<<
>>

the Basic maintenance of the dissertation

In introduction the urgency of a theme of the dissertation is proved, its teoretiko-methodological bases are considered, the purpose, a subject and object of research are defined, problems and the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated a hypothesis, scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance of research reveal.

In chapter 1 «Theoretical bases of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity» individual progress of the trained is considered in its context scientifically - pedagogical judgement, the pedagogical potential of design activity as way of pedagogical support of individual progress trained is characterised, and also the developed model of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity is presented.

In a context of scientific and pedagogical judgement of idea of individual progress trained actual the reference to a problem of model of the graduate of this or that educational level as in it characteristics of the person trained according to which its individual achievements in a course and on termination of educational process are estimated should be boldly designated is represented. In the psihologo-pedagogical literature there are some treatments of model of the graduate. So, according to one of them (O.N.Borisova, I.F.Komogortseva, I.D.Lelchitsky), the graduate from the ideal point of view urged to differ reflective readiness for self-development and
Self-realisation if in the course of formation conditions of maintenance of an individual trajectory of its informative activity are modelled.

In research Of this year Vershlovsky and its colleagues the socially-pedagogical portrait of the graduate of school is considered at three levels: functional literacy, competence and spirituality. According to scientists, the characteristic of valuable orientations of functional literacy and competence reflects an intellectual, emotional and social maturity of the graduate as the significant results reached in the course of training.

According to FGOS the basic general education, achievement by the pupil of personal, metasubject and subject results allows to speak about level of its erudition, but personal results at such approach are presented obobshchenno. Therefore at the description of individual progress trained pertinently to address to erudition characteristics on G.N.Serikov. Leaning against a position of the scientist, we will allocate such characteristics of qualities and abilities of the trained: awareness, sensibleness (consciousness and morals), activity, sistemnost.

From positions kompetentnostnogo the approach (B.I.Hasan, B.D.Elkonin, A.M.Aron, etc.), individual progress of the pupil is defined as complex positive dynamics of development of the personal resources, including an increment of abilities of thinking and understanding. In this case individual progress of the pupil is connected with indicators of development of thinking and understanding and formation process kompetentnostej, going through all training (B.D.Elkonin). In a context of the system approach (A.N.Averyanov, etc.) individual progress of the pupil is a complete structure with the interconnected components. All characteristics describing individual progress of the pupil, reflect the qualities fixed in model of the graduate, or certain level of a social maturity of the pupil as planned result of educational work of school.

Thus, individual progress of the trained is understood as system of its personal qualities, which are shown in positive dynamics of the generalised characteristics (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnosti) in subject, metasubject, personal spheres for achievement by it both educational, and the vital purposes.

Diagnostics of level of individual progress of pupils is carried out by means of the analysis of results of examinations, thematic interrogations, tests for an estimation of individual qualities in three spheres: in personal sphere - the responsible relation to the doctrine (understanding of responsibility for results of the project; conformity of a measure of the responsibility taken on to the real possibilities, experience; individual productivity in those problems where responsibility for performance was is taken by the pupil on itself); in metasubject sphere - ability independently plan ways of achievement of the purposes; ability to correlate the actions with planned results; possession of bases of self-checking, a self-estimation, decision-making; in subject sphere - formation and perfection of the communicative competence.

As a result of the literature analysis it is established, that individual progress of the pupil is a subsystem of model of the graduate in metasystem of the general education and assumes dependence of its formation on some other systems: pedagogical support, ways of training, etc. In our research pedagogical support is considered as the system of actions directed on individual progress.

Researches of many scientists which studied it on different educational levels (E.M.Aleksandrovsky, I.A.Baeva, M.R.Bitjanova, E.I.Kazakova, of this year Kosaretsky, I.A.Lipsky, N.N.Mihajlova, R.V.Ovcharova, T.I.Chirkova, J.P.Fedorova, etc.) are devoted a problem of pedagogical support of pupils . So, according to I.A.Lipsky, pedagogical support of development of the person of the pupil has complex character and reflects mechanisms of interaction of people in social sphere. M.A.Ivanenko considers, that pedagogical support has solving influence on socially-personal development of the child in the childhood. E.I.Kazakova and A.P.Trjapitsyna define pedagogical support as the activity providing creation of conditions for acceptance by the subject of development of the optimum decision in various situations of a vital choice. Proceeding from the aforesaid, pedagogical support is considered as system of the pedagogical actions directed on individual progress of the pupil, for the purpose of achievement of results by it in personal, metasubject and subject spheres.

