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the basic lines of parallel economy

Let's consider in more details a being of problems which arise at attempt to put into practice standard paradigm SLPO in conditions ekonoyomiki, historically caused institutsionalnye which parametres otyolichajutsja from institutes of "normal" market economy.

Kenneth Errou has described changes of the last years in the former socialist countries as «revolution which will be compared subsequently to development of capitalism from system of feudal relations». He also noticed, that the indicated development of capitalism has required centuries and that «helped it some kind of symbiosis between feudal lords and the merchants who were reasonable in cities» [177, with. 1]. As we repeatedly underlined, one of the most appreciable lines of the changes occurring in Russia the last years, difficult relations simyobioza, arisen between the nomenclature («lords of a planned economy») and businessmen from parallel economy are. The planned and "shadow" ("parallel") economy at all antipodes — parallel economy «existed near to official economy, but concerned the same system» [239, with. 42]. Crash of socialist system and disintegration of Soviet Union have simply brought the power form into accord with already more or contents less developed it (the power of the nomenclature of an average link) [33].

The symbiosis noted above (between economic and often political power and «parallel structures») represents the basic sisyotemnuju line of a modern transitional economy. We can even go further and tell, that this symbiosis (including dependence, it is frequent imejuyoshchuju criminal character) itself is today basic "inyostitutom" modern Russian economy. Accordingly, to get rid of it — very uneasy problem.

Considering, that roots of institutes of parallel economy can be tracked in a planned economy of the former Soviet Union, we will begin the analysis of a situation of a transition period with the short generalised transfer of the brightest lines of parallel economy which it has acquired more close by the end of totalitarian economic and political system.

The parallel economy in the former Soviet Union outwardly had much in common with market economy. In particular, it was completely free from state interference (except for necessity of payoff or zapuyogivanija government officials). The parallel economy even was much more free"than any traditional economy in the developed world. The prices were established freely, and all economic subjects in that economy dejyostvovali is strict according to a maximisation principle have arrived. At the same time, in spite of the fact that the parallel economy promoted ispravleyoniju some inefficient lines of official economy, she on herself was a source of much bigger number of inefficiencies, nekotoyorye from which what it has been urged to correct were not less serious, rather than.

First such inefficiency is connected with absence of the constitutional agreements legally defining the right to the property and obespechivayojushchih its observance. As we already saw, in official economy of the former Soviet Union the right to the property has been very strictly designated, and its observance — is supplied. In parallel economy each subject vyyonuzhden independently to protect the right to the property and, moreover, thus not to be found out by the authorities.

This problem could be executed
Only under condition of the contents of the expensive command which were watching for prinuyoditelnym by observance of the right to the property or if "sobstvenyonika" for money the mafia grouping attended to protection. Naturally, even purely economic costs of such protection of the property rights (let alone probable consequences in the form of human sufferings and lives) were gorazyodo above, than in a constitutional state or even in a socialistic state.

The condition of continuous antagonism between various "mini-gosudarYostvami", arising round the centres of parallel economy in their symbiosis with government facilities and the nomenclature, resulted and leads to huge public costs, unprecedented not only in developed ryyonochnyh economy, but even in (normally functioning) ierarhichesyokom the state. In spite of the fact that for the description of the situation which have resulted in "transitional economy", many terms have been created, Russians prefer to use a word badly transferable to other languages: "bespredel". "Bespredel" means nothing limited prenebreyozhitelnoe, selfish behaviour. If to draw parallels, it is similar gob - bsovskomu to concept of the world of a condition of complete anarchy and power disintegration where «each against each», and the life "is lonely, poor, disgusting, severe and short" [223, with. 96].

