§ 2. Природная причина человеческого существа.

Для kappadokijskih teachers basic position is, that the first person has not been generated by the nature, and has been created directly Богом144. However the soul is not Deity "part" (this thesis apologists in polemic with gnosticism have rejected still).

Between the God and a creature it is necessary there is time and ontologic "interval" (Yaotg \\ha, ihataochs;) the-term which is rather often used Kappadokijtsami. It means final time in which the world is concluded, unlike eternity as future immortality (aicov) and eternity Bozhiej (that d'L ' &iov).

143 Greg. Nyss. De anim. et ress. (PG 46: 89-92).

144 Greg. Nyss. Contra Evn I. 34.

This interval is formed by all limiting qualities tvarnogo existence: time, sostavnostju, extent, and also ignorance depending on them, oblivion and so forth Reasonings on these lacks are full all gomilii of three teachers of Church. It is necessary to distinguish this «a nature infirmity» from sinfulness. The chasm between the God and the person is not eliminated any human pravednostju. At the heart of existence of the person always there will be its nature which does not have in ontologically anything Divine, as created from ashes terrestrial. It is a basis of the human passions having direct ukorenenost in laws of the physical world. Though a source of negative action of passions is the free will by which it is allocated smothering, - neuderzhimost their possession the person is defined by the physical law of gravitation "from top to bottom" fat материи145 which hostage the person has become. Thus, soul distortion has caused frustration of corporal structure, has brought in it the beginning of chaos which back influences soul, not allowing it to organise human life on the reasonable sample. For this reason as ascetic practice affirmed, that humility of a flesh is not reached only by force of work and intellectual pressure of the devotee, but it is obligatory to eat gift from Бога146.

However this corporal nature from which the person is stuck together, not is a dead matter. According to U background Baltazara, «the world described in De hominis opificio, represents that big stoical space (TCOV o'Acov fiots;), which... In perfect harmony of the parts is a live organism» 147. This harmony is provided with that the God participates in "logose" each thing; logic sheaves of things of the world an essence of a texture of Its reasonable laws. However, the intrinsic relationship of the God and the world (especially - them panteisticheskoe identity) this fact does not prove to be true at all. In the doctrine of Kappadokijsky school there is no place for such gradation of the created life which would allow it to pass smoothly in netvarnoe life.

This feature throws light on the relation Christian kosmologii IV centuries to the Platonic. The doctrine of the last about preexistence of the ideal world initially containing in the God was the main point of aversion kappadokijtsami platonizma. So, it agree the Dam, the world of ideas results only from Uniform. Mind, being set of all Ideas, comprises already and the beginning


145 Greg. Nyss. De beat. II.

146 «the Disastrous flesh... - St. Grigory Bogoslov addresses to the corporal structure, - render me respect, cease to rave and feed irreconcilable enmity for my soul!...

But Yours, the Christ, gift - both a pure life, and a life from dead» (Greg. Theol. Poems. On a flesh. 1. (t. 2 with. 143)).

147 Balthasar N U. von. Presence and Thought. Essay on Religious Philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa. San Francisco, Ignatius Press, 1995. p. 98.

148 «Mind is not simple, but is plural, and is though and umopostigaemym, but made, and already sees many things» (Plot. Enn V. 4. 2).

Pluralities. Considering proceeding from Uniform a reality of Ideas and not having been able to keep it in unity, he creates all variety вселенной149. Grigory Bogoslov, subjecting to criticism these views, underlines, as nowadays existing space, and about what it is told «se, I create all new», equally there is a creation of the Father and the Son, as Mind and the Word. The thought on «division of functions» at creation of two sorts mirobytija, especially in eschatological prospect, causes indignation in St. Grigory. « Really He (Father) has created other world before the present, and will create future, and the Son, looking at them, both present has created, and future will create? So, on this reasoning four worlds: two - creation of the Father and two - creation of the Son. What nerazumie!. Whether it is obvious, that same has put the Father prednachertyvaet, and the Word carries out, not rabski and is blind, but with conducting and vladychestvenno to tell more precisely, fatherlike... Not in imitation created, but on ravnochestiju the authorities »151.

149 «Mind... Had from It (Blessings) force to give rise and thanks to It it was filled with the generations for the Blessing was that it had no itself... Mind could not contain force, to it accepted, but has broken it and has made uniform plural» (Plot. Enn VI. 7. 15).

150 Откр.21:5.

131 Greg. Theol. Or. 30, De Theol. 4, De Filio 2. It is allocated by me - B.H.

152 Balthasar I U. von. Presence and Thought. Essay on Religious Philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa. San Francisco, Ignatius Press, 1995. p. 27. Ha it directs attention and B.H. Lossky: Divinity and Bogovidenie. The collection of articles (M: 2000). With. 191.