One of priority places among the optimal pedagogical conditions directed on achievement of individual progress of the growing organism in space of formation, belongs to design activity with which application informative activity becomes extremely praktiko-focused and promotes development of the personal qualities necessary not only in educational, but also in other activity, and to the full answering to the purposes of formation of the XXI-st century (A.G.Asmolov, A.L.Simeon, A.J.Uvarov). From the point of view of E.S.polat, design training delegates to the teacher function of pedagogical support that gives the basis to speak about pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity as the effective mechanism lichnostnoyoorientirovannogo formations. Pedagogical support includes substantial, organizational and analytical components, each of which bears certain function, and their elements (target, methodical, motivating, executive, diagnostic, analytical, correcting) in aggregate make the maintenance of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity.

Specificity of the maintenance of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity is defined by following positions:

1. Designing of achievable level of individual progress is carried out with a support on a current condition of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of the concrete pupil taking into account its previous condition in a certain interval/moment of time.

2. The choice of types of projects and technologies of their performance occurs according to achievable level of individual progress of the pupil.

3. Into the maintenance and technology of performance of projects are consistently entered: problems of different level of complexity for influence on the generalised characteristics of individual progress - awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost, - which, in turn, influence achievement of results in subject, metasubject and personal spheres; mechanisms of student's mutual aid; receptions of gradual delegation of powers to pupils: from separate tasks in projects before full independent activity.

4. Actualisation of informal encouragement of each pupil after the project termination (in the form of ranks «the best responsible», «the best leader», «the best Znajka», «the best conscious», «the best analyst», «the best www», «the best designer», «the best controller» etc.) for involving of pupils in process otsenivanija and joint (with other pupils) activity.

5. Conducting monitoring of achievements, drawing up on its basis of the passport of individual progress trained.

Activity of the teacher in the course of preparation and project carrying out is defined according to following stages: 1) tselepolaganie: definition of the purposes of projects depending on their types and subjects; 2) designing of problems in the selected projects; 3) planning of the schedule of performance of all stages of projects; 4) forecasting of a course of performance of projects taking into account possible, but surmountable difficulties; 5) pedagogical support of each project; 6) diagnostics of the contribution of participants in the project; 7) the analysis of a course of performance of the project, its results.

From positions kompetentnostnogo and system approaches, for realisation of design activity of pupils by leaders principles are recognised: the account of a current condition of individual progress of the pupil; the forecast and algorithm of step-by-step actions trained; preventive maintenance of risks of interpersonal conflicts, flexible and fast reaction to a conflict situation; interactions of the teacher with the pupil under the control and the account of results of activity.

The listed principles in the set allow to carry out pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity and at the same time are a management for working out of model of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity (fig. 1) which assumes structurization of the design activity which is carried out in common by the teacher and the pupil in the form of complete pedagogical system, and also a substantiation of variants of its realisation in practice. The model structure was made by four blocks: target,
Teoretiko-methodological, organizational-dejatelnostnyj and rezultativnoyodiagnostichesky.

The model purpose is pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity.

The teoretiko-methodological basis of model is based on positions kompetentnostnogo and system approaches and the principles described above. Organizational-dejatelnostnyj the model block is presented by components: tselepolaganija, maintenances of projects, performance, stages of pedagogical support that underlines its dynamism. Productive

The diagnostic block of model is presented by results in subject, personal and metasubject spheres, indicators of the generalised characteristics of activity of the pupil (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnostju), levels of individual progress (ascertaining, is standard admissible, standard, above permitted standard), the analysis of achievements of pupils by means of the spent monitoring.

In the presented model dynamics of individual progress of the pupil is designed for a step of the basic general education, therefore conditions of the generalised characteristics of individual progress are described with a support on requirements FGOS to volume of results of the basic general education in personal, metasubject, subject spheres. According to the developed model, at selection of projects the teacher entered into the maintenance and technology of performance of projects of a problem of different level of complexity - invariant and variativnyj a component; situations and problems of a solved problematics and obviously surmountable difficulties; mechanisms of mutual aid of pupils; receptions of gradual delegation of powers to pupils: from separate problems in projects before full independent activity (from idea of the project before its realisation).

