Cardinal changes in sphere of information technologies in second half of XX-th century promoted the beginning of formation of the social validity of new type - to an information society. «Revolution of scientific knowledge» which, in turn, has made direct impact on a traditional education system became result of this process so-called.

In development of a modern society the education system has got the status of the defining factor. The XXI-st century pedagogics sees the problem not so much "training" to concrete knowledge (since they have time to "become outdated" for 3-5 years), how many ability formation studies constantly. The purpose of modern formation are development and fastening of those properties of the person which are necessary for innovative activity: competence, innovative kreativnost and so forth Differently, creation of the new educational environment where at the head of a corner there is a person who is ready to innovative activity.

Thereupon, in an education system of XXI century tendencies on an openness, a humanisation and personal orientation of formation urged to play the basic role. It consists in accent displacement on interests and a role of the pupil and the teacher; formation the subject-subject of relations in formation; creation of optimum conditions of versatile development of the person, its ability to self-development, the new approach to definition of the purposes and results of formation, interaction of the teacher and trained, to the person of the pupil and the teacher, the formation maintenance is supposed. The end result is a choice the person of an individual educational trajectory throughout all life.

In connection with a humanisation and an individualization of educational process and its main objective - to help the child to learn itself, to gain independence and give it possibility for self-realisation, important value has the reference to pedagogical experience of leaders
The western scientists in the spheres of education, a visible place among which on - to the right are occupied with Howard Gardner.

Pedagogical problems put forward and solved by G.Gardner have the important practical value in modern conditions of development of a domestic education when there is a change of an educational paradigm to orientation to the person of the trained. Despite the obvious scientific and practical importance of pedagogical views of G.Gardner, they were not selected a subject of special studying in a domestic pedagogical science. A problem the given research also has been devoted completion of it.

During the decision of the first research problem consisting in revealing of sociohistorical conditions and the teoretiko-methodological bases of formation of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner, following conclusions have been received. Formation of pedagogical views of G.Gardner occurred in the conditions of scientifically-technical, kognitivnoj and educational revolutions. Global changes in the American society, manufactures occurring in the conditions of complication and its dependence on new opening, scientific workings out, dictated carrying out of reforms in an education system.

If prior to the beginning of 60 th of the XX-th century a dominating direction in the western psychology and pedagogics was biheviorizm with its orientation to outwardly expressed reactions in reply to this or that stimulation in 60-70­е of the XX-th century to it on change has come kognitivizm.

Adherents kognitivistskogo directions in psychology and pedagogics (Dzherom Bruner, George Miller, Ulrik Najsser, etc.) actively supported updating of the American school. Kognitivnye processes (memory, attention, perception, understanding, thinking) have been closely connected with informative processes. Revision by scientists, experts in a sphere of education, teachers and psychologists of the purposes and problems of school education, instructions of the objective reasons of importance of intellectual development of pupils,

Have destroyed domination of ideas biheviorizma in the American psychology and pedagogics. The simple formula bihevioristov the "stimulus-reaction", describing essence of training, did not give attention individualnoyopsihologicheskim to features of the person, excluded questions of intellectual development of the child from a field of vision of the American teachers and was not capable to answer the new inquiries of a society connected with self-realisation of the person.

At kognitivnom the approach to formation the trained act not in a role of the passive listener, and admit the active creative person. The primary goal of formation thus is attention focusing on in what ways trained perceive knowledge for that understanding in that them train.

The big role in strengthening of positions kognitivizma in psychology and pedagogics the J has played. Bruner. Its researches directed on application kognitivnogo of the approach in training, working out psihologoyopedagogicheskih bases of development in pupils of intuitive thinking and stimulation of interest to acquisition of new knowledge, promoted prompt growth of interest to kognitivnomu to the approach in the American psychological and pedagogical science.

