§ 1.1 Evolution drevneegipetskih representations about maat: from an imperial prerogative to ethics of personal virtue

History mifopoeticheskih views of the ancient Egyptians, considered from

Creations of the first considerable literary monuments («Texts of pyramids») to the Macedonian gain, deprived traditional Egyptian culture bolshej prestige and influence parts, totals over two thousand the years consisting of the long periods of relative stability, interrupted powerful outwardly - and internal political shocks.

These shocks made resolute impact on outlook of Egyptians of the subsequent time pieces стабильности1. In such "discrete" vector of historical process we can present the changes occurring to representation of ancient Egyptians about justice-maat. Considering internal unity of the Egyptian politiko-legal views with divinity and existence of the examples of the detailed reference noted in Introduction to a question, we will prefer to concentrate on changes connected with maat a "political" myth [113 [114] [115].

According to the short edition of the dictionary of V.Helka and E.Otto, maat - «the central existential and social concept characterising

The Egyptian world, state and vital device »1. The main Russian of an equivalent four:« True "," the truth "," justice "and" order »[116 [117] [118]. maat in the Egyptian attitude it is possible to judge a place on she played what role myths about a world origin. The most ancient, reached on papyrus Bremner-Rind (on surnames of the two first owners) [119], begins with typical [120] for kosmogony situations, when« not vossushchestvovalo still the sky, not vossushchestvovala still the earth », but was boundless and bezdvizhnyj the ocean called Nun, in which the future demiurge (a name to it - Hepri drifts ("Vossushchestvujushchy", the rising sun; gods Ra (« the Solar disk »- the sun in zenith) and Atum ("Finished"- the evening sun) are it ipostasjami). Hepri, so to say, comes to consciousness,« conceives in the heart »something and begins the"self-deployment"process occurrence of two beginnings of the nature - offsprings of demiurge Shu ("Air") and Tefnut ("Water") becomes which first stage. They participate to the father in all further creation. In chronologically not too remote spell № 80 of "Texts of sarcophagi» (XXIII-XXI centuries) about goddess Tefnut it is told: «Maat - its name» (CT 80 II 32 e) 1. Thus, Maat-Tefnut - not simply "attribute" of space given to it by the creator, but "ordering" from this space, for ever (in a spell it is said, that Tefnut (Maat) - «an eternal constancy», and SHu (Life) - «eternal returning»: CT 78 II 22 with, 23 defining its device. When demiurge Atum complains Nunu of "slackness" still oppressing it, Nun gives advice to bring Maat to it, Atuma, to a nose (CT 80 II 35 c) after which execution the creation and becomes possible. As truly transfers motive the foreign researcher, Maat "feeds" a deity, it «lives to it» [121 [122] [123].

Dzhedefra, correcting in the middle of the third millenium, became the first Pharaoh who has included in titulaturu the formula "son Ra". At tsars V


Dynasties (XXVI-XXIV centuries) the title became common.

Maat, identified with "daughter" of the demiurge, it has appeared it is genetically connected and with leading from the demiurge the family tree the tsar of Egypt. To a fortress of bonds of the tsar and Maat in drevneegipetskoj to ideology promoted also become usual since an epoch of the Ancient kingdom ikonograficheskoe the image of the spouse and mother of the tsar in images of this goddess [124].

The clearest formulation of a problem of the Egyptian tsar - «create maat» - it is presented in «Lecture of tsar Merikare» (§ 46) [125], written down a little bit later (apprx. XXI century), but its anticipation is already in «Texts of pyramids» where the tsar boasts of an establishment «maat to the place of the disorder» (Pyr. § 625 [126]). The tsar with its origin and such mission became on a step close to the demiurge. «In the world - Egyptologist O.D.Berlev, - constantly two sun wrote: old, heavenly, the creator of the world, and young,„ solnchonok "/" solntsevich ", the tsar of Egypt, after death merging with heavenly» 1. For both lords - the demiurge and the Pharaoh - «contrast correct miroustrojstva maat was the chaos isft»,


The personifying disorder in the widest sense. For the Pharaoh, obviously, infringement of the state way with which displays to it, the Pharaoh, followed in every way was the main display of the disorder struggle. The demiurge cared of the physical nature (for example, about timely floods of Nile) and about an order among gods. Nun, the personified primitive ocean, from «struggle for maat» was absolutely excluded, that, however, does not do Nuna "malicious". For Egyptians cultivation of the order established by gods with immemorial to "vossushchestvovanija" the demiurge inert chaos removed a problem teoditsei. In Nune there could be "potentialities" both sacrally ordered (gods), and obviously chaotic (harm). Nun it is inert; « vossushchestvovanija »in it are not consequences of its wills. Naturally, do not participate in creation of harm and gods. Therefore angrily as display isefet was primary, prehistoric property of the world and (here we will join Egyptologist E.Hornungu) simply not


Had to gods of any relation. J.Assman corrects this position a little: agreeing that isefet does not belong tvarnomu to the world, he considers, that in the world of harm Egyptians directly connected a birth with idea "svobodovolija" [127 [128] [129] [130]. That before the "ill-intentioned" acts obviously made from divine giving they saw punishments from above and, hence, were not chaos displays, but maintenance means maat.

