete person and complete formation, generality and objazayotelnosti music education, about a priority role of education (including musical) in complete educational process, special value of Russian music (secular and spiritual), domestic folklore in education of rising generation, the organisation of collective forms of playing music);

At the decision of problems of music education growing up pokoleyonija at the modern Russian schools which are in the countries of near and far abroad (accent on studying of domestic musical culture, especially on development Russian national pesennogo creativity, learning uniform muyozykalnogo repertoire for joint execution by children of Russian schools, podgoyotovka and carrying out of concerts in days of Russian national holidays, organizayotsija days of Russian culture with the developed musical program, an establishment through musical art of intercultural dialogue between Russian children and pupils of schools of the countries of moving, introduction in the maintenance of formation of Russian
Schools of music of the people of the countries of residing, the device of joint musical actions, an exchange of concerts, etc.).

In the Conclusion the basic results of research, sformuliroyovany conclusions are stated.

1. Russian abroad of "the first wave», arisen after October sobyyoty 1917 and during Civil war, represented special sotsialyonoe and the cultural phenomenon for which were characteristic large number vyyoehavshih for limits of Russia of citizens, width of their moving in the world countries, a finding among emigrants of outstanding domestic scientists and isyokusstva. Russian emigration of 1920-1930th years appreciably were prisuyoshchi mental unity, a cathedral way of life, the vigorous activity on sohrayoneniju and to development of national culture. In Russian abroad the steadfast attention was given to questions of formation and education growing up pokoleyonija for what various educational institutions have been created, the organisations, proyovodivshie raznostoronjuju theoretical and practical work in area pedayogogiki and formations.

2. Fundamental value for music education at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad as its theoretical basis imeyoli ideas of domestic philosophers and the scientists-teachers who were in emigrayotsii, about necessity of preservation in inokulturnoj to circle national identichyonosti Russian children, about a priority role in their education and formation natsioyonalnyh cultural wealth, about the special importance in this business of orthodox dogma, about necessity of development by children of Russian refugees of language and kultuyory the people of the countries of residing, about huge possibilities musical iskusyostva in development of moral, aesthetic, religious feelings of pupils, natsiyoonalnom education and psychoemotional support of children. The given ideas javyoljalis theoretical reference points for musical teachers of Russian abroad in their activity on working out of methodical aspects of the general muzyyokalnogo formations and in practical work.

3. The big contribution to working out of methodical aspects school and vneyoshkolnogo music education in emigrations, its programmno-methodical maintenance was brought by musicians-teachers S.P.eagle, M.V.Chernosvitova,

A.D.Aleksandrovich. Their methodical installations were conformable to sights filoyosofov and scientists-teachers of Russian abroad on mission and music education problems at Russian school abroad. Singing lessons were considered by the given musicians-teachers as a necessary component of school education, their teaching aimed at the general musical development of children. The Programmnoyometodichesky materials prepared in emigration, focused teachers on priority development by pupils of domestic musical art (at due attention to music of other people), on active muzykalnoyoispolnitelskuju activity of children in student's choruses, ensembles, orchestras, on a combination of class, out-of-class and out-of-school forms of musical work to children.

4. Practical activities of schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad on rising generation music education were spent
Appreciably in the tideway of named above installations. Despite difficult conditions of activity of Russian emigrant schools, in their considerable number osuyoshchestvljalos teaching of lessons of singing (in the first years of training of children), sozdayovalis student's choruses and orchestras also operated. The paramount attention in class and out-of-class educational activity was given to acquaintance of children with domestic musical art, especially Russian national pesnjayomi. The musical work spent at schools, was supplemented with activity of numerous out-of-school and educational establishments and the organisations which were carrying out in various forms work on musical training, education and education of children and youthes of Russian emigration. In the sovoyokupnosti this activity preemstvenno has been connected with the practice of music education which was taking place in pre-revolutionary Russia, leant against this prakyotiku, continued and developed traditions of a domestic education in the conditions of abroad.

5. Positive aspects of teoretiko-methodical and practical experience muyozykalnogo formations of children at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian abroad of the period of 20-30th years of the XX-th century can be used in sovremenyonyh conditions on two directions: by working out of concepts, programmnoyometodicheskih materials and in real practice of musical training and vospiyotanija in the Russian comprehensive schools and establishments dopolnitelnoyogo formations, and also at the modern Russian schools which are worldwide.

In the long term it is represented actual to address to research of teoyoretiko-methodical and practical aspects of music education in rusyoskih diasporas of the different countries of the world, to the analysis theoretical and methodical vzgljayodov the largest musicians-teachers of Russian emigration working in preschool, school and higher educational institutions, to comparative studying of statement of music education of rising generation in the Soviet Russia and Russian abroad.

The basic maintenance and results of research are reflected in following publications of the author:

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A source: MAMAYEVA Nadezhda Pavlovna. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2019. 2019

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