the purpose of studying, feature of construction of the maintenance and principles of teaching of orthodox culture in a context of introduction of a subject «the Law Divine»

Now, speaking about scientific and pedagogical features of teaching of this or that subject, mean technology of teaching, and until recently - a technique. One of the first definitions to concept "technique" of domestic pedagogics has been given in the end of XVIII century to N.I.Novikovym who understood it as a pedagogics part: « One of the major parts of this science would be made by the most precise indication as it is necessary to have the doctrine on distinction of sciences and knowledge which should deliver to youth, on distinction of pupils, their abilities, propensities and their future definition. This part of pedagogics nauchala us to an image uchenja, to the use of supervision and rules deduced from them. It would foreordain to us, as on landkarte, a way on which it is possible to go at youth manual that we could reach on this our subjects. This important part of pedagogics, on justice with it techniques distinguished and meant by a name, nowadays not is still what to be is forced »[170, with. 193-194].

Meaning a technique of teaching of any subject, it is accepted to give the characteristic of its following basic components: the teaching purpose, the subject maintenance, main principles (rules) of teaching of a subject, methods and tutorials and checks of results, organizational forms. In the work we also will consider methodical features of teaching of orthodox dogma and culture in Russia, following in their description behind the components allocated above. In the given paragraph it will be a question of that technique of teaching of orthodox culture which has developed in Russia to
Second half XIX centuries together with registration in domestic educational space of a subject «the Law Divine».

Value of a subject «the Law Divine» at pre-revolutionary school to second half XIX century, as shown above, was rather great. In 1884 the Sacred Synod in the Explanatory note to the teaching program «Law Bozhija» at tserkovno-parish schools, for example, specified, that it «makes their main subject, and all other subjects should be, whenever possible, are put from it in more or less close dependence» [40, with. 51]. To a subject «the Law Divine» huge educational significance was attached. Zakonouchitel and priest E.F.Sosuntsov noticed, that «the main subject of bringing up training, undoubtedly, the Law Divine as the religious knowledge embraces itself all parties of spiritual human life» [224 is, with. 5].

The course purpose «the Law Divine» was defined in second half XIX centuries, proceeding from its educational value. So, in the Explanatory note to the program under «Law Bozhiju» for tserkovno-parish schools it is much told about value of Church and tserkovno-parish schools in business of education and training of children, that is why also a subject «the Law Divine» as basic in a school course.

In the Explanatory note to the program under Law Bozhiju for initial schools of a problem of a course of Law Bozhija were designated more accurately, as suggestion to children «belief and morals substantive provisions, for development in them of religious feeling and prayful mood and for an explanation by it of the main actions of public divine service in which they take part» [24, with. 125].

The most exact definitions of the purposes and problems of a course of Law Bozhija have been given zakonouchiteljami. So, professor F. Nozer saw the teaching purpose of "Law Bozhija» that it «should give firm thorough knowledge of Christian belief, bring up a Christian direction and direct a Christian life» [171, with.

4]. The Primary goals to which should
To follow zakonouchitel, to reach this purpose, should be: 1) training of children so that «to approach to them saving trues» which they could acquire easily and precisely, «to keep in memory and to protect them against usual attacks and objections»; 2) education of children by a Christian life, i.e. «to operate on their hearts so that they firmly believed to Christian saving trues and stored them as rukovoditelnoe a rule for the thoughts and a life» [171, with. 5].

Pre-revolutionary zakonouchitel V.Davydenko noticed, that aim a course «the Law Divine» within the limits of an elementary education consists in that «with the childhood to confirm in a shower of the person of a rule of Christian belief, sensible concepts about Christian duties and exact value of the major parts of Divine service of orthodox church, i.e. they consist in dogma, a moral and in mastering of sense and spirit of Christian Divine service» [92, with. 118].

As the course maintenance «the Law Divine» was divided into 4 departments: Sacred history, a catechism, studying of prays, the doctrine about divine service (in some educational institutions studying of church history), as a rule, more accurately the purposes was added and problems have been registered concerning each department.

Studying of Sacred history had for an object (on F.Nozeru) «to inform firm and thorough knowledge of the most important facts domostroitelstva our rescue and lectures of the Lord» and «to clear live belief and a Christian life and spospeshestvovat it» [171, with. 104]. The given purpose inherently was conformable a teaching overall aim of "Law Bozhija», specified by the author whereas problems of studying of department of Sacred history consisted in the following: 1) to teach, that children were able understand saving trues from Sacred history clearly and definitely; 2) to edify in a Christian moral that children understood and remembered stories from Sacred history, and also resulted them in the close connection with the heart and voleju [171, with. 104].

Analyzing the Explanatory note to teaching of a course of Law Bozhija at tserkovno-parish schools, it is possible to tell, that the purpose of studying Sacred
Histories it is designated there rather vastly. Therefore it has been studied and formulated by us as acquaintance of pupils with the basic events, traditions and the customs of the Jewish people which have developed in history of the Old testament which should become the basis for studying of events from a life of Lord Jesus Christ and the saving trues presented by It in history of the New testament.

As catechism studying, as a rule, occurred under manuals «Rudiments of the Christian doctrine» or «the Vast Christian catechism», the confirmed and published Sacred Synod many zakonouchiteli treated acquaintance with the trues of the Christian belief which have been put in pawn in specified grants as the purpose of studying of a catechism. So, V.Davydenko considered, that the purpose of studying of a catechism consists «in an explanation to children the published St. Synod of a catechism and in simplification of its mastering» [92, with. 150]. F.Nozer noticed, that «catechism teaching has for an object to serve as the grant to thorough and firm knowledge of trues consisting in a catechism» [171, with. 65], thus having the second purpose of teaching of a catechism, conformable the purposes of teaching of all course of "Law Bozhija»: «to bring up in pupils live belief in spasitelnyja trues and jealousy about a Christian life» [171, with. 65].