Absence of border between the world live (with its political relations) and existence beyond the grave (with a posthumous court)

It was transferred in drevneegipetskom divinity through presence in the nature of everyone antropomorfnogo beings of five (under Allen's version) elements: bodies, shades, a name, and also Ка1 and Ba [131 [132] [133] [134] from which us last interests - Ba. In the domestic literature word Ba (bA) is quite often translated as "soul" or "spirit" - on a critical remark of orientalist A.L.Vassoevicha, «according to value of the elite for it during age-old times


The Greek conformity psyche », however in the Egyptian language semantics of this word it is perfect other. It is connected with representations about« hallows "and" power »: as"power"translate from the Egyptian language false plural from Z (blwf. The sense of"power"causes representations about"mobility"Ba allowing it to leave a dead body and freely to move not only within a next world, but also« on the earth living ». Other components of a human nature of such possibility had no, that is why Ba have been intended to fasten lifetime and posthumous existence. Thus, though Ba was the major component of human nature, the Egyptian doleful anthropology provided possibility of full disappearance Ba in case its owner will not deserve the verdict of"not guilty"on court beyond the grave [135]. Thus the idea of a relationship of cause and effect of posthumous destiny of the person with its lifetime activity is expressed. Basic "criterion" of this activity in Ancient Egypt traditionally was it "vpisannost" in creation maat. Therefore during an epoch of the Ancient kingdom public service was the only thing for not-reigning by achievement of the best posthumous life - the help I reign, which with Maat has been connected genetically. However already in crisis of the central power of the First transition period (apprx. XXII centuries) in the doleful literature there were signs of that Assman has laconically called «relations of the head and the subordinate»: instead of utter devotion to the tsar loyalty to the benefactor now was respected. It is obvious, that during a dissociation epoch each of the former imperial servants could choose the benefactor-tsarka on расчету1.

Country reunion during an epoch of the Average kingdom has returned primordial samples Egyptian "vernopoddanichestva" and has admitted to creation maat rather a wide range of the nobility and rich men, on what specifies distribution to this period epigraficheskih "reports" and voshvaleny before gods of the affairs [136 [137] [138]. Splendour slavoslovy is quite explainable: in drevneegipetskoj to political culture the preference demanding set of the state minds to direct, "manual" management before action of the abstract in general was given


Rules. In general the true decision of a question on existence in Egypt of laws and the valid relation to them now is impossible in the absence of serious faktologicheskoj bases. The most reliable certificates - edikt correcting in XIV century Horemheba («I have given to them [to judges - B.CH.] The instruction (rd) and laws (hpw) in the form of "diaries" »- lane N.S.Petrovsky); a passage from more ancient« Set phrases Ipuvera "(" rolls of laws of an appellate court are thrown out, on them go at crossroads »- lane V.V. Struve). They, apparently, allow to tell only, that laws are necessary in court activity. Other sending - a fresco in tomb Rehmiry [139], velmozhnogo judges of XV century, representing something like rolls with laws; however under other version rolls for court, and lashes for экзекуции1 are represented not. Istoriko-legal digression Diodora (Diod. 75 sqq., 94-95), our most vast source, it is necessary to use with the big care. Though places of its data (for example, about the chief justice -"vizier") find acknowledgement [140 [141] [142], their big part looks doubtfully - in particular that, as to imperial zakonoposlushnosti, the eight-languid arch and legislative works at once six Pharaohs including Persian Darija. These data as the author of the dissertation on Diodoru has shown, have utopian and moralising, instead of historical, character: they give model of the organised, legislative and fair society, contrasted to Rome corrupted and rukovodimomu, in opinion


The Sicilian historian, an arbitrariness not constraining laws Oktaviana.

For the Average kingdom essential changes of representation about maat, caused not only the political reasons, but also general "democratisation" of doleful beliefs [143], thus, are characteristic.

Have affected development of representations and event of XIV century - the well-known religious revolution Ehnatona connected with radical depreciation of traditional Egyptian values and, first of all, of "old" representation about maat as about a space and constant order. Even despite that fact, that Ba in "monotheism" component human природы1 continued to be treated as inherent in everyone, it is easy to present confusion which was tested during this period by a considerable part of Egyptians. The matter is that theology Ehnatona has considerably changed habitual shape of Egyptian space: the deity became one, and the tsar - the only thing who with it co-operates. Clearly about it speaks «Big hymn Atonu» - a monument going back to board Ehnatona and repeatedly mentioning his name. The tsar in it is called «as the only thing for Ra [144 [145] [146], son Ra living in Maat"." You in my heart, - declare the tsar to a deity, - and there is no another which would learn you »(lane N.S.Petrovsky). Bolshej an influence part in a pantheon has lost Osiris, earlier knowing doleful destiny participating in creation maat the person. It attracted a separation of weight of Egyptians from creation maat and, hence, easing of hope of posthumous pleasure Such state of affairs became one of the main reasons of fragility of" monotheism »after death Ehnatona. Role Tutanhamona, his son, in returning of former usages, on restoration of temples marking the beginning stele is described so:« It has eliminated a sin... Maat remains, it has allowed to be lie nasty thing for the earth, as [during first time of its life] »(lane J.J.perepelkina). Distribution to an epoch of the New kingdom so-called« ethics of personal piety »[147] became Response of the Egyptian society also. The best posthumous fate was reached now not only, and it is not so much service, how many preservation during lifetime of pure moral shape in a combination to use on posthumous travel of soul of the various magic formulas which meeting is« the Book dead », including well-known« a negative confession »gl. CXXV. In this spell the died and itself approves, that« I live in maat »(rnh.i m mArt), that is proved as follows:« I without a sin, without defect, without harm, without weaknesses. There is no against whom I would create something. I gave bread hungry, water thirsting, clothes nude »(lane M.A.Chegodaeva). Expression mAr hrw - letters was the valid form imenovanija died in Egypt."pravogolosyj"in value"justified"where the first part is etymologically close to a word"maat".

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A source: CHalabi Bashir Fahedovich. Justice and laws In mifopoeticheskoj thought and philosophical views of the people of the Ancient world (Egypt, Babylonia, Greece). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Moscow, 2014. 2014

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