Thus, the developed model of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity proves optimum pedagogical process, organizujushchy educational process taking into account specific features trained. Novelty of such approach that the model reveals from multilateral positions: judgements of the purpose, strategy of its realisation, organizational-pedagogical conditions, diagnostics and corrections of the received results.

The theoretical analysis of pedagogical support of design activity as conditions of individual progress of the pupil has allowed to develop structure of the design activity which is carried out in common by the teacher and the pupil in the form of complete pedagogical system, and also to prove pedagogical experiment on model realisation in practice.

By means of interrogations, supervision, conversations, testings were investigated and the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils - awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost on the basis of what level of individual progress of each pupil (on an example of projects at lessons of English language, Russian and the literature) was defined were estimated.

The target block
Individual progress of the trained
The teoretiko-methodological block
The conceptual bases: kompetentnostnyj and system

Approaches

Principles:

The account of a current condition of individual progress of the pupil; the forecast and algorithm of step-by-step actions trained; preventive maintenance of risks of interpersonal conflicts, flexible and fast reaction to a conflict situation; interactions of the teacher with the pupil under the control and the account of results of activity

Organizational-dejatelnostnyj the block
TSelepolaganie The maintenance of projects Performance
Prospective level of individual progress; definition of the purposes of projects depending on their types and subjects Problems of different level of complexity: invariant and variativnyj a component Problem problems and situations Cooperation of pupils in the course of performance of projects Receptions of gradual delegation of powers to pupils: from separate problems in projects before full independent activity
Stages of pedagogical support
The account of a current condition of individual progress Selection of types of projects proektiroyovanie problems in the selected projects Planning of the schedule of performance of all stages of projects; the account possible, but surmountable difficulties Diagnostics of the contribution of participants in the project; informal encouragement of pupils
The is productive-diagnostic block
Results Indicators of development IP Levels of development IP The analysis
Subject Personal Metasubject Awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost The ascertaining; is standard admissible; the standard; above permitted standard Monitoring of achievements of pupils

Fig. 1. Model of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity

In the second chapter «skilled-experimental work on realisation of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity» process of realisation of model of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity is characterised, and also interpretation of results of the spent skilled-experimental work is carried out.

Before the beginning of skilled-experimental work the analysis of the relation of teachers to a problem of the pedagogical support directed on individual progress of the trained has been carried out. Results of interrogation of teachers have shown, that many of them undertake efforts by means of use of various methods of training to affect individual progress of pupils, however 40 % of respondents do not do it because or realise, that it is necessary to stimulate individual progress, but do not know, how (22 %); or consider, that this process goes in itself owing to its existence (18 %). Overwhelming majority interrogated (88 %) have expressed opinion, that pedagogical support by means of design activity of pupils is necessary for organising in special way, but for this purpose the teacher needs to have training special preparation.

Thus, the analysis of the relation of teachers to a problem of individual progress of trained pupils has shown, that the majority of them will organise design activity of the trained. However teachers are not ready to prove pedagogical potential of design activity in the tideway of its influence on individual progress trained, meanwhile recognise necessity of their purposeful pedagogical support at the organisation of design activity for achievement of this purpose. It is necessary to notice, that when teachers mark the importance in a considered context of pedagogical support, its results are not in a zone of their pedagogical reflexion, hence, the given process is carried out fragmentary, is chaotic and unsystematic more likely.

At a stage of ascertaining experiment measurement of level of individual progress of pupils (diagnostics of a condition of its generalised characteristics) is made on the basis of the analysis of results of examinations, tests, thematic interrogations, etc. Diagnostics of a condition of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils was spent in three spheres: in personal sphere the responsible relation to the doctrine (the questionnaire for the teacher and for the pupil) was estimated; in metasubject sphere - methods of planning of activity, self-checking, a self-estimation, decision-making (the questionnaire for the teacher and for the pupil); in subject sphere - development of the communicative competence (the questionnaire for the teacher and for the pupil, control tasks on English language, Russian and the literature, control testing, etc.).