The explanatory note to teaching of Law Bozhija in tserkovnoprihodskih schools the purpose of teaching of a catechism designated explanation of bases of orthodox dogma in a close connection with Sacred history so that as a result there was «a kind impression on heart of children». Also studying of a catechism by pupils should «accustom them to a reasoning that already they heard and know from history» [40, with. 57].

The purpose of studying of department of prays, according to martyr Faddeja (Uspensky), was not only their learning by heart «with explanations which do this or that pray ponjatnoju for mind», but mainly in that, «to raise in children prays of feeling corresponding to words, to form in them skill to a pray, to impart conscious and live requirement for it» [243, with. 115]. Such purpose has been designated in the Explanatory note to
To teaching of Law Bozhija in tserkovnoprihodskih schools: «Children should acquire to themselves pious skill to a pray that the pray has become nasushchnoju requirement of their soul, and they felt not quiet, not having executed its debt». Whereas the problem of department of studying of prays was in that «to accustom children to daily, the explanation of value of prays in which course the pupil will inform« literal value of not clear slavic words and the turns meeting in this or that pray »[40 is strict for them to obligatory execution of a pray during known time, by the known legalised rule», and also, with. 57-58]. All these explanations should occur in connection with corresponding events from Sacred history and bases of orthodox belief from a catechism.

Section studying «the Doctrine about divine service», according to an explanatory note of the program of Law Bozhija at tserkovno-parish schools, had for an object «to enter children into the nearest dialogue with Church» [40, with. 59]. F.Nozer formulated the purpose of studying of the given department so: «to erect Divine worship in reasonable service to the God and salutary usage» [171, with. 136]. But the fullest and capacious definition of the purpose of studying of the doctrine about divine services, in our opinion, was given by V.Davydenko: « The purpose of teaching of the doctrine about Divine service consists in that pupils after mastering of this subject felt live members of church, understood and understood, that is made during this or that Divine service, and in general knew an order of religious rites ». Problems of studying of the given department the author defined the following: 1) that pupils have learnt to understand church language; 2) have learnt to understand value of church religious rites; 3) have entered, as far as possible for them as laymen and on degree of the got education, in spirit of church religious rites; 4) felt requirement more and more to acquire the heart edification from temple Bozhija and all that in it is made, thus, having come to the main task - to aspiration to live under a shelter and constant influence of church [92, with. 158].

The purpose of studying of department about Church history was similar to the purpose of studying of Sacred history as in the maintenance leant against it:
«The church history means at training to Law Bozhiju to strengthen belief and to promote a Christian life in children» [171, with. 142]. German teacher M.K.Mjunh noticed, that all history of Christian religion, how much it can be prepodavaema to children, «should have that purpose that they with love were given to true and more and more became stronger in belief in Son Bozhija and in church, to It based» [TSit. On: 171, with. 128-129].

As problems of studying of department «Church History» in the Explanatory note of the program «Law Bozhija» at tserkovno-parish schools the following was designated: 1) the message of the most necessary data, primenitelno mainly to requirements of the simple people; 2) noegenesis through whom the sacred belief in the world and especially in our country (Russia) has extended; 3) noegenesis about splits and dissenters, on purpose nedopushchenija that among the orthodox people and church; 4) from church history it is desirable to teach data in connection with data from fatherland history [40, with. 56].

Thus, on the basis of the analysis of the purpose and problems of studying of a subject «the Law Divine» we can draw a conclusion that it is religious - an educational and religious-moral orientation had deep educational value in the course of training. The received theoretical knowledge of orthodox dogma (religion) were supported with practical participation in the Church life through which there was a religious-moral education of pupils.

The course maintenance «the Law Divine» from the beginning of occurrence of Old Russian schools within many centuries changed. However, the bases of the orthodox dogma which have been put in pawn in a subject «the Law Divine», and volume and the list of a studied material taken from books of the Scriptus, data from the Sacred Legend of Church, zhitijnoj literatures etc. varied not

The course maintenance «the Law Divine» is definitive was generated only in second half XIX centuries and in comparison with the last centuries included rather volume material for studying by pupils of elementary schools.

In 1884 Rules about tserkovno-parish schools in a course «the Law Divine» had been established the following obligatory departments for studying
(Sections) [40, with. 4]: Sacred bible history, a catechism, studying of prays, the doctrine about divine service. At some schools one more department - «Church History» was added.

Studying of Sacred bible history and catechism, and also Church history were called as a theoretical part «Law Bozhija», to practical studying of prays and the doctrine about divine service concerned. Both parts zakonouchenija it was possible to pass in common, but that and another in the consecutive order specified in programs and an explanatory note to «Law Bozhiju» for the tserkovno-parish schools published in 1886.

According to the program in a subject «the Law Divine» for initial schools of different departments and names (edition from February, 7th, 1897), each of the specified departments included the certain list that, necessary for studying (the Full list that programs «Law Bozhija» on each department see in the Appendix 1).

In department of Sacred bible history the basic events from the Old testament and the New testament were studied. Studying of Antiquated history was understood as studying of "history of the childhood of a human race» in which on living examples children should receive the first concepts «about the main duties, both family, and public», and also to see «here occurrence of many customs, establishments and ceremonies which remain till now in a family, public and church life» [40, with. 53].

However, the special attention at studying of Sacred history should be given to the New testament doctrine, «concerning events antiquated only in that measure in what it is necessary for understanding of the New testament and thus not to be limited to the message only the sketchy facts, and to specify, how much it is possible, on their communication with hristianskoju veroju, with domostroitelstvom our rescue» [24, with. 126].

Novozavetnaja the history was understood as «history of rescue of all people and each person in particular», «execution of all those expectations and hopes with which there lived righteous persons antiquated» [40, with. 54]. In Novozavetnoj histories
Narrations about miracles of the Savior were studied Jesus Christ terrestrial life, God sufferings and Nice Revival, and also an origin of Christian Church, the maintenance of the basic holidays and posts, attempt «thereby became to premise some data for studying of the Catechism and for an explanation of divine service and in particular a liturgy which is made in memoirs of the Lord of the Savior» [40, with. 55].

