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transformation of representations about personal and professionally important qualities of the ideal school teacher in 1920-1950

1920th years in the USA c the economic point of view are characterised by possibility of fast enrichment for enterprising Americans, to aspiration to grow rich. This period is noted in history by growth of business activity, reception of huge incomes at game at a stock exchange, and also corruption; these years are noted by historians and journalists of 1920th years as rough the twentieth.

1929 is known to the world as the beginning of Great depression after which the Second World War has come. The quantity of children at schools has increased because of recession in a national economy. If in 19101920 many pupils left to work, as soon as have learnt to read and write, from -

117 for proceeding unemployments it made sense to go to school longer and to wait the heavy economic period for the country. As a result millions pupils continued training at school. In 1930 the complete course of the school program was mastered only by 29 % of pupils, in their 1940 there were 50 %. Great depression has pushed youth to reception of secondary education which has helped them with the future better to be arranged in a life.

During the period sotsiokulturnoj adaptations the problem of teachers consisted in paying attention to each pupil, to see in them of individualities, to allocate the presented teenagers for whom the special program was required. Teachers realised new techniques of teaching which included both developing games, and creative tasks at schools. Innovations, on the one hand, have introduced interest of pupils to many subjects, but on the other hand schools have been compelled to reduce quantity of hours to subjects of the obligatory program. The basic thesis of the period of "adaptation" has been formulated by the researcher of an American education P.A.Grem as follows: The problem of school teachers consists in sorting children by their future mission [54, with. 91]. It is no wonder, that at such approach to formation only 20 % of graduates of North American schools planned to continue the education at universities, others of 20 % preferred vocational training. The remained quantity of pupils were content with that were able to read, write, had elementary knowledge of arithmetics which were sufficient to be able to cope well with housekeeping and be able pay purchases with pomochju the check.

Features of the analyzed period of development of school education in the USA is decision-making on federal financing not only initial, but also high school, and also abolition of a uniform government program. Since then North American schools had an opportunity to have own variant of educational program. Variability of programs of training was, basically, is caused by a solvency of parents of pupils, thus educational programs of schools could be very good, and sometimes substituted a basis and essence of school education.

Flexibility of programs and individualization of curricula in 1920-30th years were considered as the progressive. Result extended in first third of XX-th century

118 gamble that all school subjects have identical value, have served acceptance of position that if the pupil has successfully passed certain number of any school subjects it was considered got education. At the given stage of development of school education ideal teachers should master and apply new professional skills in pedagogical activity: creative thinking, involving of children in creative kinds of activity, for example, modelling, role games; application of new techniques.

Transition to new school of 1920th years is characterised by occurrence of new subjects; except traditional English, mathematics and natural sciences there is a music, drawing and dances.

The school education was exposed to reforming, but not in favour of the academic subjects, and not first of all has been directed on intellectual development of schoolboys. Reformers of formation reconsidered curriculums, techniques, technologies and principles of the organisation of school. The old school was considered severely regulated, suppressing pupils. Classical subjects often became facultative so, were studied not by all and is superficial enough, it is English language, algebra, geometry, history of Europe, foreign languages, chemistry and physics. Again the state has felt a lack of the formed, professionally prepared teachers as new subjects demanded special preparation and strong knowledge from adjacent sciences, for example the classical history studied earlier in chronological sequence, has been replaced with subject Social Studies (social sciences). At this lesson of the teacher should not only acquaint teenagers with the important historical events of the world, but also form at children an objective sight at sociopolitical relations in the world. The general course of English language has been broken into narrow subjects, for example journalism bases, native speech and communications. Teachers should be competent of new disciplines. Besides, such new qualities, as creativity (kreativnost), a spontaneity, imagination and ability to self-expression were especially appreciated in teachers and pupils. The teacher thus should replace a teaching technique, differently submit a material, differently carry out interaction with children. New teachers whom in bolshej degrees taught not under the program, and with the creative approach to a lesson, to a material, intelligibly, interestingly gradually began to appear, motivating children to study. Lessons differed non-standard approaches to a material, and live

Discussions, thus children received few serious academic knowledge.

The given educational policy did not promote serious intellectual development of children. Only the family could incur responsibility to fill missing formation to the children. If cultural traditions of a family were strong, if at home there was a good library, and the material condition of a family allowed to travel or put up money in development of children the child could get good education which school then give to it could not. The sharp differentiation of the population became appreciable - one children except school could not receive an additional education anywhere; others - had chances to add the formation by trips to Europe, by means of private teachers and other ways.

As a result the school became establishment where the inequality was observed. At school the strict differentiation of pupils was observed, in their future different open-cast mines waited - one could continue education and leave in a science, others planned to master craft or to get working trades.