On the basis of the received data the technique of forming experiment has been developed. For carrying out of skilled-experimental work eight groups of pupils - on three experimental and on one control in parallels of 6 and 9 classes (only 196 persons) have been selected. Groups were
Are grouped from pupils of 6 and 9 classes to check up efficiency of realisation of model in different age groups, with various initial indicators of level of individual progress in three spheres (personal, metasubject, subject). Reprezentativnost samples it was reached by casual selection of groups of the pupils which structure was homogeneous for an initial condition of levels of individual progress, and also repeated carrying out of forming experiment that defines not casual character of results received during experiment.

In the course of experiment various variants of achievement of individual progress were applied to different groups of pupils trained in design activity.

1. A variant at which there are all components of pedagogical support of individual progress trained in design activity.

2. A variant in which one of components of pedagogical support is absent, namely - informal encouragement of achievements of pupils. The mechanism of informal encouragement of each pupil was shown in assignment of ranks which were defined by pupils independently in the course of discussion of results of work after the project termination. The teacher encouraged the initiative of pupils in inventing of new "ranks" for their involving in process otsenivanija and joint (with other pupils) activity ("most responsible", "leader", "Znajka", "most conscious", «the best analyst», «the best www», «the best designer», «the best controller», "fast", "sharpest" etc.). The appropriated ranks helped pupils to find a self-trust, caused and supported interest to the process of training based on a method of projects. Between pupils there was a private competition on possession wider set of ranks.

3. A variant in which design activity of pupils under the guidance of the teacher without specially organised pedagogical support is carried out.

In group 1 the first variant models (group G1) was fulfilled; in group 2 - the second variant models (group G2); in group 3 - the third variant models (group G3); in group 4 - usual educational process (control group Gk). In groups G1 and Г2 were estimated dynamics of development of individual qualities of the pupil and its ability to cope with difficulties was checked.

Diagnostics allowed the teacher to receive the additional information necessary for selection of types of projects and technology of their performance according to reached level of individual progress of the pupil. Then diagnostics of individual progress for each pupil was spent: to what level there corresponds a condition of awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnosti in three spheres and their total values. Dynamics of individual progress of pupils on the basis of change of the generalised characteristics was brought in tabular forms for the subsequent statistical
Processings of the received results. Monitoring of achievements was spent on the basis of the passport of individual progress of the pupil in which the pupil specified the name of the project, its features, the name of tasks which have been executed, estimated their performance and made comments on the participation in the project (what ranks are received what has experienced difficulties etc.). The teacher in the passport of the pupil filled the general data on the project, and also fixed dynamics of individual progress of the pupil in points on the basis of the filled questionnaires that provided from the project to the project formation of a picture of achievements by each pupil.

The algorithm of work included a number of stages. At the first stage questioning, processing, calculation of data were carried out. On the second the initial level of development of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of the pupil (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnosti) on each of spheres - personal, metasubject and subject was defined. On the third changes in a condition of individual progress of the pupil on personal, metasubject and subject spheres during experiment carrying out were defined. At the fourth level the total condition of individual progress of the pupil after experiment carrying out, i.e. pedagogical support of design activity was defined.

Selection of projects was carried out for groups G1 and Г2 taking into account conformity of types of projects to levels of development of the generalised characteristics of individual progress (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost). For groups G3 projects on a choice without dependence from a condition of a level of development of individual progress of pupils have been offered to use. In control groups projects were not used.

Each characteristic of individual progress of the pupil (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost) was estimated by points from 1 to 4 according to levels: ascertaining, is standard admissible, standard, above permitted standard. Ascertaining level fixes an initial condition of individual progress of the pupil from which dynamics of formation of the generalised characteristics (awarenesses, sensibleness, activity, sistemnosti) is traced. Is standard admissible level of individual progress of the pupil shows forward changes in development of the given generalised characteristics (awareness, sensibleness, activity and sistemnosti), corresponding to average norms of development of the pupil, but "lagging behind" the norms which have been put in pawn in model of individual progress of the pupil for the set moment of time. Standard level reflects degree sformirovannosti the generalised characteristics according to the requirements which have been put in pawn in model of the graduate (ability of active application of knowledge and abilities in educational activity; ability to work with various sources of the information; readiness for independent informative activity etc.). Level of individual progress of the pupil above permitted standard reflects comprehension by the pupil of the personal and public importance of knowledge; ability
To analyze and correct results of educational activity; ability to reach objects in view; readiness regularly to carry out self-educational activity with a view of personal growth and self-realisation. Hence, individual progress of the pupil is defined by dynamics of development of each of characteristics (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnosti) and growth of indicators from level to level.

