the theory of plural intelligence of Howard Gardner as a basis of its pedagogical views

The theory of plural intelligence developed by Howard Gardner became alternative to a so-called "classical" sight at intelligence as to ability to logic reflexions. Gardner's merit was that it has departed from approaches dominating on that moment to definition of an essence and concept of intelligence.

Existing to 70th HH century nonprofessional theories, the standard psychometric approach, the theory of the general intelligence, and also pljuralizatsionnyj and hierarchical approaches in many respects dispersed from sights of the scientist at intelligence. So, for example, in nonprofessional theories in general there was no scientific definition of intelligence. In these theories for intelligence definition such terms as "clever", "silly", "quick-witted" were used, that was quite sufficient for a usual life, but not for the scientific environment.

Application of the standard psychometric approach gave tehnichesko e intelligence definition for what the methods of testing IQ for the first time developed in the beginning of the XX-th century Alfredom Bin and Teodjulem Simonom were used. Tests at first were widely put to reveal into practice children with a delay in development, and also correctly to distribute on classes depending on their level. In the subsequent as Gardner marks, they began to be used almost «with maniacal aspiration to estimate people in different spheres of a life of a society whether it be school, army, civil establishment and even social dialogue» [39, with. 65].

It is necessary to underline, Gardner's position in this connection, convinced, that the intelligence should not be defined only by short answers to the compressed questions as application of such testing does not give possibility
For a real estimation of mental abilities of the person, and only allows to speak about possible successes in study.

As G.Gardner specifies, the scientists adhering to the general theory of intelligence (C.Spirmen, L.Terman) considered intelligence as uniform general ability to create concept and to solve problems. They asserted, that «the group of points in tests reflects uniform base factor of" the general intelligence »» [39, с.25]. In Gardner's opinion, people possess not one intelligence, «being especial beings, we, people are allocated by a number concerning independent intelligence» [39, with. 25].

Unlike the scientists who are holding the opinion about presence of the general factor of intelligence, representatives pljuralizatsionnogo the approach (L.Terstoun, J. Gilford) as G.Gardner fairly marks, proved existence of set of factors, or components, intelligence, and representatives of the hierarchical approach (R.Kettell, F.Vernon) have revealed existence of hierarchical communications between these factors [39, с.25].

Thus, positions of the given approaches most of all corresponded with the theory of plural intelligence of G.Gardner. But unlike Gardner's theory which was based on opening in neurology, histories of evolution and cross-country-cultural comparisons, these approaches did not connect intelligence with biology, and were exclusively empirical, «it is everything as Gardner specifies, only the general result of points in tests, anything more» [39, с.374]. All it has not allowed representatives of the given approaches to allocate various kinds of intelligence which were defined subsequently by Howard Gardner.

Further Howard Gardner has formulated two new approaches, used for definition of concept intelligence: contextual and distributive. The given approaches have received the development in works of various scientists. So the contextual approach is reflected in Robert Shtenberga's theory, according to which as G.Gardner specifies, «by a component
Intelligence sensitivity of the person to the varying maintenance of world around »[39, с.26] is.

Ideas of the distributive approach from which point of view the intelligence of the person is inherent both to a cranium, and artefacts and people surrounding it, has equally received the development in the distributive theory which principles are formulated and stated in the book of J. Salomona «Distributive knowledge». Nevertheless, modern methods of diagnostics are not made and with their help it is difficult to define potential of human development or achievement in various scientific and creative areas. As Gardner confirms, «the problem concerns not so much technology of testing, how many how we have got used to understand intelligence, and also our strongly taken roots sights at this question» [39, с.52]. But without the profound and updated understanding of human intelligence it is impossible to develop more exact methods of its diagnostics and development.

It is necessary to notice, that to Howard Gardner in the scientific world attempts to allocate the kinds of intelligence based exclusively on the logic analysis and processing of results of testing (R.Stenberg, R.Kettell, J Gilford) were already made. However Gardner considers, «that we require better klas sifikatsii intelligence of the person, than that, that is at us now» [39, с.112]. Such requirement is connected by that as a result of modern scientific researches, cross-country-cultural of supervision and studying of educational process there are new data on intelligence which demand consideration and classification. Besides it interest to educational programs which are directed on development of intelligence of the person amplifies and use so-called «anticipating training». But at present, as Gardner marks, «there is no adequate system of sights at intelligence of the person» [39, с.53]. Thus, a main objective of the theory of plural intelligence of Howard Gardner was attempt to create qualitative classification
Kinds of intelligence which will be useful to many researchers and experts, having allowed them to understand more deeply, that such intelligence.

Classification of intelligence at Howard Gardner is based on results of researches of the child prodigies, the presented people, patients with brain traumas, «scientific idiots» (the individuals, suffering intellectual development infringements, but any separate abilities showing thus amazing development), normal children, normal adults, experts in certain areas and representatives of various cultures.

Allocation by scientist of eight kinds of intelligence became result of the analysis of these researches. One of most r asprostranennyh, according to Gardner, is the linguistic intelligence [39, с.125]. To the basic aspects of the given intelligence it is possible to carry the phenomena connected with speech and words, for example, understanding of sense of words, sensitivity to their shades, ability to feel the sounds making words, possession of rules of an arrangement of words, and also understanding of rules according to which speech is used.

Value of speech for human life is difficult for overestimating. It is the integral making life of people. To the most important, according to Gardner, to aspects of use of speech concerns: rhetorical aspect, i.e. possibility to use speech to induce other people to action [39, с.130]. As it is possible to carry presence to one of speech characteristics in it of mnemonic potential, i.e. ability to use it for information storing.

Gardner considers, that the third, not less a prominent aspect - speech use at an explanation. Most brightly this aspect is shown in educational process as the most part in it is occupied with use of oral and written speech [39, with. 130].

It is necessary to notice, that pupils with strongly pronounced linguistic intelligence possess good verbal memory and the rich lexical
Stock. For them are characteristic love to reading, the letter, the composition and telling of various histories. Such pupils is better acquire a material which moves in the form of lecture, story, discussion. On the studied theme they are recommended to allow to write, for example, creative tasks the story, a poem or article, and also to describe the reflexions on the studied theme in a diary.

In classification of intelligence Howard Gardner allocates with the following musical intelligence. To musical intelligence, according to the scientist, ability of the person to distinguish sense and value in certain sequence of sounds »[39, с.150] concerns«, and also to use these sequences for dialogue. Studying of musical intelligence, according to Gardner, helps not only to understand feature of music, but «and to explain interrelation of these abilities with other kinds of intelligence» [39, с.151]. So, for example, both linguistic and musical intelligence in many respects depend on hearing and a voice and do not depend on physical objects in the world. Besides it both linguistic and musical abilities give in to improvement. Considering communication of musical intelligence with linguistic, it is necessary to pay attention that the pupils allocated with well developed musical intelligence, are easier trained in foreign languages as easily catch and copy melodiku language.

Except communication of musical intelligence with linguistic, according to the scientist, there are communications between musical and corporally-kinesteticheskim intelligence as «many composers underlined close connections between music and language of a body or gestures» [39, с.175]. Gardner, also allocates communication between musical and personal intelligence on a basis «everywhere recognised communication between musical execution and feelings of the person» [39, с.176].

Thus, for successful achievement of the educational purposes, at training of pupils with musical intelligence it is necessary to accompany
Teaching material the verses, training songs, a various sort rhymings and also to use music for regulation of mood of pupils.

One more kind of the intelligence, which Gardner defines as logikoyomatematichesky [39, with. 182], differs from the previous kinds of intelligence as it does not depend from sluhogolosovoj spheres and it is connected with the world of physical objects, its basis is ability to distinguish a significant problem and to solve it. According to Gardner, using the given kind of intelligence, «the person studies to understand actions which can be executed over objects, relations between these actions, statements which can be put forward about the valid or potential actions, and also communication between these statements» [39, с.182]. The scientist considers, that for people with the developed logical-mathematical intelligence such lines as are inherent: love to the abstraction, the developed scepticism, ability to work with long chains of conclusions and also to find and draw analogies [39, s.192-195].

It is necessary to notice, that pupils with such type of intelligence possess excellent analytical skills and skills of the decision of problems. They well reflect and set logically built questions. At training of pupils with logiko-mathematical intelligence the most effective such ways of presentation of a material as will be expressed: mathematical games, tasks for a finding of discrepancy or an error in the offered material, and also research experiments.

The Logical-mathematical intelligence is one of base intelligence and plays the important role in development of history of mankind. Now, characterised by development of computer technologies, presence developed logiko-mathematical intelligence becomes more and more important. Nevertheless, Gardner considers, «that logiko-mathematical is one of intelligence kinds, the skill perfectly approaching for the decision
Certain problems, but at all not surpassing other kinds of intelligence »[39, с.220].

Other kind of intelligence which, as well as logiko the-mathematical intelligence develops on the basis of actions is a spatial intelligence. According to Gardner, the spatial intelligence is defined by following basic abilities: «ability precisely to perceive the visible world, to carry out transformations and updatings according to the first impression, and also ability to recreate aspects of visual experience even in the absence of corresponding physical object» [39, with. 229]. Display of these abilities many-sided. From orientation to districts, to a cognizance of objects and a scene of action, as in an original form, and the changed circumstances. Also these abilities use at creation graphic (two or three-dimensional images), work with cards, various diagrammes or geometrical figures.

Speaking about application of spatial intelligence, Howard Gardner allocates two more cases of use of these abilities. To one of them, in its opinion, concern «sensitivity various power lines which mediates perception of images or forms» [39, с.229]. As the scientist explains, under it means «sensation of pressure, balance and the compositions characterising product of painting, a sculpture or many natural phenomena» [39, с.229], that in turn, the attention of artists and judges of art as is important for ability formation draws to represent and imagine.

Howard Gardner carries similarity existence to the second case of display of spatial intelligence between two different forms or the remote fields of knowledge. The scientist believes, «that such metaphorical ability to find similarity between various spheres in many cases is displays of spatial intelligence» [39, с.229]. We find acknowledgement of its assumption that at the heart of many scientific theories various images lay. So, for example
«A life tree» C.Darvina, Z.Frejda's representation about mentality where the unconscious is flooded like an underwater part of the iceberg, the metaphor of atom offered by John Daltonom as tiny Solar system i.t.d. »[39, с.230]. Many scientific problems inherently are spatial, for example, construction of model of DNA, that in turn demands for its decision of application of spatial intelligence.

Besides a science, one more sphere in which the spatial intelligence takes the basic place, the fine arts are. According to Gardner, that fact is absolutely indisputable, that «thin sensitivity is necessary for employment by painting and a sculpture to the visual and spatial world...» [39, с.249].

Thereupon, pupils at whom the leader is the spatial intelligence, is better perceive and understand the information which is presented in the form of visions. Also they well take the information from cards, schemes and diagrammes. At training of pupils with leading spatial intelligence it is necessary to use colour pictures, graphic symbols, video data viewing, and also the games connected with use of imagination.

Also G.Gardner allocates such kind of intelligence, as telesnoyokinestetichesky. The scientist considers, that for the given kind of intelligence ability «skilfully is characteristic to own own body and to use this ability for the expressive and accurately outlined purposes» [39, с.260]. Besides, this kind of intelligence is defined by ability of the person with ease to address with subjects, for work with which it is necessary to own both thin, and a rough motility. Thus, in a basis corporally - kinesteticheskogo intelligence, according to Gardner, two abilities lay - «to supervise movements of the body and skilfully to address with subjects» [39, с.260].

In spite of the fact that in the western culture the concept "intelligence" can be correlated to mental faculties, psychologists have revealed recently a close connection between possession of a body and ability to involve kognitivnye mechanisms. So, for example, British psychologist Frederik Barlett as Gardner specifies, did not do distinctions between physical actions and cogitative skills as considered, «that knowledge is got in the form of perfection of skills» [39, с.275]. As an example of such perfection of various types and levels of skills can serve game in chess, computer programming or typewriting.

Speaking about display of the developed forms corporally-kinesteticheskogo intelligence, it is necessary to note those spheres in which it finds the greatest application: dance, actor's game and sports. The conclusion from here follows, that for effective training of pupils, the leading part in which intellectual profile is played corporally-kinestetichesky by intelligence, it is necessary to use role games, dances, evident models which can be touched and with which can be operated, and also to do physical exercises, accompanying their text.

Besides the kinds of intelligence set forth above Howard Gardner allocates two tesnovzaimosvjazannye among themselves forms of intelligence: interpersonal and intrapersonal [39, с.293]. They are very important in a life of each person as define its mutual relations with an external world, and also help to understand private world. The intrapersonal intelligence is directed in the human world, it mentions all range of its feelings and emotions, helps to realise and distinguish them, to express in the symbolical form, and also to use them for the control over the behaviour [39, с.293].

According to Howard Gardner, it is possible to allocate two versions of intrapersonal intelligence: the elementary and developed. Ability concerns the elementary form to distinguish feeling of pleasure from sensation of a pain and on the basis of such distinction «or more and more to plunge into a situation,
Or to try to keep away from it »[39, с.293]. The developed intrapersonal intelligence as G.Gardner marks,« allows the person to distinguish and give the symbolical description to difficult and extremely confused feelings »[39, с.293].

Thus, speaking about educational process, it is necessary to take into consideration, that pupils with such type of intelligence, as a rule, are assured of themselves and like to work in loneliness. Thanks to the developed intrapersonal intelligence they are capable to estimate the "weak" and "strong" parties and abilities. Considering it, in the course of work with such pupils it is necessary to use individual tasks, tasks for self-examination, to give individual commissions to pick up, for example, a material for the project for the studied theme.

The interpersonal intelligence is directed in out of and promotes understanding of distinction between people, and also their moods, temperament and intentions. As well as in intrapersonal intelligence, the scientist allocates the elementary and the developed forms. The basic ability in the elementary form of interpersonal intelligence, according to the scientist, is ability of the small child «see distinctions between surrounding people and to learn, they are in what mood» [39, с.293]. The developed interpersonal intelligence is inherent in adult people and as G.Gardner considers, «allows the attentive adult person to distinguish intentions and desires - even the most undercover - many people, and is possible, to proceed in the actions from this knowledge» [39, с.293].

It is necessary to pay attention that the pupils allocated with such type of intelligence, very well show the abilities, working in cooperation, and also possess liderskimi qualities. Therefore they in the best way prove in group work, collective discussion, as organizers of a various sort of quizes, and also as advisers of the schoolmates.

G.Gardner considers, that, despite a number of features which interpersonal intelligence possess inside, their basic ability is possibility to process the information, learning thus itself and others, that serves as doubtless acknowledgement «to an absolute must to study personal intelligence» [39, с.297].

As one more kind of intelligence G.Gardner allocates naturalistic intelligence which assumes ability to studying of flora and fauna, the nature world, and also predisposition to productive activity, such as hunting, farming or employment by biological sciences [150, the river 19]. American psychologist Thomas Armstrong as Gardner marks, explained this type of intelligence and as ability to see the world under other corner - understanding of interaction of the nature with a civilisation, the symbiotic mutual relations inherent in the nature [151, river 9].

It is necessary to underline, that pupils with the developed naturalistic intelligence well prove in the activity connected with studying of the natural phenomena, an animal and flora. For them there will be interesting and effective a performance of tasks for studying of development of the natural phenomena, revealing of distinctions in the conditions of a life in the different countries, participation in ecological projects.

Besides the kinds of intelligence set forth above, in last researches Gardner considers probability of existence of one more kind of intelligence - existential intelligence. He names this intelligence «intelligence of the big questions» [150, the river 20]. When children ask about the sizes of the Universe when adults think of that such death, love, the conflict, and over the planet future, they use existential intelligence. This kind of intelligence helps the person to learn deep questions of human existence. The possession such intelligence gives depth of thought and feeling, accustoms to think masshtabno [151, the river 9].

From here it is possible to draw a conclusion, that pupils with the developed kind ekzistentsionalnogo intelligence possess ability to a reflexion. They are inclined to introspection, introspection and self-checking, also pupils with such intellectual profile well are able to plan, supervise, analyze and estimate. It is necessary to notice, that during educational activity they prove in the best way at performance of such tasks as: a composition-reasoning writing on the studied theme, conducting a various sort of diaries (a usual, art album, a reflective diary), planning of carrying out of experiments, and also participation in games and tasks which allow to show the different points of view on the same problem (dialogues, cross discussions).

Occurrence of the theory of plural intelligence has caused ambiguous reaction among scientific community. Many psychologists have acted with its criticism. They were disturbed by G.Gardner's withdrawal from widespread in the USA of tests of intelligence measuring IQ. Unlike the kinds of intelligence offered by G.Gardner, they were more simple and are accessible to numerical measurement and treatment. They did not accept also use of the term "intelligence" for the description of some abilities. In particular, they preferred to define musical and corporally-kinestetichesky intelligence as "talents".

G.Gardner believed, thereby answering the critics, that the authority of tests for intelligence in the end of HH began to decrease century. Not only methods, but also conditions of their application have set of restrictions. Factor IQ, according to the scientist, reflects, first of all, ability of the person to acquire and acquire knowledge, but it is actually powerless to predict successes of the individual in the further adult life when the role social and the business factors connected with its position in a society increases.

In it G.Gardner's sights are conformable with Jean Piazhe's sights which considered, that «at similar testing is not given attention to the process of processing of the information by the person, how it approaches to the decision of this or that problem» [39, с.67]. Besides, tasks in texts, «often are not connected with each other, microscopic to do a conclusion with reference to an estimation of human intelligence. And the information most part, which possession we check during testing, reflects only knowledge which the person gets, being in the certain social or educational environment, and seldom estimate ability to absorb the new information or to solve new problems» [39, с.67]. Moreover, such diagnostics of intellectual development «speaks nothing about potential abilities of the person to the further self-improvement» [39, с.67]. So, for example, «two people can have identical indicators IQ of intelligence, but thus one person can be capable to the further intellectual development, and the second already to show a maximum of the abilities» [39, с.67]. Unlike developers of tests of intelligence Gardner, after Piazhe, seriously concerns such important categories for human intelligence as time, space, number and causality.

However, along with indisputable advantages of theory Piazhe which have made its visible theorist in area kognitivnogo developments and against which G.Gardner's critics leant, the scientist marks also certain lacks of this theory. In its opinion, «theory Piazhe was good for time and within the limits of those conditions for which it has been developed» [39, с.70]. But in the end of HH century taking into account new experimental data of a science theory Piazhe in the separate details is erroneous. So transition of the person from one stage of intellectual development in another, according to G.Gardner, occurs much longer and more gradually, than it has described Piazhe. Moreover have sequence ruptures thus. As the proof Gardner gives an example, when children who are on
dooperatsionnom a level of development, can solve many problems which are attributed to the period of concrete operations [39, с.70].

Other lack of theory Piazhe which has not passed test by time, marks G.Garner, its statement that «the various operations found out by it can be revealed in any context» [39, с.70] was. G.Gardner, those operations about which spoke Piazhe However believes, «arise is isolated enough and depend on materials and their maintenance over which the child should work» [39, с.70]. So, «the child showing ability to remember one material, is not able to do it with another» [39, с.70]. Actually, G.Gardner underlines, «in one and too time does not occur associations of variety of abilities as confirmed Piazhe, and theoretically connected abilities are shown not simultaneously» [39, с.70].

Though, as G.Gardner notices, the tasks developed Piazhe, «osnovatelnee and it is much more difficult than what are applied in the intelligence texts, many from all of them as are torn off from that type of thinking which in a daily life the majority of people» [39 uses, с.71].

As a whole, the lacks of theory Piazhe listed above, have not allowed it, G.Gardner believes, to capture the general model kognitivnogo developments. Its model mismatches today the modern realities connected with the new phenomena and problems which are the cores in work of reason and over which just and Gardner worked.

Answering the critics on wide use of the term "intelligence" for the characteristic of various bents and abilities, Gardner noticed, that attempts give uzkonapravlennoe intelligence definition can to lead to that we will simply lose sight of those abilities which do not get to such concept. So, for example, dancers and chess players can be talented, but not clever. He categorically does not agree with the assumption of those psychologists, which
Consider, that one abilities of the person it is possible to consider suitable to be called as intelligence, and others are not present [39, с.32].

The scientist does not agree and with those researchers who reproached him with unwillingness to accept existence of "the general intelligence». G.Gardner believes, that almost all modern tests of intelligence are based mainly on linguistic and logic abilities. In practice it turns out, that, for example, «the person owning a sufficient set of knowledge and skills to become successful in these spheres, the one who by the nature is not too presented lingvisticheski or logically can show good results in tests for revealing about stranstvennyh and musical abilities, and, will not cope with such standard tests, even possessing uncommon abilities in those spheres which just and are checked» [39, with. 33].

The basic problem, believes it, and consists that display of different kinds of intelligence till now is not studied. «We do not know, - he writes, - whether the person possessing intelligence for successful game in chess or employment by architecture, simultaneously to have ability, sufficient to succeed in music, the mathematician or rhetoric» [39, с.33] can. Therefore, Gardner believes, today on the agenda there is a question on working out of ways of diagnostics of intelligence which would give correct representation about intelligence. As a result of it can change all representation about sphere of knowledge of the person, new kinds and subspecies of intelligence can be allocated.