In Europe at the same time became popular, is faster prestigious, to continue school education; talented, purposeful graduates of schools aspired to arrive in the best European universities. In the USA there was a tradition after leaving school to go to work or get the business, to have possibility to earn money and to provide to itself for a life. Pragmatically adjusted Americans wished to be equipped as soon as possible in the country, to start to earn and be independent, and to spend some years at university it seemed to them useless expenditure of time and money. Only change of a school policy could affect minds of young Americans and prove, that the qualitative higher education will bring solid dividends in the future. It was necessary to change work with the presented, capable teenagers. The big work was coming teachers.

Biheviorizm B. F. Skinner

(neobiheviorizm, or operantnyj biheviorizm)

On modern formation and a role of the teacher in business of education of the worthy citizen Berres Frederik Skinner (19041990) which is one of the most outstanding and inconsistent figures in psychology history adhered to the special point of view. In what the essence of its theory, and what influence it consists has rendered on modern formation, requirements to teachers, psychiatry and therapy? B.F.
Skinner considered, that the person, it is not enough than differing from other animals, the person is allocated by ability to be arranged or create is a being generated by the environment of its dwelling, and also insisted on idea, that only a conditions for a life. B.F.Skinner divided Ivan Pavlova's sights, used a method of experiments for development of the theory. B.F.Skinner was engaged in the scientific analysis of behaviour of animals which allowed to do conclusions about features behaviour of any live beings including people. B.F.Skinner is considered the bright representative radical biheviorizma. Its predecessor American John B.Watson (18781959) has made attempt to formulate concept biheviorizma which essence it is possible to express thus: the psychology from positions biheviorizma is an objective branch of the natural science which theoretical purpose the prediction of behaviour and the control over it is represented. Biheviorist, observing of uniform system of reactions and feelings of animals, does not take in calculation division into the person and an animal.

For B.F.Skinner the behaviour analysis included all that preceded the given behaviour that was the answer to it, and also all consequences and results of response. Besides, B.F.Skinner underlined importance to consider in the behaviour analysis a genetic heredity of an organism and the previous models of behaviour. Radicalism of the sights rather biheviorizma consists that B.F.Skinner did not see a place mental in structure of the scientific analysis. B.F.Skinner has put forward the human nature concept in which there was no place to metaphysical concepts and concepts, type freedom, advantage, creativity, etc. B.F.Skinner has studied methodology of a science and used scientific knowledge, results of practical experiments, ignoring such concepts, as intuition and the Divine.

During experiments with B.F.Skinner's animals has collected a significant amount of data and results which have allowed it to generate bases of programmed training. The idea consisted that the pupil worked with training car on which screen there were various tasks in the form of drawings or miniyotekstov. It was supposed, that the student will actively react to tasks, to solve examples. The student received a feedback before the car gave out the next question. Thus to the student informed, how it is necessary to react to the task. As a result training process occurred is easier and faster as it was provided

121 instant, exact feedback with their successes or failures. What positive results of programmed training on B.F.Skinner? First, increase in speed of training under condition of material giving by equivalent parts, from simple to more difficult, gradually and consistently. Secondly, programmed training is constructed so that the student remembered a material is better, it has time to think before giving a right answer, or for some time to interrupt training. Thirdly, at such kind of training it is not provided direct punishments, as at traditional training. Programmed training helps students to regulate rate of employment. Slowly working student is not afraid of punishment which can follow. The student quickly mastering a teaching material, does not wait for other students, and works in that rate which to it is convenient.

Development of interactive computer training grows out of perfection of simple model of programmed training. The fast feedback helps to see errors and stimulates successful mastering by the program. Training process represents now dialogue between the computer and trained. Despite all pluses of such training, there is also a number of lacks which have faced both teachers, and parents. The given method of training can promote social isolation. Many teenagers have a chronic dependence on the computer, especially with active introduction of various computer games. However computer programs will be improved. Developers of training programs consider requirements of a society. Students can work in commands, take part in design kinds of activity in a separate class or to leave in global space. B.F. Skinner has been assured, that in the light of new knowledge the modern school system due to be called completely insolvent as it cannot force to be trained schoolboys by a different way, except, as intimidating consequences which for them will come if they do not study [281, the river 977]. B.F.Skinner has been disappointed by slow introduction of training cars, criticised modern system of an American education, and even has expressed that any schoolboy could master the high school program almost twice faster, having spent thus much less efforts.

Value of the theory of B.F.Skinner for working out of new methods of training, training has led to change of curriculums in universities, prisons, psychiatric clinics, hospitals, and in schools. Despite the positive moments bihevioristicheskoj pedagogics, it is necessary to specify in the negative moments of this pedagogics. The essence of the given concept of formation carries nevertheless the utilitarian bias, some mehanistichnost actions of the teacher, working off of sample tasks, but almost does not leave time for not trivial problems and a creative way of the decision of problems.

Let's designate, what influence was rendered by the concept biheviorizma for an image of the ideal school teacher, and what new qualities began to be put in the forefront. The ideal teacher becomes a moderator of educational space, carries out supervising functions, helps to understand behaviour, helps pupils to analyse errors and failures, mediates between the pupil and the computer.

Application of means in formation, undoubtedly, expands a spectrum of possibilities to make training accessible, pleasant and motivating. At the same time, it is impossible to belittle roles of the teacher in educational process, its direct dialogue with pupils, an explanation of a new material, joint communications. At all times the image of the ideal teacher associated with ability effectively to conduct conversation with the pupil, to possess inclinations oratorical art, to be able to convince and listen to the interlocutor. Thus it is supposed, that any teacher should possess good speech, own skills of rhetoric. Not casually therefore in modern scientific space the new integrated science which it is possible to name speech influence [164] is formed. Speech influence, in opinion And. And. Sternina, it is formed as the integrated science uniting, integrating efforts of representatives of the whole complex of adjacent sciences - traditional system linguistics, communicative linguistics, psycholinguistics, pragmalingvistiki, rhetoric, diskursivnoj linguistics, stylistics and standards of speech of psychology, the theory of a mass communication, advertising, personnel-management, sociology, public relations, ethnographies, conflictologies, etc. [In the same place].

Speech influence finds the reflexion in a science about effective dialogue. The big contribution to development and doctrine advancement about speech influence was brought by American teacher Dejl Carnegie (1888-1955).amerikansky the orator, the teacher
Has developed the basic methods and receptions of effective communications and has succeeded in training of all interested persons to these effective receptions. The great expert, being modest and timid since the childhood, but observant and purposeful, has opened for itself and for all comers rules of effective dialogue. Not casually D.Karnegi consider as the founder of modern trainings on acquisition of skills of speech influence. The teacher has based the first school on productive dialogue in 1921. Being the teacher-pragmatist, he understood importance of ability to get on with people, to build friendly and business relations. Eventually, the success of the person in a life half depends on ability correctly to communicate and adjust friendly long-term cooperation with different people. The practising teacher has developed and has proved the important theoretical ideas which, being correctly used, give enormous effect for development of productive dialogue at any levels. Pedagogical ideas D. Carnegies meet the requirements of a pragmatism. Some decades D.Karnegi's practical and theoretical recommendations serve as the guide to action, first of all, for the American teachers, and also pragmatically adjusted people who put the purposes to succeed in a life to come into mutually advantageous personal and business contacts as well registers algorithm of a successful life in society.

D.Karnegi well understood vital values and psychology of behaviour of Americans, and addressed the popular books first of all for them. But the considerable part of recommendations and rules of effective dialogue are universal and effective in cultural societies of the majority of the countries of the world, including Russia.

Our research, first of all, sets as the purpose to reveal the characteristic of the ideal American school teacher, therefore theoretical and D.Karnegi's practical guidances we will consider herein. The major value of ideas of D.Karnegi for the American teachers consists that he forces to think of the style of dialogue, to improve skills of effective influence on pupils. D.Karnegi convinces us that perfection of skills and receptions of dialogue with people is based on a tolerance principle, on sincere interest to the interlocutor. Such dialogue leads to success in any affairs and improvement of mutual relations with associates.

Pedagogical principles of dialogue, belief, adjustment of contacts successfully realizovyvajutsja not one decade not only within the limits of school, but also other educational institutions, and also on courses on self-improvement for adults. We will consider personal and professional qualities of the ideal teacher in treatment of principles of the effective dialogue stated by D.Karnegi. First of all, the ideal school teacher sincerely is interested in the pupils. The ideal school teacher is able to listen to the interlocutor, not interrupting it, thus it validly concerns opinion of the interlocutor even if it do not agree with its conclusions. In pedagogical activity the teacher notices successes of pupils about what does not forget to praise and by that motivates them on success. The optimistic spirit of the teacher by a life and to pedagogical activity in particular is the important personal quality of the ideal school teacher. The good teacher gives enough time of preparation for employment, considering the short-term and long-term purposes, intermediate problems.

The ideal school teacher - the master of communications. In practice by valuable communicative strategy Dejla Carnegie have following: Let your interlocutor considers, that the given thought belongs to it. Sincerely try to look at things from the point of view of your interlocutor. Be kind to thoughts and desires of others. Appeal to more noble motives. Dramatize the ideas, submit them effectively. Throw down a challenge, touch on the raw [83 with. 192].

The ideal school teacher, following Dejla Carnegie's recommendations, seriously approaches to working out of minilectures, explanations of a new material and other public speeches. The teacher, first of all, should take care of that language on which he intends to act, was to clear and clear listeners. Besides, performance should have accurate logic structure, to be consecutive. The ideal school teacher will not abuse banal standard phrases and a cliche, and will think over the interesting comparisons, metaphors and epithets. D.Karnegi marks: Use visual perception of listeners. When it is possible, apply exhibits, pictures, illustrations. Repeat your main thoughts, but do not repeat and do not use twice the same phrase. Vary offers, but repeat your thought, not giving the listener to notice it [In the same place. With. 420-421]. Dejl Carnegies and Mortimer Adler agree in opinion that the ideal school

125 teacher always should look attractively, at this D.Karnegi underlines, that ability to put on "tidy and gracefully" [83, with. 371] considerably raises a self-estimation of the teacher and helps to strengthen a self-trust. The major personal quality of the ideal teacher, according to D.Karnegi, the enthusiasm about what its citation eloquently confirms is: the Teacher by the trade - already the enthusiast [11, with. 45].

The short conclusion under the paragraph

1. In 1920-1950th at the American schools the tendency to pay special attention to the presented children was designated. School teachers proved importance to continue the education in colleges; ideal teachers tried to find an individual approach to talented children.

2. The American schools remained overflowed; classes differed ethnic, cultural, racial and religious features of schoolboys. Not all children well spoke English. Intellectual level of children also differed, therefore it was difficult to teachers to carry out the programs. Many children remained for the second year. Thus not all young Americans had equal possibilities to receive good school education. Not all schools of the country, and also teachers working in them, had the worthy educational level, not all schools received sufficient financing. As a result not all children had equal possibilities to receive qualitative secondary education.

3. A variety of subjects and school programs had double value. On the one hand, pupils had possibility to choose school subjects from the big list of disciplines. They have felt on themselves choice possibility as subject matters, and teachers. On the other hand, in view of complexity of some academic disciplines, pupils preferred more attractive, about their points of view, subjects, and the mathematician, traditional English language and the literature, has departed on level of facultative employment and accustomed superficially (thus, that literacy level left much to be desired), and even were at all ignored by children. As a result intellectual level of many schoolboys did not allow them to arrive in college and to continue education at university. A variety of programs has brought new requirements to vocational training of teachers, were required good

126 experts in narrow disciplines. The USA still tested deficiency in highly professional pedagogical shots.

4. The most important professional qualities of the ideal American school teacher in the middle of HH centuries remain high professionalism, knowledge of children's psychology, ability to explain, organising abilities, application of new techniques (group forms of work, design activity, development of critical thinking, an individual approach). Priority personal qualities are the enthusiasm, tolerance, fidelity of the chosen trade, love to children, pedagogical talent, good communicative skills, ability to empathy display. Among pupils the competition in study, individualism, despite attempt of teachers to apply new motivating kinds of work is observed. The pragmatical approach to study and a life pushes pupils to choose those subjects and the purposes which will be claimed in the future trade and in business.

5. B.Skinner has brought the special contribution to reforming of school education and revision of curriculums. Its merit consists that programmed training, and hardly later application of the newest computer techniques of training not only has lifted modern formation on qualitatively other level, but also promoted motivation of training, development of independence of schoolboys. Application of new techniques of training, realisation of a role of a moderator of educational process became the major professional competence of the ideal teacher.

6. The American schoolboys during the period with 1920 for 1950 years did not test the big desire to continue the school education at universities. Among pupils the tendency as soon as possible was observed to leave school and go to work on manufacture or in service sphere, to feel the material independence and to promote in the chosen field of activity. Pupils on the whole did not realise importance of reception of good formation which in the future not only will bring the dividends, but also will expand fields of activity, will create the strong base of a comfortable life. Children from well-founded families had more chances to apply for higher education after leaving school, at schools the sharp differentiation of schoolboys was observed.

7. Books and D.Karnegi's managements have made positive impact on character of construction of effective mutual relations between people, and at teachers has appeared

127 possibility to reconsider the style of teaching, a technique to improve dialogue both in pedagogical collective, and with pupils in a class. Ideal school teachers began to apply Carnegie's councils in the school practice and have considerably raised efficiency of the lessons.

2.3.

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A source: ASTAPENKO Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver 2019. 2019

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  2. Astapenko Elena Vladimirovna. the IDEAL of the SCHOOL TEACHER In WORKS of the AMERICAN THINKERS XX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2019, 2019
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  13. MAMAYEV Nadezhda Pavlovna. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2019, 2019
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  15. KAZANTSEV Valentine Vladimirovna. FORMATION of CREATIVE COMPETENCE of the TEACHER of the ELEMENTARY SCHOOL In SELF-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Voronezh - 2013, 2013
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