Studying of Sacred history was of great importance still because contained rather extensive material for moral edification (moral). During some periods of history of formation of Law Bozhija of a moral have been included in the obligatory program of schools and represented endurances of separate themes from Christian moral divinity. After subject formation in second half XIX centuries of a moral have entered into department of studying of Sacred history and a catechism.

So, zakonouchitel E.F.Sosuntsov marked: «At passage of a course of Sacred history each sacred-historical event, each bible person gives a material for edification, and this edification should be never lowered. Without moral conclusions the Sacred history loses the educational value and becomes meeting of separate more or less entertaining stories separate more and even the simple list of names and events» [224, with. 8].

In catechism department bases of orthodox dogma were studied: the doctrine about belief, hope and love Christian which have been explained in the Creed, a pray Dominical («Otche ours»), the doctrine about pleasure (pleasure precepts) and ten precepts.

In an explanatory note to the teaching program «Law Bozhija» at tserkovno-parish schools it was marked, what exactly the data in catechism department «are generalised and grouped, given to children from Sacred history, and are represented in communication and a mutual parity. The catechism should accustom them to a reasoning that already they heard and know from history» [40, with. 57].

At some one-class schools of a precept of pleasure were not a part of a catechism that is why they "rather conveniently" could «be studied at passage of Sacred History of the New testament», - martyr Faddej (Uspensky) [243 wrote, with. 125].

Besides, the catechism department, no less than department of Sacred history, had a strongly pronounced moral orientation: «the Catechism states in clear and clear lines of true of Christian belief, expectation, hope and morals rule» [40, with. 56-57].

Departments of studying of a catechism and Sacred history were, perhaps, the cores, as throughout long history of formation of a course «the Law Divine» a catechism (including bases of orthodox dogma) and Sacred history (and-or the basic events from it) were never excluded from the course program.

In department of studying of prays pupils got acquainted and learnt the basic daily prays and comprehended their sense, thus, it skill of a pray took root. According to rules to the teaching program «Law Bozhija» at tserkovno-parish schools, the section of studying of prays made a practical part zakonouchenija [40, with. 57].

Studying of prays was obligatory as was considered, that the pray for the orthodox Christian is the centre of its spiritual life, its core, it the following is told: «As in prays are expressed Christian beliefs, feelings and aspirations the child is capable to cause in hearts and souls of people reverential, pokajannye feelings in relation to the God. Therefore in« to the Explanatory note to the program in a subject of Law Bozhija for initial schools of different departments and names »about importance of studying of a pray, having studied their understanding accessible to the age, will receive the first elementary knowledge of Christian belief in full though and not extensive volume» [24, with. 125]. Studying of prays began on the first year of training, therefore the sense of prays not always was clear at once to children. However was considered, that «such pray, inspiring feeling of a duty, accustoms children to patience» [40, with. 57].

The section about divine service, along with department of studying of prays, made a practical part zakonouchenija as all received theoretical knowledge was supported in practice during presence on divine services and participations in them. The doctrine about divine service included explanation of various religious rites and ceremonies, studying of the internal and external device of a temple, ranks of clergy and their vestments, features and components of morning and evening divine services etc. At two-class church schools on the fourth year of training to them were added fuller data on divine services and govenii during Great and other posts under the Church charter, and also analysis of the general religious rites made at divine service. Besides data on the separate services specified in the program of teaching «Law Bozhija» at tserkovno-parish schools, martyr Faddej (Uspensky) marked necessity «to explain to children of reading from the Gospel on Sundays, the day before or shortly before these days and also to study tropari great holidays» [243, with. 138]. To divine service studying attached huge significance because considered, that after school education of children «will proceed chrez all their life in church» [40, with. 59]. Therefore the doctrine of children at school should be not other as on spirit of Church, and it became possible in the event that pupils directly in it would be, would live the Church life.

The department devoted to studying of Church history, was established at two-class church schools on the third year of training. Here studied formation of Church, act of Apostles, persecutions on Christians, Universal Cathedrals, division of churches, lives sacred, especially esteemed in Russia and influenced development of history of Russian church etc. In other elementary schools of all departments and names of data from church history have been included in department of studying of Sacred history and shined the basic events connected with an establishment of Christian Church.

Marking sufficient a narrow circle that from Church history in initial one-class schools, martyr Faddej (Uspensky) wrote:

«It is necessary to add studying of Sacred History with some data from history church - the general and Russian. For example, it is necessary to tell history of all dvunadesjatyh holidays, to inform some data on Universal Cathedrals etc.; from Russian history it is necessary to tell about the Christianity beginning in Russia, about a split origin, about the sacred places using the greatest respect in Russian people, etc.» [243, with. 129].

So, having studied features, structure and the maintenance of each of the specified sections of a subject «the Law Divine», we have come to conclusion, that each of them was taught in indissoluble communication with others. However, as on each section teaching techniques were developed, there was the uchebno-methodical literature, each section included the separate list that, necessary for studying during development of the program of a course «the Law Divine» etc., it is possible to assume, that it were some kind of separate educational modules.

The question of a choice of system of a statement of a teaching material under «Law Bozhiju» was one more methodical feature round which brisk disputes pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej were conducted and teachers. Allocated 3 basic of a way of a statement of a material: forward, joint and concentric.

