use of the maintenance of gymnasia formation in shkoyolah the USSR in 30 - e-80 - e years of the XX-th century

As a result of influence of a complex of factors socially - political and social and economic the Russian system of gymnasia formation as an independent phenomenon for the long historical period has stopped the existence in the USSR.

The period of development of the Soviet formation of 1920th years with some share of convention can be designated as «antigimnazi - chesky». The Russian system of gymnasia formation not only posledovayotelno collapsed, but also was accused of adherence to traditions of school - of study.

On belief of heads of the Soviet formation of 1920th years, doyorevoljutsionnaja the grammar school was generation of an antagonistic society with boldly expressed and irreconcilable class interests, including in definition of the maintenance of the general education. As the main lacks of the maintenance of formation of a pre-revolutionary grammar school from a position of heads of the National commissariat of education of RSFSR of 1920th years otyomechalis the following:

• historical ischerpannost potential of development of a grammar school, kotoyoraja mismatched inquiries of the present owing to the formalism and boldly expressed selektsionnosti in educational activity;

• adherence of gymnasia formation is class-fixed siyosteme, the life torn off from realities, public practice, individualnoyolichnostnyh and educational inquiries of pupils;

• traditional division of the gymnasia maintenance of formation into subject matters resisted dominating in the Soviet pedagogics of 1920th to a principle of integration of the maintenance of formation in a single whole and, as consequence of it, to achievement of formation at pupils of a complete sight at the world;

• philological depth of the pre-revolutionary maintenance gimnaziyocheskogo formations has received the extremely negative estimation that was expressed

In refusal of a system in Russian and literature studying as samoyostojatelnyh subjects.

At the same time, the refusal carried out in 1920th of a paradigm of school - of study has entered the basic contradiction with mental experience and tradiyotsijami the domestic education focused on satisfaction obrayozovatelnyh of inquiries of a considerable part of educated layers of the Russian society.

In the given context it is indicative, that since 1930th years the Soviet system of secondary education comes back to basic positions, characteristic for pre-revolutionary gymnasia formation, naturally, without a mention of concept "grammar school". As a positive side obrazovayotelnoj activity of the Russian school 30 - 50th years that graduates received as a whole versatile preparation in spheres acted, ravnoyotsennyh on the importance, - sotsio-humanitarian, physical and mathematical and philological components of the maintenance of formation.

If in the conditions of gymnasia formation universality in podgoyotovke was reached mainly by studying of languages and mathematics in rosyosijskoj to school 30 - 50th years such universality educational podyogotovki was a consequence of an equivalence and compulsions of mastering of all subject matters containing in the program of an average school obrazovayonija. A.G.Kasprzhak in the work «as model» notices the Many-sided education, that «universality is a training to integral knowledge about uniform miyore. The Encyclopaedic knowledge - is knowledge of languages of sciences which gives to the person of possibility to master the basic way of their comprehension - reading of texts and poniyomanie bases» [102, c.46-65].

Doubtless advantage of domestic school of this period is high level of scientific character of the maintenance of formation, its depth and a system. To number of the most significant displays vozyovrashchenija to use of the maintenance of gymnasia formation the reference to a system of studying of Russian and history, partial refusal of mastering of the simplified sociological schemes in favour of systematic 96 was

And the studying of history filled with an actual material as equal in rights and significant subject matter.

The aspiration to address to Latin studying in general educational shkoyole the end 1940 - 50th years of the XX-th century substantially testified to positive istoriko-pedagogical revaluation of a role gymnasia obrayozovanija in development of a scientific both cultural life of the country and existence of certain public inquiries to introduction at domestic school, at least, one of significant lines of the maintenance pre-revolutionary gimnayozicheskogo formations.

All it promoted formation Soviet scientifically - the technical intelligency which has managed owing to the erudition and an active role in zhizyoni societies to be a cultural heiress of pre-revolutionary Russian intelligency, produtsirovaniju the special mentality of the Soviet society assuming respect for deep both fundamental formation and the relation to it as defining factor cultural and scientific razviyotija of the country.

So, the Soviet high school 1930 - substantially successfully reproduced 50th years a number of positive lines of domestic gymnasia formation. It is obviously possible to carry to their number

• installation on formation of comprehensively developed person, obnayoruzhivajushchej ability to certain universality further obuyochenija, reception assuming success humanitarian, estestvennoyonauchnogo and a technical education according to requirements gosudaryostva, and also interests and vital plans of graduates of school;

• comprehension of necessity social cultural and obrazovayotelnogo reproduction of domestic intelligency (installation on podgoyotovku officials and the future students of universities and other higher educational institutions of similar educational level means gimnayozicheskogo formations in pre-revolutionary Russia);

• declaring of compulsion of achievement considerable kacheyostva knowledge on all subject matters, and also maintenance of high level formally - logic thinking;

• thorough and systematic studying of humanitarian subject matters and, in particular, history, the literature, Russian;

• a recognition of classical fiction samotsennoyostju the Russian culture, aspiration to consider high level obrayozovannosti as a doubtless sign of original culture and intelligence of the person.

To number of the lines which are pulling together pre-revolutionary system of gymnasia formation and the Soviet school 30 - 50th years of the XX-th century, also it is possible otneyosti the following:

• returning to defining lines pre-revolutionary traditsiyoonnoj schools with inherent in it is class-fixed system, high level of insistence to educational activity of the teacher and to compulsion of a subject matter, assiduity and diligence of pupils;

• performance original socially - a selection role, vyrayozhajushchejsja that training in high school as a whole was accessible to those who on nravyostvenno to intellectual parametres corresponded to criteria of high level of the educational preparation, shown to senior pupils;

• strongly pronounced orientirovannost on receipt of graduates in high schools and the technical schools, possessing high level of prestigiousness;

• return to compulsion of performance traditional educational proyogramm, firm installation on depth and a system of studying of all subject matters;

• a deep and systematic statement of a teaching material the teacher within the limits of traditional differentiation of the maintenance of formation on subject matters;

• kultivirovanie domestic and foreign literary klasyosiki, possessing in universal cultural potential;

• accurately and definitely formulated criteria rezultativnoyosti educational activity of school;

• strict differentiation of estimations of educational activity and sistemayoticheskoj quality checks of performance of educational tasks by each pupil.

At the same time with pre-revolutionary system state gimnazicheyoskogo formations 1930 - in considerable stepeyoni united 50th years the Soviet school and following negative characteristics:

• necessity of strict submission of the Soviet school ofitsialyonoj the state ideology (rigid following to the formula: «Orthodoxy, autocracy, a nationality» in all links of pre-revolutionary formation and, in particular, formations gymnasia);

• aspiration to create optimum operated state vlayostju school education system (absolute subordination dorevoljuyotsionnoj systems of gymnasia formation to administrative circulars of the Ministry of national education);

• dismissal from freedom in educational activity which is to some extent necessary for realisation of mission of school, predpolagayojushchej formation spiritually-free and critically conceiving future inyotelligentsii Russia;

• rigidly set state world outlook paradigm obyorazovanija, essentially excluding certain degree of free, spiritually-world outlook self-determination of the teacher and pupils, neobhodiyomogo for disposal of dogmatism for education of independence and kriyotichnosti thinking;

• ignoring of necessity of refusal of displays avtoritarnoyosti, domination verbalnosti in training, positioning of the teacher in obyorazovatelnoj activity as the government official deprived of the right
On world outlook doubts and any displays opponirovanija to rigidly set paradigm in formation;

• refusal from pedagogicheski proved eksperimentirovanija, without which effective development of a domestic education system okazyvayolos the impossible.

As a whole it is necessary to recognise, that the period of development of the Soviet school from the middle 30 - till second half 50th years of the XX-th century has played a positive role for a reconstruction of the Russian grammar schools of the beginning of the XXI-st century.

Throughout second half 1960 - h - 80 - h occurred poyosledovatelnoe maturing of conditions for the subsequent restoration of gymnasia formation. During this period schools «gymnasia orientation» have most brightly proved.

In 1960th years there are not numerous and never deklarirovavyoshie the communication with pre-revolutionary grammar schools, but in many respects relatives it on spirit, first of all, specialised mathematical schools - internayoty at universities for children with strongly pronounced signs of endowments to studying of physical and mathematical disciplines [133, s.5-8].

These schools have been created at leading higher educational institutions:

• a physical and mathematical boarding school - at Moscow gosuyodarstvennom university (the school has arisen in the mid-sixties and obediyonjala about 400 presented children from tens areas of the USSR and Belarus, classes trained at 9-11);

• a physical and mathematical boarding school at Novosibirsk gosuyodarstvennom university;

• economic school at the Moscow institute national hozjajyostva;

• Donetsk school of young chemists.

Similar schools for presented children did not declare the preemyostvennoj communication with pre-revolutionary grammar schools and, as a matter of fact, those not
Were, though in Russia throughout XVIII-XIX centuries existed akadeyomicheskie grammar schools at the Russian universities.

Also in many large cities specialised schools with teaching of some subjects on a foreign language were created. Activity of these special schools has quite justified itself, that, in particular, was boldly reflected in vyyosokih results of their educational activity.

For conceptual bases of the maintenance educational dejatelnoyosti schools for children having signs of endowments, were characteristic

• hardness in social and moral correctness of creation of special educational conditions for reception more favorable «startoyovyh positions» for occurrence in professional research activity of children capable in the future successfully to be a part scientific inyotelligentsii;

• conviction that the traditional education system can have more likely negative influence on development of the presented person;

• comprehension of that specially organised developing obrayozovatelnaja environment can be one of possible preconditions of successful self-realisation of the person in professional work spheres, that to the greatest degree corresponds to a creative orientation of its endowments;

• confidence that direct interaction with predyostaviteljami scientific circles is capable to have salutary influence on stimulation of the future scientific activity and intellectual samorazyovitija persons.

As the most relief signs of returning gimnazicheyoskogo formation maintenances in second half 1960 - 80-hgg. predyostavljaetsja possible to allocate following conditions:

• profound studying of mathematical subject matters, otrayozhavshee special attention to development of is formal-logic thinking;

• occurrence of schools with profound studying of several inostranyonyh languages that appeared to conformable traditions filologizma dorevoljutsiyoonnogo gymnasia formation;

• opening of some schools for the presented youth at estestvennonayouchnyh faculties of some the best Soviet high schools (orientirovannost gimnaziyocheskogo formations on training of graduates at universities) [134, s.27-38].

Occurrence of the raised kind of educational institutions at the best higher educational institutions of the country convincingly testifies that the idea of alternative educational institutions of the raised level obrazoyovanija existed at that time in public consciousness of representatives vuyozovskoj sciences, parents and the pupils who have found out special signs intelyolektualnoj of endowments and possible predispositions to creative deyojatelnosti in research spheres. They were united by installation on formation of intellectual levels of a society, inculcation by the pupil of a cult of intellectual work and many other things. Schools for presented children 1960 - carried out 80th years the activity in positive conditions which are not quite typical for the modern general education and, in particular, its gymnasia variant. It is obviously possible to carry the following to number of such conditions:

• social optimism of a society, especially characteristic for 60th years of the XX-th century, based on belief, that mankind and, in the first ocheyored, Soviet Union the greatest opening - major of them in spheres of physical and mathematical sciences wait and outer space explorations will essentially change destiny of all human civilisation and will open new strategic peryospektivy for its development;

• creation of a special cult of successes in the Soviet science, that objectively raised prestigiousness of a quality education and in particular obrazovayonija, received in schools at universities and others higher educational zaveyodenijah with a strongly pronounced academic orientation;

• preservation of democratic tendencies at selection and preparation of students and post-graduate students, and also financing and gosudarstvennoyoadministrativnaja support of training in postgraduate study and doctoral studies, that, as a matter of fact, represented not only the purposeful policy on preparation of scientific shots, but also formation of spiritually-intellectual elite rossijyoskoj sciences.

It is obviously possible to assume, that the society intuitively and in many respects ambiguously perceived approach radical sotsialnoyopoliticheskih and world outlook changes and was original baroyometrom high degree of intensity of pedagogical thought, trying predyovoshitit these changes. Teachers of these specialised schools were allocated with the whole spectrum of the major qualities:

• comprehension of a dissatisfaction by traditional educational practice;

• desire to give the new form and the maintenance educational dejayotelnosti;

• rendering of positive influence on general educational educational institutions which introduced some elements of pedagogical finds noyovatorov and at least partially changed pedagogical mirovozzreyonie, eliminating its most conservative components. As marks M.V.Levit, «innovators bore« secret knowledge "," true "," a miracle ». On change prosveshchencheskoj to a paradigm« regular training and education »javiyolos personal revelation of the Teacher» [133, с.8].

The operational experience of these schools represented potential for the future development Russian gymnasia the formation, consisting in the following:

• in the idea statement weed variabilities of training;

• in comprehension of that the educational choice for uchayoshchihsja and their parents (at what level of intellectual pressure obuyochatsja) is possible;

• in a reflexion of danger of formation of the person in the conditions of the intelyolektualno-sated cultural-educational environment, capable to give boyolee significant and perspective «starting educational positions».

These schools, really, in a number of the lines were close to the best rosyosijskim to grammar schools of the pre-revolutionary period and in particular private shkoyolam to an innovative orientation of the beginning of the XX-th century. Their conceptual obshchyonost found the expression in the following:

• in preservation of a principle of the selection shown in selection naiboyolee of presented children for training at schools with strongly pronounced author's konyotseptsiej of development, assuming purposeful preparation duhovnoyointellektualnyh elite of the Russian scientific intelligency;

• in a presentation of high requirements to observance it is moral - ethical standards to behaviour and educational activity which equally united pupils of schools of the academic orientation and members of pedagogical collective;

• in high level of insistence in a combination to an individual approach to the person of each pupil;

• in formation of the steady, boldly expressed motivation to success of training and achievement of high personal productivity in reyoshenii problems and educational problems with a creative orientation.

As a whole we will underline, that the characterised tendencies did not reflect in themselves the state installations on direct returning to gimnaziyocheskomu to formation. The returning problem even to qualitative modifitsiroyovannym to types of gymnasia formation, certainly, during the considered period was not put. However the characterised processes objectively sozdayovali conditions for a reconstruction of modern gymnasia formation on qualitative higher level of development.

At the same time, it is necessary to recognise, that specialised schools not byyoli simple analogues of grammar schools and in a sense possessed the big importance, than many of pre-revolutionary grammar schools. Boarding schools
For presented children 60 - 80th years of the XX-th century put forward perspective zadayochi which were not put even by the best private grammar schools of Russia characterised by brightness and individuality of author's positions.

It is necessary to carry to number of such problems:

• kultivirovanie orientations of teacher's collectives to training of presented children which develop on individual educational trajectories;

• familiarising of pupils with problems of development of a modern science;

• fruitful cooperation of such educational institutions with scientists and reception by schoolboys of the first experience research dejatelyonosti;

• the invitation as teachers of young scientists and aspiyorantov, capable positively to influence creative spirit of school.

It is characteristic, that state-political system 1960 - 80th years, authorising creation of specialised schools and boarding schools for odayorennyh children of a mathematical and natural-science orientation, printsiyopialno avoided creation of specialised educational institutions for the presented children who have proved within the limits of sotsio-humanitarian distsiyoplin. All it generated the latent conflict of the public with gosudarstvenyonoj the educational policy officially declaring mirovozzrencheyoskuju inadmissibility of existence of educational institutions gumanitaryonoj of an orientation, setting as the purpose formation duhovnoyointellektualnyh elite of Russia. Development of specialised schools for the presented children popular and prestigious in wide social strata obyoshchestva, has convincingly shown, that many parents have been interested in that their children have got fundamental education with high urovyonem teoretichnosti and could join in the future numbers of the Russian scientific intelligency.

Thus, occurrence of specialised schools for presented children has played the mediated positive role in the followed
Reconstruction of the Russian gymnasia formation in the end of XX stoleyotija.

To number of factors of revival of gymnasia formation it is possible otneyosti the following:

• cultivation of requirement of pupils in persistent intellectual work for the subsequent occurrence on Wednesday of scientific intelligency;

• granting of possibility of school youth samostojatelnoyogo definitions of the educational priorities in spheres fiziko - математических5 natural-science, sotsio-humanitarian and philological subject matters;

• achievement of high level of the academic preparation of pupils in the absence of authoritative compulsion and stimulation of their spiritual and creative activity in which basis laid not only the career purposes, but also the values forming interest to deep scientific researches of fundamental and applied character which necessary condition is training at specialised school for presented children;

• creation of such conditions of educational activity, which soyochetali in itself development of will, forces of character, ability to regular and long brainwork with reception deep moral udovleyotvorenija from achievement of high productivity in training, personal and scientific contact to teachers, scientists and congenial student's sreyodoj.

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A source: Markov NIKOLAY STEPANOVICH. Development of conceptual bases of the maintenance gymnasia obrazoyovanija in Russia of second half XIX - the XXI-st century beginnings. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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  8. 1.1. Factors of formation and development of the maintenance of humanitarian subject matters of classical gymnasia formation as a condition of formation of historical consciousness of grammar-school boys
  9. MARKOV Nikolay Stepanovich. DEVELOPMENT of CONCEPTUAL BASES of the MAINTENANCE of GYMNASIA FORMATION In Russia of SECOND HALF XIX - the XXI-st century BEGINNINGS. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Tver - 2018, 2018
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