The second reason of an inefficiency which is connected with the first, the market segmentation high level is. As earlier in parallel ekonoyomike it was necessary to hide constantly the activity from the dictator, these initially set institutsionalnye parametres have predetermined its functioning in hardly segmented market and after crash diktatuyory. Though pricing in parallel economy depends on the offer and demand (as it always and was, even at a planned economy), the market segmentation leads to a huge trading range and absence of any real codification of "game rules". In each segment of parallel economy the quantity of participants is strictly limited, and the commodity flow, the capital, a labour and the information becomes isolated on itself. Result of it is situyoatsija, at which exchange and other operations which would involve not one, and various segments of parallel market so are high that is impossible, nayo
Example to reach optimum scales of production from the point of view of simple economic efficiency. Efficiency of a planned economy suffered from overwork quantity of too large productions (as we already videyoli, it has been dictated by necessity to save on costs ekonomiyocheskogo planning). Efficiency of parallel economy suffers from an opposite extreme measure. In particular, the system based on parallelyonoj to economy, is not less hostile to a competitiveness, than former planned sisteyoma to what the difficulties interfaced to creation new bizneyosa where overcoming of bureaucratic obstacles is, perhaps, yet sayomym difficult testify. As one more certificate to that can serve widely izvestyonye huge price differences on the same goods in the next regions. For example, in December, 1994 the petrol retail price in the next areas of the Central Russia fluctuated from 33 thousand roubles for litre in Moscow and Tver to 51 thousand roubles in Yaroslavl. The groupings supervising petrol bizyones in the territory, in every possible way interfered with adjustment of prices.

Thirdly, the parallel economy by the nature is focused only on the most short-term maximisation of profit. It speaks also it kulyoturnymi roots (which most important line is "bespredel"), and natural absence diversifikatsii the market, allowing kontroliroyovat risks. If to take into consideration, that for successful transition to rynochyonoj to economy it is necessary to update considerably industrial potential, — in particular, to make replacement of the old equipment, to alter proizvodyostvennye the lines intended for issue of military or other production which required svergnutoe a communistic management but which is not necessary to private consumers, — it becomes obvious, that parallel ekoyonomika not in a condition to grant neither necessary long-term development, nor motivation for such reorganisation.

Fourthly, the aspiration of the mafia operating parallel ekonomiyokoj to absorb unterests in the shortest terms, has one more feature: the mafia is inclined to prefer the activity which is bringing in the fast income and directly not connected with production, it is not going to develop long-term industrial potential of firms in the market segment. It, in particular, extremely negatively affects spheres of application the human
go the capital: instead of productive work on extraction of profit from organiyozatsii production, the most talented people become soyomnitelnymi businessmen as this line of business appears much more favourably (see [243]).

And at last, the parallel economy, each of which segments svjayozan with a certain part of machinery of state, has a consequence ogyoromnye social costs in the plan of "the structural organisation of corruption». It is a question of following difference of present system from, say, sotsialistichesyokoj totalitarian system. At totalitarian system of the rule of advancement upwards on a career ladder and the privilege, and material benefits, soputstvoyovavshie to such advancement, have been accurately defined also by all well-known. Certainly, was sometimes possible to bribe the high officer, but even in such cases existed strictly enough observed neofitsialyonye the rules which infringements «were punished by party bureaucracy, and poyotomu happened infrequently» [259, with. 605]. To put it briefly, the system, even when it supposed some level of corruption, was in the basis homogeneous and imeyola accurate internal links that allowed to reduce to minimum losses "effektivyonosti" its functioning (efficiency in a broad sense, including the conventional norms of that, how many «it is possible to take»).

This more or less organised system of corruption is infringed, kogyoda the power passes to parallel economy. Each of its segments starts to act under the rules but as the economy is penetrated by set of interdependences, absence of coordination leads still bolyoshim to public costs, than all clear system hierarchical koryoruptsii: « The various ministries, establishments and bodies local samoupravyolenija independently from each other establish own sizes of bribes, trying to maximise own incomes and disregarding influences, kotoyorye their actions render on actions of other bribe takers »[259, with. 605], putting thereby the greatest damage of economic efficiency. The given situation has similarity to known theoretical result from the theory of the organisation of industrial production: the uniform monopoly on proizvodyostvo the goods or the services which consumption is interconnected, is menyoshim harm in comparison with set of small monopolies for each separate
Kind of the goods (services). «The independent structure ignores effect of increase treyobuemyh from it the sizes of bribes for reception of additional permissions... Acting independently from each other, two structures actually stir and one another, together with to private buyers of such permissions» [259, with. 606]. The problem in the Russian conditions becomes complicated even more that access to "business" vzjatyokovymogatelstva (unlike civilised business) is practically opened also is limited by nothing.

2.4.

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A source: Javlinsky Grigory Alekseevich. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM of Russia And the PROBLEM of ITS MODERNIZATION. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the Doctor of Economics. Moscow - 2005. 2005

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