The forward way of a statement of the program consisted in consecutive studying of sections of a course «the Law Divine». The given way has been described in an explanatory note to the program «Law Bozhija» for church schools by Position of 1884 and initially assumed studying of Sacred history in natural sequence, since Sacred history of the Old testament. Archpriest Michael Blagonravov, archpriest Peter Smirnov, archpriest Vasily Tikhomirov who in the works proved advantages of a statement of a material in strict sequence and irrationality of use of other methods were adherents of a forward method of studying of "Law Bozhija», explaining it is following features:

1) education of the person should occur gradually. For this reason education by trues of Divine revelation will occur more organically if the Old testament as it preceded the New testament is studied in the beginning;

2) the sacred history of the Old testament prepares pupils to Novozavetnomu to the doctrine. The antiquated history is «history of the childhood of the mankind, in particular close to heart of children and for them instructive. Here they from living examples should receive the first concepts about duties, both family, and public» [67, with. 26];

3) the system and sequence of a stated teaching material allows to concentrate on one subject, thereby facilitating its perception and understanding for pupils.

It is possible to present schematically forward way of a statement of a teaching material in the form of consistently studied themes of each section of a training course (fig. 1 see):

Fig. 1. The scheme of a forward way of a statement of a teaching material

However at all advantages of a forward way of a statement of a teaching material its lacks were marked also, basic of which that, beginning studying of Sacred history from the Old testament, pupils by the end of the first year of training absolutely knew nothing about Jesus Christ was. For this reason many zakonouchiteli suggested to adhere to different ways of a statement of a teaching material. So, E.F.Sosuntsov explained imperfection

Forward way that «the pupil who is staying at school within year and not knowing anything about Jesus Christ, on a forward method - the phenomenon quite natural, also is guilty in such ignorance not the pupil, not the teacher, not a doctrine subject, and it is unique a teaching method» [225, with. 88].

The joint way of training consisted in simultaneous studying «all parts of Law Bozhija in compliance with their interconnection under the maintenance» [67, with. 12]. And the Sacred history or a catechism was accepted to the basic subject, behind one of these subjects and the order of a statement of a teaching material peculiar to it was kept. As believed in due time zakonouchitel S.I.Shirsky, the joint way of teaching of "Law Bozhija» has been developed by the Dutch teacher, the author of the book «the Catechism or manual in Christian belief» (1704) which stated a material in such a manner that dogmatic and moral trues were stated in connection with bible history [262, with. 126]. Later the joint way has drawn to itself attention of other teachers and used the big popularity in Germany. With occurrence in Russia the initial schools subordinated to the Ministry of national education, the joint way of teaching of "Law Bozhija» has extended and at Russian school. In Russia the Sokolov and archpriest John Vetvenitsky were engaged in its working out archpriest Dimitry. Last has developed «the Management to teaching of law Bozhija for national schools, city schools, children's shelters and elementary employment with children of the house», left the first edition in 1872. The given grant used enough the big popularity among zakonouchitelej and served some kind of the introduction grant at the organisation of employment under the book of archpriest Dmitry Sokolova «Initial manual in orthodox Christian belief».

It is possible to present schematically joint way of a statement of a teaching material in the form of the several in parallel studied themes connected in key points (fig. 2 see).

Fig. 2. The scheme of a joint way of a statement of a teaching material

However and the joint way, according to some zakonouchitelej, had the lacks. So, archpriest Michael Blagonravov considered, that for the organisation of a joint statement of a teaching material many efforts are required. Zakonouchitel should be rather skilled and capable simultaneously to cover the program of all four sections «Law Bozhija» and to spend between them «organic parallels» in those key points in which they are connected. Certain pedagogical skill and abilities which some teachers can not possess in view of small pedagogical experience or specific features of the person [67 for this purpose is required, with. 24]. Besides, sometimes such communications were created is artificial, not having anything the general among themselves actually.

Also application of a joint way, according to priest E.F.Sosuntsova, somewhat breaks natural a studying course, for example, Old testament histories, putting «children in false relations unusual for them to teaching subjects» [225, with. 90]. As a result the statement of Sacred history occurs «not in the form of the separate, quite finished stories, and in the form of a philosophical review of events, that absolutely contradicts educational value of sacred history, as subject which operates not so much for memory and in general on the intellectual party
Pupils, how many on their imagination and on moral desires and feelings »[225, with. 90].

For this reason many zakonouchiteli offered one more way of a statement of a material which differed from two previous, - concentric.

The concentric way of a statement consisted that all teaching material broke on some kontsentrov, or the finished departments. In the first year of training the pupil stated themes of the first kontsentra in the most short kind. The next years training the same sections, but in more details, with gradual deepening and expansion of a studied material were studied. With reference to studying of "Law Bozhija» in some pre-revolutionary textbooks the following system with use of a concentric method was offered: in the first year the pivotal were studied «katehizicheskie trues», some selected stories from Sacred history, divine service is short spoke and the main prays were learnt. This knowledge represented the first kontsentr which made a basis of religious concepts and was the basis for the subsequent development of a teaching material [171, with. 16]. In manuals of pre-revolutionary Russia a concentric way priests Athanasius Sokolov, Evgenie Sosuntsov, zakonouchitel developed S.I.Shirsky, etc.

It is possible to present schematically concentric way of a statement of a teaching material in the form of the central basis of the knowledge, which pupils should receive on the first year of training and within two next years when this knowledge is more and more filled with sense, go deep and extend (fig. 3) see.

Fig. 3. The scheme of a concentric way of a statement of a teaching material

Some zakonouchiteli and priests, in particular N.N.fear, noticed, that the material statement will be the most effective, «at which all training to Law Bozhiju - taken as a whole - represents strictly gradual ascension from simple and the basic to difficult and to details, from easy and accessible to more difficult» [231, with. 27]. But the given way of a statement define, more likely, as in common-concentric as, according to the author of the technique, all parts «Law Bozhija» should be stated kontsentrami, but being grouped at any one subject in every year training. According to archpriest Michael Blagonravova, the given way had no time for the end is developed by the author and demanded bolshego judgement [67, with. 18].

Among the basic advantages of the given way mark the following: 1) conformity to the basic didactic rules (principles) availability and course (sequence), an ascension from a lung to difficult, from simple - to difficult; 2) pupils already on the first year of training get acquainted with Jesus Christ life, thereby is given the chance «to educate children Gospel light, soul them to warm ljuboviju a cross, heart to clear word Bozhiim, since the very first days uchenja at school» [225, with. 94].

As the basic lack of a concentric way considered possible absence at pupils of interest to a subject in view of studying from year to year the same themes, let and with deepening and expansion of knowledge.

It is important to notice, that at all advantages and lacks of this or that system in practice any way has not been sustained in the pure state. As a rule, everyone separate zakonouchitel during a material statement aspired to adhere to one certain way. However at teaching material construction to a greater or lesser extent there were all three ways of the statement, one of which prevailed only at certain stages of development of a teaching material.

Let's consider, what principles of training underlay course teaching «the Law Divine». For this purpose we will make definition of concept «training principles», leaning on achievements of modern pedagogical thought. The domestic teacher, professor M.A.Danilov defined training principles as «starting positions which underlie the maintenance, the organisations and carrying out of process of training at school», and noticed, that they follow, on the one hand, from the purposes and the scientific maintenance of training at school, and age and psychological features of pupils - with another, taken in their unity »[106, with. 118]. According to V.A.Slasteninu in didactics it is accepted to understand initial didactic positions which reflect course of objective laws and laws of process of training as training principles and define its orientation on development of the person [181, with. 205]. I.P. podlasyj as training principles understands «the substantive provisions defining the maintenance, organizational forms and methods of educational process according to its overall aims and laws» [192, with. 710].

The term «a training principle» does not meet in works pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej as during the considered period has not entered yet into the kategorialno-conceptual device of a pedagogical science, but in implitsitnom a kind training principles are looked through at the analysis of works of pre-revolutionary scientists-methodologists. Characterising principles of training to Law Bozhiju in
To pre-revolutionary school, we will be guided in their understanding by three resulted above definition. The analysis of corresponding works has allowed to allocate following principles of training against which leant pre-revolutionary zakonouchiteli:

1. A principle hristotsentrichnosti.

With reference to teaching and educational system the principle hristotsentrichnosti means, that as the higher moral educational ideal Jesus Christ serves and the primary goal in the course of education - to help the child to come nearer to This Ideal, to assimilate to It through spiritual and moral work on self that «the image Divine has revealed in a shower of the child in all force and completeness» [101, with. 198].

In uchebno-methodical grants under «Law Bozhiju» at pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej the principle hristotsentrichnosti is basic. Practically in all grants intended for pupils, the basic and very first concepts for acquaintance were representations about the God. Even if on the first year of training in initial schools (in particular, being in department of the Ministry of national education) the doctrine about a pray at first pupils got acquainted with concept about the God as to the Sacred Trinity as children should know was studied to Whom they will address in the prays.

Later at acquaintance to history of the New testament pupils to the full learnt about Jesus Christ life and Its doctrine which is the centre of the Christian doctrine and it is necessary in a basis of system of Christian education.

2. A principle ekklezialnosti or ekkleziotsentrichnosti (from grech. ekklesia - "church") defines the relation of the person to church in which the beginnings votserkovlenija are connected, sobornosti and liturgichnosti. The given principle also inseparably linked with a principle hristotsentrichnosti as the Christ and Its Church are connected, as «a body and its members, a rod and branches, the husband and the wife, and in pedagogical sense, as the teacher, school and pupils» [115, with. 57].

Votserkovlenie means by itself process of gradual occurrence during a life of Church of the person, «living spirit of the Christ's Church, consecrated with its sacraments, the decision loving it and guided by them in all affairs» [115, with. 57].

Sobornost consists in a unification, in a generality, in completeness of the human life united by this beginning which is shown in «sorabotnichestve the person good luck, other person and the world as a whole» [102, with. 62].

Liturgichnost it is connected with Evharistiej (Sacrament of Communicating) which is made behind the Divine Liturgy and in which it is hidden «and all secret of Church, and completeness of Christian understanding of a life» as secrets of dialogue and a joyful meeting "face to face" good luck [52, with. 141-142].

With reference to pedagogical process in orthodox pedagogical culture the principle ekklezialnosti is an integral part of teaching and educational system as only through Church here it is considered possible to grow spiritually and is moral the developed person.

At pre-revolutionary school the principle ekklezialnosti underlay a course of "Law Bozhija» as one of the primary goals of a course was to impart the pupil aspiration and skill to live under a shelter and constant influence of Church [92, with. 158]. In a course of "Law Bozhija» the whole department which, as a matter of fact, represented the separate practical module - the doctrine about divine service has been devoted a practical life of Church. Mainly within the limits of the given department, and also other departments of a course «Law Bozhija», the after-hour activity of pupils directed on studying of orthodox culture and occurrence during a life of Church, and also organisation of tserkovno-parish schools as a whole united and brought up at pupils of the beginning votserkovlennosti, sobornosti and liturgichnosti.

The beginnings sobornosti were present practically at all uchebnoyovospitatelnoj activity of pupils: in the general prays within educational day, collective educational and after-hour actions, joint presence at a temple on divine services, singing in chorus on a choir, participation in sacraments of a confession and communicating etc.

Liturgichnost as the principle basis ekklezialnosti was carried out through participation of pupils in sacrament of sacred communicating in which, according to metropolitan Ilariona (Alfeeva), the person soul and a body incorporates to the Christ and all Its Church [120, with. 79]. In a temple, after joint participation in divine service, singing on a choir and acceptances of Sacred Communicating that generality good luck, as Church and with each other (differently, sobornost) on which all is constructed Divine Evharistija is felt.

Thanking these two beginnings - sobornosti and liturgichnosti - occurred gradual votserkovlenie pupils of pre-revolutionary schools which was necessary in a basis of all teaching and educational activity tserkovnoyoprihodskih schools, and also all elementary schools of other departments where the course «the Law Divine» was studied.

3. A principle of strong mastering of Christian trues (learning).

Being one of obshchepedagogicheskih principles, the principle of strong mastering of knowledge comprises empirical and theoretical aspects on maintenance of strong mastering of knowledge and development of informative forces of pupils. With reference to lessons of "Law Bozhija» at pre-revolutionary school the given principle assumed use of a certain experience of studying of dogma and doctrines of the belief, strong mastering of Christian trues promoting maintenance.

Pre-revolutionary zakonouchiteli marked: for strong mastering of trues of Christian belief by pupils it is necessary, that they «were precisely embodied in a shower of pupils», have become «neotemlemoju the property of soul of children» [171, with. 77]. With that end in view zakonouchitel F.Nozer suggested to organise at the first stage «strong mastering» Christian trues children by giving of small volume of the information, a careful explanation of the most difficult moments of a lesson, and also literal learning of some Christian trues by heart whereas they can be easily deformed in words, and, hence, and in representations of children.

At the second stage followed organise «frequent repetition» Christian trues and constant returning to them at the subsequent lessons. For this purpose it was important at summarising in the end of a lesson to repeat the studied material and to come back to it in the beginning of following employment, after passage of the main sections of a course and in the end of an academic year. By the most important and difficultly remembered moments followed come back regularly while they will not be acquired by pupils.

Thus followed constantly to use means of presentation which will promote stronger mastering of a difficult material.

4. A presentation principle.

The principle of presentation within the limits of teaching and educational process has been noted for the first time in XVII century by the well-known Czech teacher, the author of "Great didactics» JA.A.Komensky and meant the following: «it is necessary, on how many only it is possible, to involve in perception external feelings. For example, the hearing needs to be connected to sight, language (speech) with activity of hands. Hence, that it is necessary to know, it is necessary not only to tell, that it has been apprehended by hearing, but same it is necessary to sketch, that through sight the subject was embodied in imagination. From the party, let pupils immediately study all apprehended to say aloud and to express activity of hands. It is not necessary to recede from one subject while it will not be embodied enough in ears, eyes, in mind and memory» [139, with. 349].

Differently, JA.A.Komensky noticed, that all studied material should be perceived different sense organs, whenever possible, several that the teaching material "seized" is better. The given principle has been designated by the author as «a gold rule of didactics».

Many pre-revolutionary teachers expressed presentation application in studying of orthodox dogma at lessons of "Law Bozhija» (priests: Michael Blagonravov, Vladimir Pevtsov, Athanasius Sokolov; zakonouchiteli V.Davydenko, F.Nozer, N.N.fear, S.I.Shirsky, etc.). So, F.Nozer wrote: «to reach clear and certain understanding of trues of Christian belief,
It is necessary to do constantly evident general provisions and supersensual concepts of a catechism », and the best sources for that organisation are the Scriptus, events and the phenomena from Church history and lives sacred [171, with. 74].

As the means of presentation offered to use at lessons of "Law Bozhija» zakonouchiteljami pre-revolutionary schools, the following was offered: maps (illustrating bible geography), historical pictures (illustrating events of Sacred history), and also a number of receptions of verbal presentation: examples, historical stories, comparisons and similarity, contrasts, instructions on visible actions and consequences of the reasons, etc.

Most full and in detail in the literature studied by us use of such evident means, as bible maps and historical pictures which illustrated events of Sacred history has been described. Besides, many zakonouchiteljami had been described recommendations to use of visual aids at lessons. As a rule, they concerned the evident means used during studying of section of Sacred history, in particular uses of pictures. So, archpriest Michael Blagonravov noticed, that «it is better to teach Sacred history without textbooks, than without pictures», thus warning what to use them it is necessary «with care», carefully choosing images which truly correspond to events of Sacred history and also to present to their pupils, causing at them at contemplation of a picture feeling of respectful respect to the sacred image [67, with. 148]. Martyr Faddej (Uspensky) underlined, that «it is not necessary to use pictures to the story, and to use them only for bolshego explanations and napechatlenija the story», thereby supplementing the story visually [243, with. 17].

In some manuals for pupils, for example, «Manual in Law Bozhiem» archpriest Alexander Svirelina, «Manual in Law Bozhiem» archpriest Apollonija Temnomerova, «Lessons under Law Bozhiju for younger age» priest Michael Smirnova and others, as a rule,
Events from Sacred history of New and Shabby Precepts, and also some prays were illustrated, on illustrations to which pictures of praying adults and children, a guardian angel which is protecting the child and being near to it during a pray (the Appendix 2 see) were represented, etc. separate parts of a temple and some divine service subjects in doctrine department about divine service, for example, a throne in an altar and that on it is during fulfilment of the Divine Liturgy (see the Appendix 3) were besides, illustrated. The department of studying of a catechism, as a rule, was not illustrated, except for a theme about ten precepts Divine to which frequently there corresponded an illustration with the image of prophet Moiseja holding tables with precepts G ospodnimi.

5. A principle of communication of the theory with practice.

The principle of communication of the theory with practice in the basis leans against many philosophical, pedagogical and psychological positions which in the basis have a following natural basis: efficiency and quality of training are checked, prove to be true and go practice.

Analyzing the istoriko-pedagogical experience devoted to a question of communication of the theory with practice during studying verouchitelnyh of disciplines, we have come to conclusion, that in the pre-revolutionary uchebno-methodical literature it was shined rather widely and to it paid the big attention practically all zakonouchiteli. F.Nozer wrote, that the statement of religious trues should be practical: «the Christian doctrine needs to be applied to thinking and activity of children» that children were accustomed to apply Christian trues «in a management of the life» [171, with. 92]. The given statement generalises ideas of many pre-revolutionary zakonouchitelej.

About value of communication of the theory with practice at studying of orthodox culture spoke in the publications such pre-revolutionary zakonouchiteli as archpriest Michael Blagonravov, professor F. Nozer, zakonouchitel, etc. Especially it concerned V.Davydenko of such sections of a course «Law Bozhija» as the doctrine about divine service and studying of prays. The theoretical knowledge received during studying of given sections, pupils supported
Practical by, being present on divine service or personally participating in a pray. Thus, according to V.Davydenko, there was «a practical studying of educational business and self-education» [92, with. 111].

Professor F. Nozer, considered, that presence of children on divine service has huge value in business of their training. «Divine service does, further, evident great secrets of belief. The word, singing, music and an icon, is all a rich source of formation of mind and heart», - wrote F.Nozer [171, with. 142]. Archpriest John Vetvenitsky in the «the Management to teaching of Law Bozhija for national schools» also noticed, that at studying of the device of a temple and its accessories, various religious rites and the ceremonies used at divine service, children should be driven in church with etoju the purpose and to ask about all seen there [see 77]. Thus, the theoretical knowledge received at lessons of "Law Bozhija», pre-revolutionary zakonouchiteli tried to support with practical experience of children and presentation. Sometimes, on the contrary, went by reception of practical experience which was supplemented or explained by the theory.

Besides, observance of a principle of communication of the theory with practice concerned and a moral life of pupils. After all the primary goal of a course «the Law Divine» consisted in that the received knowledge of Christian belief and orthodox dogma did not remain simply theoretical material, and have been applied in a daily life and, moreover, became a certain management for a life of pupils. «Teaching of Christian trues should be practical, i.e. zakonouchitel is obliged to apply constantly them by a moral life of children», - wrote F.Nozer [171, with. 91].

The Sacred history, in particular the New testament was the best source for studying of the moral law. In it the Christian doctrine about morals which was then supported with some data from a catechism to the full revealed. And the primary goal zakonouchitelja consisted in shifting this knowledge on practice, in
Ordinary life of pupils in which they would be guided by the Christian moral law.

6. An availability principle.

The availability principle in pedagogics assumes, that training should occur at sufficient level of difficulty, taking into account real possibilities of trainees, without intellectual, psychoemotional and physical overloads and during too time the teaching material should not be excessively simplified not to reduce interest to the doctrine and to promote development of pupils.

Addressing to istoriko-pedagogical works, it is possible to meet different opinions concerning observance of a principle of availability in training to religion bases. Some authors, for example ZH.ZH.Russo, believed, that religious education should begin when at children rational judgements will develop and they can understand various religious trues, in particular, after ten years.

F.E.Beneke considered, that small children at all should not interpret Christianity doctrines as owing to their age features they cannot comprehend their essence and will represent them in a false kind that will give soil for superstitions and prejudices which will eclipse subsequently mind and become an obstacle for an eminence by an is true-religious life [61, with. 344-345].

Pre-revolutionary domestic zakonouchiteli held opposite opinion. Referring on svjatootecheskie doctrines, they considered, that religion it is not simple knowledge, and the relation of the person to the religion maintenance, therefore religious education, no less than moral, it is not necessary to postpone till full intellectual development of the person, and it is necessary to begin at the beginning consciousness displays in the child. In V.Davydenko's this occasion wrote: «the Divine doctrine of the Christ has that wonderful property, that it is equally accessible to minds infantile, as well as is inexhaustible and for the deepest thinkers» [92, with. 92]. For this reason practice of training of children of younger age to bases of orthodox dogma and the moral law
It has been entered and remained at tserkovno-parish schools, since time of occurrence of the first Old Russian schools in Russia. At pre-revolutionary schools studying of "Law Bozhija» also began with younger age, in particular since the very first year of training of children at school. And at initial training of children it was supposed, that they already have initial knowledge of the orthodox belief, received in a family.

Besides it, the availability principle in studying of orthodox dogma assumed the account of such factors as degree of intellectual development of children, their religious requirements, the maintenance of the religious trues, which message demands course and the account of possibility of their perception during the certain age period.

7. A principle of a highly moral personal example of the teacher.

Features of perception of a personal example of the teacher children are caused by specificity of development of the children's nature, psychoemotional and behavioural sphere in which course there is a modelling of behaviour of the adult and acceptance of its world outlooks. For this reason the role adult (the parent, the tutor, the teacher) in teaching and educational process has huge value. Outstanding Russian teacher K.D.Ushinsky wrote: «In education all should be based on the person of the tutor because educational force streams only from a live source of the human person. No charters and the programs, any artificial organism of an institution, were as though artful it is thought up, cannot replace the person in education business» [242, with. 324].

The teacher, especially in an elementary school, is the basic figure, authority for pupils, therefore its preparation demands not only competence and pedagogical professionalism, but also highly moral qualities of the person which would be an example for pupils. After all any instructions «the bad tutor... Will not make its good and will not replace it in no event» [242, with. 324]. That is why in school teaching and educational
Process the important issue, according to K.D.Ushinsky, is a correct choice of the teacher.

In practice of pre-revolutionary schools of the person zakonouchitelja very big attention was paid. For this reason it is primary zakonouchiteljami representatives of clergy, as a rule, priests as "carriers" of the moral law were. High demands were made to personal qualities zakonouchitelej. So, N.H.Vessel noticed, that zakonouchitel «there should be a person fair, kind, clever, a firm moral life, istinnoyoverujushchy and able simply and warmly to talk to pupils about trues of religion at lessons of Law Bozhija so that pupils saw and felt, that he really believes in to what learns» [76, with. 198-199]. In the absence of those, all aspirations and desires zakonouchitelja can lead to opposite results, marked V.Davydenko. So, «instead of sincere religiousness external hypocrisy can develop in pupils, instead of loving sostradatelnosti there can be a religionism, instead of deep, hot devotion cold indifference and disbelief» [92 can capture a soul, with. 110].