It is necessary to notice, that difference from the academic psychology which has critically apprehended the theory of plural intelligence, for school teachers this theory has appeared enough significant. Within first ten years after the publication of the book the set of teachers has declared desire to change the student teaching and to base on the professional work the theory of plural intelligence. In a year after an exit of "reason Structure» in Indianapolis it has been created
The first-ever school (Key School) which activity has been based exclusively on the theory of plural intelligence. It has found a recognition among teachers and teachers Northern and the South America, Australia, some parts of Europe and Asia. It use at all levels of training, since preschool and, finishing high school formation. Advantage and its universality that apply this theory at training to the academic disciplines and in a course to vocational training, at different schools to different groups of children - usual, presented, children with those or other problems in training.

The reason of such relation to G.Gardner's theory in the pedagogical environment in many respects speaks that in the daily practice of training the majority of teachers faces that pupils think and study differently and to each pupil the special approach is necessary. This theory pawns fundamental approaches to working out and introduction in student teaching of new principles of the organisation of process of training, working out of curricula, estimations of efficiency of formation and student teaching thanks to which it is possible to satisfy more effectively educational inquiries and requirements of pupils at all levels of training.

In spite of the fact that Howard Gardner by issue time of "reason Structure» has published some works and during the scientific activity is the author more than twenty books, his name associates first of all with the theory of plural intelligence. According to Gardner, it, most likely, and will remember as «the father of the theory of plural intelligence» [39, с.13].

It is necessary to give due to the author, that in spite of the fact that the book «the reason Structure» became the world best seller and has brought to it popularity not only in the USA, but also behind their limits, for it it has served only as a corner stone in the further researches of intelligence and
Practical application of this theory on the basis of new data about genetics and brain work.

The further researches of intelligence by Gardner developed in three directions. In the-first, being based on position about various kinds of intelligence, it studied people with an amazing intellectual profile. Occurrence of its books about creativity (Creating Minds («Creating reason»)), leadership (Leading Minds («the Leader behind itself reason»)) and wider work (Extraordinary Minds («Extraordinary reason»)) became result of that.

Secondly, this development of the theory of plural intelligence. Researches in this direction have led G.Gardner to a conclusion that in the future the new kinds of the intelligence which has been not described by it (for example, spiritual, sexual, digital) can be opened. Besides, it investigated communication between intelligence which he names biopsychological potentials, both spheres and the sciences existing in various cultures more deeply.

The third direction of activity all these years has been connected with use and interpretation of the theory of plural intelligence. If in the beginning G.Gardner only spent border between the understanding of the theory of plural intelligence and representation about it other people later became more active to participate in its practical application. It has accepted direct participation in reform of educational system, both on theoretical, and at practical level. Formation of its own philosophy of the formation which substantive provisions have been stated them in such books as became result of that: «The Unschooled Mind» («not Trained reason»), «Intelligence Reframed» («the Rethought intelligence»), «The Disciplined Mind» («the Disciplined reason»), «Multiple Intelligences: The theory in practice» («Plural intelligence: the theory and practice»).

Thus, as a result of the scientific researches Gardner has denied representation existing earlier about intelligence as about uniform, once and for all certain knack. The scientist has come out with the assumption that the intelligence concentrates in various areas of a brain which co-operate with each other, or operate independently from each other and can be developed in the presence of certain conditions (the social environment, a cultural context, etc.).

Gardner underlines, that each child possesses the unique combination of intelligence. Abilities of the person, its skills and talents are defined by level and degree of development of this or that intelligence (or several simultaneously). It is possible for these objasnit that at one pupils propensities to logic and mathematics are more expressed, at others - to natural sciences, at the third - to art and creativity. In this connection, Gardner concludes, that use of the theory of plural intelligence allows to construct training and development of the child so that to provide harmonious and an individual approach to everyone. For this purpose it is necessary: to consider intellectual profiles of the child; to give the chance to it to learn the world surrounding it, to study subjects and the phenomena in the closest and convenient way; the same material is necessary for submitting on employment on a-miscellaneous to involve as it is possible bolshee quantity of types of intelligence; to choose a suitable technique for this purpose; To pick up style of training under each concrete child. Such approach to training in many respects corresponds to orientation of modern formation to a humanisation and a training individualization that explains interest of teachers in many countries of the world to practical use of the theory of plural intelligence in training.


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A source: DOROKHOVA OLGA ALEKSANDROVNA. Howard GARDNER'S PEDAGOGICAL VIEWS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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