It is how much possible to say what kappadokijtsy were faster nominalists in the outlook, than realists? On the one hand, «not reduced opposition between the God and a creature» 152 assumes, that there is no necessity for Ideas as in separate sushchnostjah. On the other hand, they recognised Logos, or Word Bozhie, as present at all life in the form of plans, or "logosov" each thing. This doctrine later has been regularly developed prep. Maxim Ispovednikom. «In Logose all life is involved the God. These close relations Logosa to the world are expressed at means and in shape energy It, or small logosov (Abuoch), ideas on which creatively it is as though dismembered Uniform Divine Logos and which again unite in It as radiuses in the circle centre. According to triple activity Logosa - creative, procogitative and judging, and It Aoyoi, or ideas, are shown trojako: as the basic beginnings or nature laws (Aoyoi fisgeoh;) And as the purposes or craft and court ways (Aoyoi 7iQovoLa ihl ^ ' ah TS? ua^oi sshch\ha voov)» 166. Rather essential

That soul and a body not only are not put by Grigory Bogoslovom on one ontologic plane is represented, not only get divorced as two different substantive reasons of the uniform human being, but also differ among themselves as natural and supernatural. The person who is giving rise to posterity, is the parent only fleshes, but do not smother. It - «breath of the Almighty of the God, coming from the outside, forms a flesh». Thus, «the soul initially belongs to Divine

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165 Greg. Nyss. De hom. opif XI. 153 d (SC 6, 121).

166 Greg. Theol. Poem, moral XII. 5 (PG 37, 754).

167 Grigory Bogoslov. Poems. A virginity praise, (t. 2. With. 171).

168 Ellverson A. S. The Dual Nature of Man. A Study in the Theological Anthropology of Gregory of Nazianzus. Uppsala, 1981. P. 22.

169 Grigory Bogoslov. The definitions slightly traced, (t. 2. With. 373).

To sphere ». It was not followed, however, by idea of preexistence of the soul, so obviously expressed at Origena. Kappadokijtsy did not accept tradutsionizma which supporter was Tertullian, metempsihoza in its any kind. From their point of view, a shower there is a special creative certificate of the God which beginning coincides with the beginning of corporal human life in a womb of mother. In other words, the person is not conceived, does not develop, is not born and does not grow without soul.« Soul - the nature recovering and driving »169. But the soul comes, as gift from the God to recover ashes. If the life-giving Spirit has not carried out this breath, the person never and has not seen light. Therefore

Preeternal existence of each separate person in the Deity bosom is no more, than imagination.

The natural reason of the human being is, in the nearest relation, parents of each person. In «to the Praise devstvu» St. Grigory Bogoslov argues that the marriage which is giving rise to the new free human person, in an equal measure can be «a root devstva» and «a defect root» whereas itself devstvo is a stone about which «the death wave» has broken. Here again we meet things in common of Christian philosophy with neoplatonizmom in which are distinctly looked through both general provisions, and essential distinctions of these doctrines. For the Dam occurrence of the person in the world also anticipates moral struggle. Polemizing with gnostikami, Dams solves the important problem which stood before Platon, a-problem of soul and its ability any way to sin. One of the purposes the Dam is upholding of infallibility of World Soul, therefore angrily he tries to concentrate all in human subjectivity of individual soul. It, however, does not allow to give a convincing explanation to that fact, that perversity prevails in all mankind.

For kappadokijtsev the given question did not stand as a problem as Revelation informed on an origin of all sort of people from one couple created by the God. The sin, thus, has the genetic nature: Adam has sinned, and «in it all have sinned» (Rome. 5:12). Everyone


170 Rist J. Metaphysics and Psychology in Plotinus' Treatment of the Soul//Papers in Mediaeval Studies 4. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983. P. 140.

171 Althaus H. Die Heilslehre des heiligen Gregor von Nazianz. MUnster, 1972. S. 109.


The separate sin is only repetition Adam's a fall of man. The mankind has disappeared from the God as whole because has disappeared in the beginning of the existence, and out of related communications with Adamom and Eve no human soul exists. So, the sin is a patrimonial sign. But also rescue becomes a patrimonial sign for «new mankind», united in Church under the beginning of "the second Adam» - the Christ. Here, in a choice between rescue and death, already individual will of each person just as also Adam's will was in the beginning only its individual will is shown. Without Adam's this bible understanding as concrete person and, at the same time, as pervopredka all people, defined process of human race, it is impossible to make representation about anthropology kappadokijtsev and to understand, how they used ellinskuju psychology.

So, being born in the long term death rates, the person quite corresponds to the natural reason which is characterised by a deviation from plan Bozhija. Being in corporal "house", the person is placed in the world, instead of soars over it. «Where the reason would not assume to transfer the person, the person all the same remains in the world. And the world contains in hand Bozhiej» 172. As it has already been told, the world is created before the person with a definite purpose. But also the person, possessing the world, should serve it, erecting all life to the spiritualised existence. It should be a part of the world because of the corporal organisation. Such «correlation kosmologii with anthropology», according to J.Pelikana, is characteristic not only for Christian, but also

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In general for any philosophy. However, underlines St. Vasily Veliky, Aristotle when placed in limits of this world not only an origin, but also a being of soul which, ostensibly, never can pass through "sky" existential космоса174 was wrong.

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A source: Neganov Vladimir Vladimirovich. Anthropology of the Cappadocian school. Thesis of the Candidate of Philosophy: 09.00.03, Moscow 2006. 2006

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