Therefore one of the qualities of the person first on the importance zakonouchitelja marked religiousness. Only deeply believing person following precepts Divine and observing moral law, is capable to inform religious knowledge to children and as sacred just John Kronshtadtsky marked, to "light" in their souls a belief spark. Pre-revolutionary zakonouchitel, archpriest Konstantin Steshenko wrote, what exactly «the person zakonouchitelja, deeply got by the evangelical beginnings and preaching Christ and Its truth, and an inspired, fiery word lighting young heart and the pure life, calling young flock to go also in the footsteps of the Christ. And there, where there is this inspired, strong word where there is] a brightness of the presented nature grasping a children's soul by heart-felt tones and paints of speech, and also in width of Christian making - there hristianizatsija the pupil - the childhood is created by most this person, it
Moral shape and sacred affairs »[11]. It really teacher's gift which is given not to everyone zakonouchitelju but to which it is necessary to aspire as to an ideal, supporting with its methods, forms and tutorials. Activity of Sacred Cathedrals and pre-revolutionary congresses zakonouchitelej has been in many respects devoted this question.

The high morals of the teacher assumed also love to the child and its respect as Godlike developing person. So, professor F. Nozer noticed, that one of means for preservation of love and respect for children in the course of training to Law Bozhiju is «tender and full advantages the reference with children»: «Zakonouchitel should have always before itself an image of the Christ which has called for Itself children with polnoju laskovostiju, concluded in The embraces, assigned to them blessing hands» [171, with. 53-54]. Also the author noticed, that no rough words, the humiliating reference, abuse and threats should be used zakonouchitelem, and the main thing, he should not forget «supernatural advantage of the child» and Jesus Christ words: «Who accepts one such child in My name, that accepts Me» (Mf. 18:5).

Martyr Faddej (Uspensky) also noticed, that the principle of love and respect for the child in the course of education and training is rather significant. Moreover, he named love to children «the main quality of the teacher on calling» [243, with. 62] and, opening the given principle, understood love to children as Christian, sacrificial love in its distinctive qualities, such as a constancy, patience, samootverzhenie. Such love «trusts all, all hopes, i.e. Does not lose hope of correction of children which consider even incorrigible because trusts, as in them any spark of good which can ignite has remained. Being necessary in education business, and samootverzhenie not less the great value has such patience and in training business» [243, with. 66].

Thus, we had been considered the purpose of studying, feature of construction of curriculums and principles of teaching of a subject «the Law Divine» which, in our opinion, implitsitno underlay teaching
The given course at pre-revolutionary school. On the basis of the executed analysis we have come in a conclusion, that the purpose of teaching of a course «the Law Divine» in second half XIX centuries becomes the statement of bases of orthodox belief and Christian morals which will direct a life of pupils, and also to develop in them religious feeling, prayful mood, aspiration to live under a shelter of Church and the realised understanding of value of participation in a life of Church and its basic aspects, in particular orthodox divine service that speaks about a religious-educational and religious-moral educational orientation of the given course.

The subject maintenance basically included four departments which assumed studying: Sacred history - the basic events from the Old testament and the New testament describing a life and the doctrine of Jesus Christ and previous It of centuries-old events; a catechism - the bases of orthodox dogma including the doctrine about belief, hope and love Christian which have been explained in the Creed, a pray Dominical («Otche ours»), precepts of pleasure and ten precepts; studying of prays - the cores daily molitvoslovy, their values for the purpose of formation of skill of a pray; the doctrine about divine service - explanation of every possible aspects of orthodox divine service and all that is connected with it: religious rites and ceremonies, the temple device, ranks of clergy and their vestments, feature and components of divine services, posts etc. Thus, in the course maintenance «the Law Divine» basically have been included constant components of orthodox culture: The Scriptus, prayer books, svjatootecheskaja the literature (znanievyj a component), and also aspects of divine service practice (a sacral component).

The basic ways of construction of programs of a course «the Law Divine» were: forward, consisting in consecutive studying of sections of a course «the Law Divine»; joint, consisting in simultaneous (parallel) studying of all departments «Law Bozhija» in compliance with their interconnection under the maintenance; concentric, consisting in representation of the educational
Material on kontsentram (departments) in every year training with subsequent more detailed both gradual deepening and expansion of the studied.

The concept of a principle of training of second half XIX - the XX-th century beginning was not included yet into the kategorialno-conceptual device of pedagogics, however the analysis of works zakonouchitelej has shown, that on implitsitnom level with it operated and suggested to carry out process of teaching of orthodox culture as with a support on already known achievements and pedagogics recommendations (availability of a material, presentation, durability of mastering), and developing specific to teaching of orthodox culture of installation (a teaching rule). Among the last we will allocate: the principle hristotsentrichnosti, consisting in acceptance Jesus Christ by the higher moral educational ideal, the organisation of the help to the child on purpose to come nearer to this Ideal, to assimilate to It through spiritual and moral work on self for disclosing of an image Bozhija in a shower of the child; Principle ekklezialnosti (ekkleziotsentrichnosti), defining the relation of the person to church in which the beginnings votserkovlenija are integrally connected, sobornosti and liturgichnosti; a principle of communication of the theory with the practice, consisting in practical application of the studied religious trues in a moral life and participation of pupils in Church activity; a principle of a highly moral personal example of the teacher, consisting in high moral and moral shape zakonouchitelja which basis is religiousness (sincere belief of the person), implanted at deep level in the person of the person who is "sample" by which children will be guided.

The given bases have put in pawn the further making techniques of teaching of "Law Bozhija», in particular, organizational forms, methods and tutorials.


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A source: Stanovskaya Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017. 2017

More on topic the purpose of studying, feature of construction of the maintenance and principles of teaching of orthodox culture in a context of introduction of a subject «the Law Divine»:

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  2. methods and means of teaching of orthodox culture
  3. actualisation of domestic experience of teaching of orthodox culture in modern educational practice
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  7. Stanovsky Tatyana Alekseevna. Teaching of orthodox culture at schools of Russia in second half XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Moscow - 2017, 2017
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