In tab. 1 examples of projects for pupils of 6th and 9th classes who are aimed at development of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils, i.e. movement from standard level to above permitted standard are resulted.

Before carrying out of forming experiment the condition of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils of 6 classes and 9­х classes has been revealed to find out importance/insignificance of distinctions between pupils control and three experimental groups. Methods of statistical data processing - calculation of the average estimation of a condition of individual progress of pupils in various groups and criterion of uniformity a hi-square have been for this purpose applied.

Table 1

Selection of types of projects according to a level of development of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils

Types of projects to a typological sign Types of projects according to levels
Movement to is standard admissible level Movement to standard level Movement to level above permitted standard
Kind of activity dominating in the project The role

The information

The creative

Role Information Creative Research Role Information Creative Research

The applied

predmetnoyosoderzhatelnaja area Monoprojects Monoprojects Monoprojects

The intersubject

Character of coordination of the project With open coordination With open coordination With opened and

The latent coordination

Character of contacts The internal The internal

The regional

The internal

The regional

The international

Quantity of participants of the project Individual Steam rooms Group Individual Steam rooms Group Individual Steam rooms Group

prodolzhitelyonost vypolneyonija the project The short-term Short-term Intermediate term Short-term Intermediate term Long-term
Projects for pupils of 6th class (on an example of English language) Gifts which we give Our favourite

Books

Our favourite

Foreign musical executors

Weather in Moscow and London Holidays in the USA and Russia Sports which we choose
We that we eat Area in which we live How to survive on neyoobitaemom island
G osudarstvennaja symbolics angloyojazychnyh the countries
Projects for pupils of 9th class (on an example of English language) Youth subcultures Shakespeare's heroes The Great Britain - the most interesting places
Patriotism in

Russia, VelikoYObritanii, the USA

British monaryohija: from the past to the future On pages

The English literature

Our favourite

Filmstars

Walk in

Island Losinyj

The Internet in a life of teenagers
Sports and healthy way of life

In tab. 2 total conditions of the generalised characteristics of individual progress of pupils of 6 classes are reflected, the quantity of pupils in each investigated group (N), the generalised characteristics having certain level (awareness, sensibleness, activity, sistemnost) is resulted.

Table 2

Condition of individual progress of pupils (6 classes)

Group N Quantity of pupils on levels of development IP K χ2
konstatiyorujushchy Is standard admissible normativyonyj sverhnormayotivnyj
Г1 25 14 9 2 0 1,56 0,13
Г2 24 12 10 2 0 1,58 0,10
Г3 24 13 9 2 0 1,54 0,19
Gk 25 12 10 3 0 1,61

The letter "To" in tab. 2 designates a quantitative estimation sformirovannosti integrativnogo qualities «individual progress» in investigated groups which is defined on an average index:

The joint venture = (Kk + 2Кнд + 3Кн + 4Ксн) / N,

Where Kk, Knd, Kn, Ksn - quantity of pupils on levels (ascertaining, is standard admissible, standard, above permitted standard), N - quantity of pupils in corresponding group (Г1, Г2, Г3, Gk). The received values show, that level of development of the generalised characteristics of individual progress in experimental and control groups is practically identical. Values of criterion of uniformity a hi-square of individual progress of pupils of 6th class, defining distinctions of two vyborok in different groups, the following:

χ2-r κ = 0,13

<< | >>
A source: Sizintseva Ekaterina Petrovna. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT of INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS TRAINED In DESIGN ACTIVITY. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2016. 2016

More on topic the Basic maintenance of the dissertation:

  1. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  2. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  3. the Basic maintenance of the dissertation
  4. the BASIC MAINTENANCE of the DISSERTATION
  5. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  6. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  7. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  8. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION
  9. the Basic maintenance of the dissertation
  10. THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION