<<

working out of theoretical bases of school music education by figures of Russian emigration

The theory of the general music education in the given work is understood «as system of the basic ideas, representations, sights at musical training and the education of children which is carried out in establishments of a general educational profile» [134, with.

92]. A fundamental basis of the theory of any area of school education, including music education, make philosophical and obshchepedagogicheskie ideas about training and rising generation education.

In Russian abroad of 1920-1930th years considerable work on theoretical judgement of basic questions of formation and education of children and youthes was spent. Necessity of this work was dictated essentially by others in comparison with pre-revolutionary Russia conditions in which there were Russian refugees and their children abroad. The big contribution to working out of questions of training and education of children and youth in the conditions of emigration was brought by the Russian philosophers who were abroad of A.L.Bem, S.I. Giessen, M.N.Ershov, V.V. Zenkovsky, I.A.Ilyin, etc. the analysis of works of these thinkers carried out by us has shown, that Russian philosophers has been put forward and a number of the ideas which have made is proved
Theoretical base of training and education of children at Russian foreign school, including music education in it. We will consider these ideas.

For music education at schools of Russian abroad as its theoretical basis the idea put forward by Russian philosophers about necessity to keep in the conditions of emigration of Russian children by Russian had basic value. Possibility of achievement of it saw through construction of all vospitatelno-educational activity of emigrant schools and out-of-school establishments on the basis of national cultural wealth. In formation and education they carried the native language, the Russian literature, domestic history, Russian art, traditions of family education, Orthodoxy to number of priority national values. Thinkers considered, that educational process should be as much as possible sated by national values. In this connection I.A.Ilyin wrote: « ... It is necessary to make so that all fine subjects which for the first time are clearing up spirit of the child, affection causing in it, admiration, a worship, feeling of beauty, feeling of honour, inquisitiveness, magnanimity, thirst of a feat, will to quality - were national, at us in Russia - national-Russian; and further: that they have scented in themselves blood and spirit of the ancestors and would accept love and voleju - all history, destiny, a way and calling of the people; that their soul responded trembling and affection on affairs and words of Russian sacred, heroes, geniuses and leaders »[tsit. On: 196, with. 319].

Formation main objective at emigrant school thinkers of Russian abroad saw in formation of national outlook of pupils. They carried formation to problems of such formation at pupils of understanding of historical development of Russian people, their education on treasuries of Russian culture. The support on national values of formation, marks M.V.Boguslavsky, was the major means of preservation and reproduction of domestic culture, promoted

To organic occurrence of Russian people in other sotsiokulturnuju a reality [146, with. 51].

For music education at Russian emigrant school as one of its theoretical bases had great value idea of the complete person preached by Russian philosophers-emigrants and the idea of complete formation connected with it.

The integrity ideal was actively developed by domestic philosophical thought in XIX century. Under the complete person, according to V.I.Adishcheva, Russian philosophers of that time understood the person in whom «all its spiritual forces - informative, moral, religious, aesthetic - with oedineny in uniform harmonious whole», and they treated complete formation as development of all spiritual forces of the person [134, with. 95]. Philosophers of Russian abroad, defending after predecessors necessity of the organisation of activity of Russian school on the basis of an integrity ideal, underlined its special urgency in the conditions of emigration. So, V.V. Zenkovsky wrote, what exactly integrity possibility «owing to unity of our destiny, our course of life in emigration has appeared. It spiritually unites us with children both at school, and in a family and creates possibility of deeper and all-round educational our influence on young generation» [102, with. 173]. The thinker criticised modern to it school for it odnostoronnost, noticed, that «radical angrily modern school consists in it netselostnosti, that it supports and strengthens isolation of intelligence from other forces of soul, means not development of the person of the child as a whole, and development of its separate parties» [171, with. 171].

In development of the complete person philosophers of Russian abroad took away the important role to spiritually-moral education. S.I. Giessen, reflecting on spiritual education of the person, underlined, that «the power of individuality roots not in a natural power of its psychophysical organism, but in that cultural wealth which her soul» 40 like

[94, with. 18]. Philosophers noticed, that in spiritual education of children - of emigrants it is necessary to learn not so much children, how many to be interested in their life, to be able to divide with them their children's pleasures and excitements. A.L.Bem great value took away roles of the teacher as the psychologist who should «find a way to soul of the modern child» [90, with. 216].

In business of spiritual education of children philosophers suggested to address to Russian orthodox traditions. They marked, what exactly the religion in the conditions of emigration should give to children «a spiritual food», a spiritual support. V.V. Zenkovsky spoke about «hierarchical structure of the person» where spiritual strata is defining and uniting in integrity. He noticed, that Russian schools in bolshej degrees should sate the spiritual and moral nature of children with all that deep and valuable, that is concluded in Russian culture, and a basis of Russian culture is Orthodoxy [tsit. On: 151, with. 51]. I.A.Ilyin wrote about spiritual as parts of national education, and a pray carried to a national treasury. The philosopher noticed, that the pray will give to the child spiritual harmony, a source of spiritual force, will learn it to focus feeling and will, will give it religious experience and will lead it to religious evidence in Russian [104, with. 21].

In formation of the complete person philosophers of Russian abroad specified in necessity of development of natural individual qualities of the person. V.V. Zenkovsky in this connection wrote: «We cannot impose anything to the child because there is no one ideal for all, each individuality should find the way to the ideal form» [100, with. 9].

In development of the complete person philosophers took away the big role of an aesthetic component. So, A.L.Bem noticed, that aesthetic education has paramount value for all system of a sincere life of the child. School, he wrote, is too loaded by an intellectual material, in a family is observed "bezestetichnost", absence of dialogue with the nature, absence of the nurse, a fairy tale, falling of a cult of a song - all deprives it
To shower of aesthetic emotions. The philosopher has been convinced, that children should be rescued through beauty [89, with. 229-230]. In the report «Aesthetic moment of education», read at pedagogical congress (Prague, 1929), A.L.Bem said, that it is desirable to encourage youth in all areas of creativity. In familiarising of young generation with Russian national elements, he considered, it is necessary to take away the big place to music and singing [24, l. 18].

The idea of the complete person aimed pedagogics and educational practice of Russian abroad at the decision of a problem of versatile development of the person, all its spiritual forces, including the aesthetic beginning. It proved necessity of introduction for the maintenance of the general education of emigrant school of subjects of art, including a subject "Singing".

Along with judgement of an ideal of integrity as researchers mark, the philosophical thought of Russian abroad developed the idea connected with this ideal sobornosti, made one of basic bases of the theory of the general music education of rising generation in emigration [134, with. 96]. The given idea has received versatile judgement in a heritage of philosophers of pre-revolutionary Russia. In their works sobornost it was treated as a moral ideal and a principle of ability to live of the Russian people organically combining individual and public («unity in set»).

Philosophers of Russian abroad, keeping continuity with domestic philosophical thought of XIX century, underlined the special importance of idea sobornosti in the conditions of emigration. They considered it as priority national value, specified in necessity of the cathedral, communal organisation of a life of Russian people on foreign land, including education on these beginnings of rising generation. At idea disclosing sobornosti thinkers quite often identified this idea with image of chorus. So, I.A.Ilyin noticed, that choral singing will nationalise a life, accustoms the person to participate in a public unification freely and independently. «Choral singing, - he wrote, - in the marvellous image combines
Independence of the person with realisation of public harmony. Promotes kultivirovaniju national gift to church chanting with their improving force of music. Choral singing should become business national, business of the state importance »[104, with. 11].

The idea of the cathedral, "choral" organisation of lichnostno-social life of the person aimed is musical-pedagogical thought and educational practice of Russian school abroad at collective forms of playing music, confirmed a paramount role of choral singing in rising generation music education.

For music education at emigrant schools as its theoretical base operating time of philosophers of Russian abroad about essence and functions of art, a music role in rising generation education had great value. Especially significant contribution to research of these questions have brought I.A.Ilyin, V.V. Zenkovsky, S.I. Giessen, M.N.Ershov that does necessary to consider their work in more details, having stated and short data on these thinkers.

Ilyin Ivan Aleksandrovich (1883-1954) before revolution has ended the Moscow university, taught in it, and also in the Public university Shanjavsky, the Higher is musical-pedagogical institute and Rhythmic institute. In 1922 has been sent from Russia, has lodged in Berlin where was the dean of faculty of law of the Russian scientific institute which has opened in this city. Acted with lectures and reports, has written works «the Problem of modern sense of justice» (Berlin, 1923), «Religious sense of philosophy» (Paris, 1925), «About resistance to harm siloju» (Berlin, 1925), «the Way of spiritual updating» (1935), «Bases of Christian culture» (1938), etc.

In I.A.Ilyin's created in emigration the philosophical works, the considerable place is given questions of education of rising generation. Formation without education, was written by him, does not form the person, and «raznuzdyvaet and spoils it» [103, with. 412]. Speaking about the special importance
The national beginning in education of Russian people in emigration, he noticed, that «the person who has lost access to spiritual water and spiritual fire of the people, becomes the derelict of humble origin, the groundless and fruitless wanderer on another's spiritual roads» [196, with. 318]. I.A.Ilyin underlined uniqueness of Russian people. «At us the special belief, the character, the way of soul. We differently love, differently we behold, differently we sing», - he wrote [104, with. 14]. All subjects which will clear up for the first time spirit of the Russian child, the thinker marked, should be national, Russian. Spirit of national education, he considered, is formed through «national treasures», such as language, a song, a pray, a fairy tale, poetry, history, etc.

I.A.Ilyin repeatedly underlined the importance and a singing role in national education of each child. «Singing, - he wrote, - will bring to it the first sincere sigh and the first spiritual groan», and it should be Russian [tsit. On: 196, with. 320]. Singing, according to the philosopher, «helps a birth and izzhivaniju feelings with a shower; it transforms passive, helpless and consequently usually burdensome affect - into active, fluid, creative emotion: the child should acquire unconsciously Russian system of feelings and especially spiritual chuvstvovany. Singing will learn its to the first oduhotvoreniju a sincere nature - in Russian; singing will give it the first neyozhivotnoe happiness - in Russian» [196, with. 320] (italics I.A.Ilyin. - N.M.).

The thinker gave great value to acquaintance of children to Russian national song. «The child should hear Russian song in a cradle» [tsit. On: 196, with. 320], - he wrote. Characterising the given phenomenon, he marked: «Russian song is deep, as human suffering; it is sincere, as a pray, it is delightful, as love and a consolation» [196, with. 320]. In emigration, in heavy vital conditions, the thinker underlined, the national tune «will give to a children's soul an outcome from threatening animosity and kamenenija» [196, with. 320]. He recommended to parents and teachers to get Russian pesennik and constantly to enrich a children's soul Russian melodies, to strum,
To sing, induce to echo, participate in chorus. The thinker spoke about necessity everywhere «to create children's choruses - church and secular», to arrange congresses of Russian national song. Choral execution he imagined as mnogogolosnoe singing, «instead of a unison roar of crowd» [tsit. On: 196, with. 320].

On a level with I.A.Ilyin's Russian song considered necessary to acquaint children with a pray. «An original pray, - he wrote, - it is necessary to inhale to the child from first years of a life» [196, with. 321]. He believed, that the pray gives to the child spiritual harmony, a source of spiritual force, learns to focus feeling and will, gives it religious experience and conducts it to religious evidence in Russian. Once again we will underline: the philosopher considered, that acquaintance of children to Russian song and a pray is necessary for carrying out from first years of his life, from a cradle. He marked also necessity of an all-around development of pupils, suggested to acquaint in process of a growing of children them with all kinds of Russian art - music, architecture, painting, theatre, a sculpture.

Zenkovsky Vasily Vasilevich (1881-1962) was not only the large philosopher, but also the psychologist, the seminary student, the teacher. It has ended the Kiev university, taught in it. In 1919 has emigrated from Russia. Taught at the Belgrad university where was the professor of philosophy. Since 1923 of veins in Prague, taught here on psychology chair at Russian pedagogical institute. In 1926 has moved to Paris, was the professor of Piously-Sergievsky orthodox theological institute. Among his compositions such works, as «About pedagogical intellektualizme» (Prague, 1923), «childhood Psychology» (Leipzig, 1924), «Problems of education in the light of Christian anthropology» (Paris, 1934), «History of Russian philosophy» (Paris, 1948­1950) appear.

For V.V. Zenkovsky's pedagogical concept as marks P.V.Alekseev, the recognition of high value internal was characteristic,

The moral world vospituemogo, aspiration of the person to self-formation, development of emotionally-moral sphere of the person [135, with. 346]. In educational and educational work with pupils V.V. Zenkovsky put a problem of development of a creative power of the child, «a creative basis of soul». In this connection the thinker wrote: «If in us there is a creative force also intelligence and activity development will be invaluable help in creative our movement» [100, with. 11]. The thinker gave Great value to development of emotional sphere of the child. In emotional sphere of soul, he marked, there is all our creative energy, the productive depends on health and illnesses of this sphere not only mental balance, but also «

dejstvovanie ».

The thinker considered, that educational process should be under construction on respect for children's individuality, specified in necessity of granting of open space of thought, to feelings, emotions of the child, on importance «to appreciate its aspiration to freedom, to help it to carry out itself» [145, with. 129].

Exclusive role in education of rising generation of V.V. Zenkovsky took away to Orthodoxy which it considered as the higher national value defining all aspects of life of children. In religious education, in its opinion, «the basic place should belong to development of religious inspiration, live free and complete absorption of soul during the Church life». Participation of children in a liturgical life of the church including and singing in a temple, makes, he confirmed, «heart of religious education» [101, with. 245].

In V.V. Zenkovsky's works constantly underlined the big role of the aesthetic beginning in a life, education of children and youthes. «In spiritual maturing, - he wrote, - huge, and sometimes and absolutely exclusive value belongs to aesthetic sphere in us» [101, with.

244]. He believed important to use all «aesthetic forces», including art, with a view of strengthening of a spiritual life of young men.

V.V. Zenkovsky's huge value gave to preservation of Russian cultural traditions at schools which in the conditions of emigration, in its opinion, should become «Russian cultural centres, to be conductors not only knowledge, but also Russian culture in all its vast maintenance» [102, with. 177]. «Russian elements in children» the philosopher considered as a preservation Powerful tool Russian art. He asserted, that «the type and a warehouse of Russian soul becomes most easier to accessible our children through art». It gave Great value to Russian musical art - tool music and especially national song, as «irreplaceable, somewhat to an exclusive conductor of Russian elements» [102, with. 177].

Giessen Sergey Iosifovich (1887-1950), the philosopher, the teacher, the lawyer, after the termination of the Petersburg university and the subsequent training in Germany taught since 1914 at Petrograd university, later was the professor of philosophy, logic and pedagogics of Tomsk university. In 1921 has emigrated. Taught at the Berlin university. Since 1923, being in Czechoslovakia, edited magazine «Russian school abroad», managed chair of Russian higher pedagogical institute of a name of JA.A.Komensky and Russian public university in Prague. The author of the book «pedagogics Bases. Introduction in applied philosophy» (Berlin, 1923) and numerous articles on problems of philosophy, the theory and pedagogics and formation history.

In «pedagogics Bases», one of the most demanded pedagogical books of Russian abroad, S.I. Giessen has shown, that cultural values should make a formation basis. The main task of formation it formulated as «familiarising of the person with cultural values of a science, art, morals, the right, an economy, transformation of the natural person in cultural» [94, with. 36] (italics S.I.
Giessen. - N.M.). Therefore and the pedagogics as the general theory of formation, he marked, should include the theory of scientific, art, religious and economic formation.

One of the central ideas of pedagogical concept S.I. Giessen there was an idea of unity of national and universal rising generation in formation. Reflecting on the nation and mankind, S.I. Giessen marked their "interosculation". According to the scientist, all world cultural process combines variety of national cultures, each of which is especially individual. In turn, the nation saw it as the spokesman of universal values. The thinker considered, that the national education should promote familiarising of pupils with world culture.

S.I. Giessen opposed cultural isolation of the nations, considered, that it leads to educational level fall, preached idea of cooperation between the people. He has been convinced, that the national education should include both "supernational", and "regional" formation. To original national the philosopher carried «well put moral, scientific and an art education» [94, with. 17]. Familiarising of Russian people with world culture the thinker saw in realisation through «means obshcherusskoj the culture covering regional branchings and them fed, than at self-sufficing existence of regional nationalities in their unapproachable and hostile whole isolation» [94, with. 17].

The formation purpose, on S.I. To Giessen, familiarising of the pupil with Russian and world cultural values, scientific achievements is. Simultaneously he saw the formation purpose in formation of the highly moral, free and responsible person. An originality of the person he saw in its spirituality. In the organisation of an education system and in mutual relations of the teacher and the pupil as leader considered freedom principle. «Freedom is creativity new, in the world until then not existing...

Freedom not is any choice between several already given in a ready kind, though also possible only ways, but creation of the new special way which were not existing earlier even in the form of a possible exit »[94, with. 17].

Ershov Matvej Nikolaevich (1886?), the Russian philosopher and the teacher, in 1922 has emigrated to China where read lectures at the Peking university and Harbin pedagogical institute. Perus professor M.N.Ershov belong works «About modern cultural crisis» (Harbin, 1925), «School and a national problem. The Socially-pedagogical sketch» (Harbin, 1926), etc.

The philosopher noticed, that in the course of rising generation education it is necessary to attach it to national culture, to bring up in «spirit of precepts of national culture», to inspire achievements and creativity our national «heroes of spirit» to whom he carried such writers, scientific, musicians, artists, as A.S.Pushkin, L.N.Tolstoy, F.M.Dostoevsky, V.S.Solovyov, M.V.Lomonosov, M.I.Glinka, N.A.Roman, M.V.Nesterov, etc. the Important problem of Russian foreign school the philosopher saw in helping children «to absorb in itself vivifying sources of our national culture» [99, with. 50]. The basic way of formation of national consciousness at pupils M.N.Ershov saw in teaching of national subjects, including Russian choral singing. «Children very much love choral singing., - the thinker wrote, - in realisation of the purposes of national education it is necessary to use Russian national choral songs» [99, with. 80].

In Russian abroad of 1920-1930th years questions of training and rising generation education including music education, along with philosophers were developed also by scientific - teachers. Among them were A.V.Zhekulina, A.A.Zemljanitsyn, S.I.Kartsevsky, S.M.Kulbakin, I.M.Malinin, etc.

At the analysis of books and articles of Russian teachers it is clearly visible, that their views on basic pedagogical questions (the purposes and the maintenance of work of emigrant school, feature of its activity, a place and an art role in education of children, etc.) Appreciably coincided with the ideas stated above and approaches of domestic philosophers. So, pedagogical figures of Russian abroad completely divided idea of Russian philosophers about the major role of emigrant school in preservation and development of national consciousness of pupils. About it, in particular, the head of the Program commission of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school abroad the professor of pedagogics I.M.Malinin repeatedly wrote. It specified, that the school should learn «to feel the child Russian and to wish to be Russian» [196, with. 341]. The teacher recommended to create at emigrant schools the special environment in national spirit, let and "artificial". Urging to put on the foreground directed by educational business in emigrant schools «Russian beginning», he spoke about necessity to acquaint children with Russian music, Russian sayings, proverbs, to use reproductions of pictures with the image of Russian persons, Russian nature, Russian national dresses, etc. Great value the scientist took away to singing lessons, seeing in them considerable possibilities on acquaintance of pupils with Russian national creativity.

The similar position on a case in point was occupied with other visible pedagogical figure of Russian abroad, A.A.Zemljanitsyn, the director of Russian real school in Belgrad. He saw the most effective way of education of national consciousness of children to development of their feelings, the sincere world on the basis of native art. The teacher considered, that to art at school the same important place, as to sciences should be taken away. «Where are interested in the human person, its internal life a little, there there is no interest to art, - he wrote, - and where highly there is a respect for the person, there the soul of the person is the important subject educational 50

Values »[15, l. 5]. Among various art forms the teacher especially allocated music, underlined the importance of choral singing in development of emotional sphere of children. One of the main tasks of school music education he saw in formation at pupils of ability"to like"music, to experience a piece of music. A.A.Zemljanitsyn noticed, that singing at school should not be reduced to mechanical learning of any song and only enough its harmonous execution. Important, he that children sang all soul believed, left in music, were forgotten, and through the singing expressed« deep and sincere feeling »[15, l. 5].

The idea Russian expressed necessity of education of children of refugees not only named above, but also many other things pedagogical figures. They noticed, that it is necessary «to keep in children, and in the necessary cases to light sacred fire of love to the lost Fatherland, to acquaint them with greatness of native history, beauty of native poetry and the literature - a word, to give knowledge and understanding of a native land» [114, with. 96]. All elements of training, they considered, should not only go on acquisition by pupils of knowledge, but also promote «to development of love to Russia, to the native culture» [131, with. 165]. Teachers-emigrants spoke about necessity of revision of school programs to make their "national Russian". The mission of subjects of a national cycle, on their thought, consisted in helping children to feel in the conditions of emigration in itself «spirit of the Russian ancestors» that heart and will of children «responded trembling on affairs and words of Russian sacred geniuses, heroes, leaders» that children «prayed and thought Russian words» [97, with. 26].

Pedagogical figures of Russian abroad were solidary with domestic philosophers and in a question of religious education of children as one of the main bases of formation of their national consciousness. They have been convinced that «only the school and church conduct our children to
To the native land »[3, l. 58]. The school in the conditions of emigration should, in their opinion, bring up religious feeling« not only in the maintenance, but even more in all spirit »[3, l. 24]. Otherwise, as marked the director of the Don female institute N.Duhonina, there is a risk to bring up« healthy physically and morally children, perhaps, perfectly formed, perhaps, even well knowing history and the literature of Russia, but - dushoju not Russian, integrally with it not connected »[3, l. 24].

Giving great value to Russian element in education and training of children of refugees, scientists-teachers spoke about necessity to acquaint them with culture of that country in which they lived. So, the professor of Strasbourg and Prague universities S.I. Kartsevsky wrote, that teaching «national subjects should be organised so that along with love and respect for the at pupils the respect and interest and to the stranger» [tsit would become stronger. On: 143, with. 60]. Domestic teachers, the modern researcher of Russian emigrant school S.N marks. Vasileva, considered necessary to enter pupils of Russian schools abroad into sphere both national, and universal values, underlined importance «familiarizings of Russian soul with native and universal culture» [149, with. 192].

Scientists-teachers of Russian emigration underlined a positive role of art in an establishment of kind relations between Russian refugees and aboriginals. In A.A.Zemljanitsyn's this occasion wrote, that «ability to understanding and chuvstvovaniju all« human »in us develops art» [15, l. 4]. The teacher has been convinced, that «for achievement of that mutual understanding between people without which statement and working out of the higher problems of social development in the spirit of true humanity is impossible, art, the present, deep people opening private world, pulling together souls» [15, l is necessary. 5].

Here pertinently to notice, that teachers of Russian abroad, keeping and broadcasting in emigration the Russian pedagogical traditions, have been opened
To pedagogical culture of the West. They got acquainted with publications of the European and American teachers, took part in the international pedagogical congresses and conferences, used foreign pedagogical innovations in activity of Russian emigrant school. The outstanding figure of socially-pedagogical movement A.V.Zhekulina in this connection wrote: «Our children are everything, that remains to us from a former life. We aspire to give them the best formation which Europe can give, but at the same time keep our religion, art, the literature, music» [25, l. 117].

Speaking about use by teachers-emigrants of foreign experience, we will notice, that the certain part of these teachers was involved with "a method of studying of the facts» which was widespread in the United States and Germany. Application of this method promoted formation at pupils of evident representation about this or that territory of Russia on the basis of literary, art and oral sources. This method as marked M.I.Raev, allowed overcoming of difficulties in training of young generation which any more did not remember or badly remembered Russia, its landscape, people, customs [116, with. 68]. Teachers of Russian schools of emigration also put into practice some elements of the concept of labour school (on J. Dewey) which consisted in involving of the child in process of training by means of work.

In sight of the domestic scientists-teachers working in emigration, there were also questions of training and education of children in the Soviet Russia. As a part of the Pedagogical bureau on affairs of average and lowest Russian school the special commission on studying of a theoretical and practical operational experience of the Soviet school has been abroad created. Results of researches of the commission, which management carried out A.L.Bem, S.I. Giessen, A.V.Makletsov, were reported at pedagogical congresses, were published in pedagogical editions. Teachers-emigrants showed
Interest as it will be shown more low, and to operating time of the Soviet teachers in the field of rising generation music education.

Speaking about Russian pedagogical thought of the first emigrant years, it is necessary to notice that circumstance, that many pedagogical figures in the publications brought an attention to the question on necessity of especially careful relation to children of the refugees who have gone through those years considerable deprivations, and at times and shocks. The thought on necessity of use in work with such children of pedagogical therapy expressed. The magazine «Russian school abroad», covering the given problem, wrote, that to the Russian children who have appeared in emigration, «pedagogical therapy as in most cases it is children the patients infected with all horrors of a revolutionary epoch and civil war first of all is necessary.» [114, with. 95]. The problem was put to organise work of Russian schools abroad so that, influencing «on all soul of the child or the young man, simultaneously to treat, bring up and learn» [58, l. 13]. As one of effective means of emotionally-mental support of children of refugees music was called.

Let's sum up the stated. The carried out analysis of the literature and sources has shown, that to the considered period philosophers and teachers of Russian abroad spent considerable work on theoretical judgement of fundamental questions of training and rising generation education. Basic value for music education at schools and out-of-school establishments of Russian emigration as its theoretical basis the ideas formulated by domestic thinkers about necessity of preservation of national identity of Russian children in the conditions of emigration, their training and education on the basis of national cultural wealth had, doctrines of Russian orthodox church, the best achievements of the pre-revolutionary pedagogical theory and practice.

For music education at Russian schools abroad as its theoretical base music, at Russian emigrant school, prioritetnost collective forms of familiarising of children to musical art were essentially significant also put forward by domestic filosofsko-pedagogical thought during pre-revolutionary time and the ideas developed in emigration sobornosti and the complete person, proving necessity of teaching of subjects of arts, including. For music education the sight of domestic thinkers at a role and a music place in educational work with children was so significant. They considered this art as exclusively significant factor of national, moral, aesthetic education of children, means of their psychoemotional support.

<< | >>
A source: MAMAYEVA Nadezhda PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018. 2018

More on topic working out of theoretical bases of school music education by figures of Russian emigration:

  1. Programmno-methodical maintenance of school music education in Russian emigration
  2. THE CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL BASES OF MUSIC EDUCATION AT SCHOOLS OF RUSSIAN ABROAD
  3. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of patriotic education of students of technical school means of national pedagogics
  4. MAMAYEV HOPE PAVLOVNA. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2018, 2018
  5. 2.1. Judgement of problems of a technique of the general music education teachers-musicians of Russian abroad
  6. MAMAYEV Nadezhda Pavlovna. MUSIC EDUCATION of CHILDREN At SCHOOLS And OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS of RUSSIAN ABROAD (1920-1930th years). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Perm - 2019, 2019
  7. Chapter 1. Theoretical bases of pedagogical maintenance of aesthetic education of children of average school age in nonlearning activity of educational institution
  8. CHAPTER 2. METHODICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MUSIC EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN RUSSIAN ABROAD
  9. practical statement of music education at schools of Russian abroad
  10. THEORETICAL BASES of PROFESSIONAL ADAPTATION of TEACHERS To PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY In HIGH SCHOOL
  11. CHAPTER 3. WORKING OUT OF THEORETICAL BASES BIONICHESKY FORMOOBRAZOVANIJA JEWELS
  12. THEORETICAL BASES of DESIGNING of the MAINTENANCE And the ORGANIZATION of PROCESS of PSIHOLOGO-PEDAGOGICAL PREPARATION of CADETS In MILITARY HIGH SCHOOL
  13. CHAPTER 2. THEORETICAL BASES of PERFECTION of PROCESS of WORKING out of ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS In ENTERPRISE STRUCTURES
  14. approbation of model of interaction of school and a family in duhovnoyonravstvennom education in polycultural educational
  15. features of patriotic education of students of technical school
  16. 2.1. Realisation of pedagogical ideas of Howard Gardner in school education of the USA