For 60th of the XX-th century change of priorities in formation philosophy where there is a change of accents with the subject-objective of the approach to the training, teacher based on a dominating role, on the subject - subject, assuming an active position of the pupil in its interaction with the teacher in the course of achievement of the educational purposes is necessary also. Here in these sociohistorical conditions there was G.Gardner's formation as scientist that should affect its scientific outlook.

The big influence on G.Gardner's formation as kognitivista was rendered by sights of known psychologist Eric Ericson, a meeting with Jean Piazhe, acquaintance to the theory of psychological development of the Lion Vygotsky,
Alexander Lurii's works on nejropsihologii, and also its participation in the scientific projects connected with research of problems of formation. Together with George Brunerom it co-operated in the project «the Person: the research program» (1965), with Nelsom Goodman in «the Zero Project» (1967). «The project of human potential» (1979) was Gardner's own project. Its theory of plural intelligence became result of the researches spent to an operating time in these projects, also.

In the course of the decision of the second research problem, the theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner has been considered. It is noticed, that the withdrawal from treatment of intelligence traditional on that moment, as abilities to logic reflexions was Gardner's merit. On the basis of the scientific supervision it has come to conclusion, that instead of uniform base mental abilities, there is a set of the various mental abilities meeting in various combinations. For G.Gardner intelligence not a certain device which is in a head, and the potential, which presence allows an individual to use the forms of thinking corresponding to concrete types of a context, caused by cultural features or the social environment. 8 intelligence allocated with it (linguistic, musical, logiko-mathematical, spatial, corporally-kinestetichesky, interpersonal and

Intrapersonal, naturalistic, ekzistentsionalnyj) do not depend one from another and operate in a brain as the independent systems, everyone by the rules.

It is underlined, that the intelligence opened by G.Gardner radically have changed representation about an intellectual profile of the pupil and have allowed to perceive it much more widely, and not just from the point of view logiko-mathematical intelligence as it was accepted earlier. Based on two main things, according to G.Gardner, principles: first, that all people possess all kinds of intelligence, and, in the-second just as all of us it is possessed by different appearance, unique features of temperament
And persons, also we possess also various intellectual profiles, the theory of plural intelligence creates conditions of an individualization of process of training. After all children as Gardner confirms, happen are clever differently, and it is possible to train their much bigger number effectively if their preferable ways of knowledge are considered at drawing up of programs, teaching and an estimation. It has pushed G.Gardner on the further research of intelligence. The theory of plural intelligence became a basis developed by it further of the pedagogical concept.

G.Gardner's research activity in educational projects the Spectrum and ATLAS, within the limits of reform of the American school, has allowed it to check up in practice efficiency of the theoretical views on training and methods of perfection of educational process at modern school. The project the Spectrum has shown possibility of revealing various kognitivnyh profiles even at children from 4 till 8 years that gives the chance to teachers to carry out more effectively educational process taking into account an individual intellectual profile of the pupil, and to parents and pupils to help to make a definitive choice in favour of this or that educational direction in which pupils can realise most full themselves further.

Within the limits of Project ATLAS efficiency of application of the theory of plural intelligence at training has found the acknowledgement not only among pupils of younger school age, but also among pupils of average and senior school. The project has shown, that an individualization of curricula, together with a withdrawal from the standardised tests in system otsenivanija knowledge of pupils, professional retraining of teachers in a context of an educational paradigm where requirements and possibilities of each child, close partner interaction of school and a family are considered, allows to transform school to that place in which are created
Conditions and possibilities for development of educational potential of each pupil.

The decision of the third problem has allowed us to reveal essence of the basic pedagogical views of G.Gardner concerning the purposes, problems, methods, the school education maintenance. The analysis of pedagogical sights of G.Gardner allows to assert, that the scientist managed to create the own pedagogical concept which essence is reflected in following positions:

1) there is a set of the various mental abilities meeting in various combinations, instead of uniform base mental abilities;

2) instead of negation or ignoring of these distinctions and conviction, that all pupils should think equally, in the course of training it is necessary to aspire to creation of the various informative possibilities as much as possible corresponding to an individual mental potential of pupils;

3) the organisation of educational process should be directed on creation of conditions in which pupils have possibility of acquisition of the experience demanding involving of various types of intelligence;

4) one of problems of school besides realisation of educational process taking into account an individual intellectual profile is the help in comprehension by pupils of their abilities for a support in the course of training on the "strong" parties and development "weak";

5) possibility of use in the course of training more than one way nauchenija;

6) approach change to otsenivaniju knowledge of pupils. Use of authentic methods otsenivanija (a portfolio, a method of projects, reports on development of types of intelligence), allowing to estimate real achievements of pupils and providing revealing sformirovannosti their skills in the situations as much as possible approached by a real life,
Daily or professional, instead of uzkonapravlennyh the standardised tests;

7) school education mission consists in formation at pupils of a disciplinary way of thinking (scientific, mathematical, historical, art), that allows to seize the studied material at level of original understanding and raises efficiency of use of the received knowledge further;

8) the total purpose of school education consists in realisation of training for understanding, that is formation at pupils of ability to apply the received knowledge at the decision of new problems or in new conditions.

The main difference of process of training in which basis G.Gardner's pedagogical concept lays, consists that pedagogical process is focused, first of all, on development of mind and abilities of each pupil at development of the school program while at use of traditional process of training mastering by the program maintenance occurs mainly through verbal and logiko-mathematical abilities of the pupil therefore training has no individual character and is calculated on the average pupil.

G.Gardner's pedagogical concept allows to create such conditions in the course of training in which the pupil, on the one hand, has an opportunity to learn, study something in that way and by what to it is closest, convenient and in which he feels as much as possible comfortably, and on the other hand, she helps to realise the abilities for a support on the strengths and development of the weak. Thereupon is very conformable to modern inquiries and requirements of the new domestic educational standards directed on an individualization and a humanisation of educational process that allows to use G.Gardner's pedagogical approaches as an effective remedy for realisation of these purposes and problems.

At the decision of the fourth research problem an important point is that the approaches offered by Howard Gardner to formation, did not remain within the limits of its narrowly theoretical views, and have found successful practical application in school education of the various countries of the world.

Studying of experience of schools of the USA and China, powers two most developed and influential today, shows, that introduction of the theory of plural intelligence in educational practice has a number of features:

- The deep understanding of this theory and methods of its practical application (creation of new educational programs, use of new methods of teaching and otsenivanija) is necessary;

- For each concrete educational institution at the heart of which work the theory of plural intelligence lays, the educational program corresponding to the educational purposes and problems of the given educational institution should be developed;

- The pedagogical concept created on the basis of the theory of plural intelligence, provides possibility of its realisation taking into account cultural features and traditions of the country in which it takes root;

- The considered pedagogical concept is characterised by the efficiency not only in general educational, but also at specialised schools for children with special educational possibilities, for example, differing backlog in intellectual razviti, that is very important in the conditions of orientation modern world and domestic about brazovanija on programs inkljuzivnogo formations with their orientation on availability of formation to everything recognising, that all children - individuals with various requirements for training.

Application of the theory of plural intelligence at training allows to build educational process so that were
Different styles of the training are considered, trained possibility to get the new experience demanding involving of different types of intelligence has been given, to learn, study something in that way and by what it is closest, convenient and in which they feel comfortably. It is process which helps both to development of pupils, and professional growth of the teacher. An indispensable condition for successful realisation of process of the training based on this theory, is involving of parents trained in educational process.

The approaches offered by Howard Gardner to training allow to create such educational environment where everyone is successful at school. The understanding formed in this environment trained strengths of the person and the abilities becomes the base of their further adult vital success.

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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic THE CONCLUSION:

  1. the Conclusion
  4. the Conclusion
  5. the Conclusion
  7. the Pathomorphologic conclusion
  13. the Conclusion