1.2.3 Communicative and temporalnye perception factors Communicative factors of perception of the political leader

In the course of complication of an information field, character of information technologies and improvement of computer technics discussions about a role of mass-media in the course of perception political действительности4 amplify.

The intrinsic party of politiko-communication processes is procedure of transfer, moving, a turn of the political information, influencing an image. As political communications we will understand «all set of isolated communicative actions between the power and a society which transfer mass-media» 5. It is a lot of works of domestic authors, it is devoted a problem of influence of mass media on specificity electoral поведения6.

1Качества the authorities: perception and population representations. S.126-127.

2См.: Graham, Carol, Pettinato, Stefano. Frustrated Achievers: Winners, Losers and Subjective Well-Being in New Market Economies//The Journal of Development Studies. 2002. Vol. 38. No. 4. P. 100–140; Zadorin I.V. From Putin wait for a sustainable development//the Russian federal edition «Total internal product». 2012. №2. http://www.vvprf.ru/archive/

3Магун Century S, Rudnev M.G.Bazovye of value of Russians in the European context//Social studies and the present. 2010. №3. With. 11–12.

4Данному T.S.Illarionovoj, M.A.Lavruhina, O.A.Budarinoj's works are devoted a question

5Психология political perception in modern Russia. С.41

6К researchers of the given problem can carry to M.Brades, J.Burovu, A.Grushu, I.Dzjaloshinskogo, I.Zadorina, T.Zurabishvilli, L.Salbievu, A.Syutkin, etc. J concern the most known issledovatejam considering this question E.Dennis and D.Meril, P.Abramson. Oldrich, D.Roud, S.Ajengar, D.Kinder, D.Kellneo, L.Kejd, M.

Makkini, J. Tedesko, etc.

Last two decades political scientists depart from orthodoxy of treatment of the importance of mass-media in the course of political восприятия1. For today there are some positions on degree of this importance from statements about a straight line взаимозависимости2, to conclusions about the extremely mediated character of this influence. Thus, that some researches in the field of electoral behaviour and perception in general ignore influence СМИ3, their big part leans against «the cultivation theory» J. Gerbnera, the concept of "an agenda establishment» 4 and others others compromise подходы5. Discrepancy of opinions in the given area is quite often caused by absence of obvious proofs of that activity of mass-media, promotes strengthening political предпочтений6. The majority of authors speak about limitation of their influence on electoral appeal, in force: that frequent mismatch, that mass-media put in the forefront and on elections and that that the public considers most важным7; Information field contradictions; fields; perceptions and comprehension of that in whose interests this influence is carried out by the individual of the basic subject of influence of mass-media; variations of information sensitivity of voters in

The periods of political stabilisation and serious political изменений8.

Considering a question of the communicative factor researchers, as a rule, pay attention to specificity of influence of mass-media on already developed public stereotypes of perception and feature of the political context connected with internal and foreign policy of the state. That fact, that

«The importance of each event for an audience of mass-media is defined by importance which to this event is given by mass media» 9, the sharpness of an elective situation allows to assume, that, institutsionalnyj level of elections will promote also to strengthening of the importance of influence of mass-media for process of formation of an image of the political leader-candidate. Specificity of influence of mass-media on pertseptivnyj process is defined and that mass-media at illumination of news consider probability of the possible response auditoii on toili other event, as consequence they are inclined to illumination of events in a uniform key, focusing attention to the identical points of view and using

1О omnipotent character of communicative aspect and manipuliruemosti passive recipients-voters spoke F.Lipman and G.Lassuel. By the end 30х-50х the, marked occurrence of the theory of two-level communications, P.Lazarsfelda, B.Berelsona, H.Gode, E Kempdella, denied the concept of direct influence of mass media.

2Ladd J. M. D., Lenz G. Exploiting a Rare Shift in Communication Flows to Document Media Effects: The 1997. British Election//American Journal of Political Science. 2009. Vol. 53. No.2, P. 394–410

3Norris P. Did the Media Matter? Agenda-Setting, Persuasion and Mobilization Effects in the British General Election Campaign//British Politics. No. 1. 2006. P.195

4Развивали such scientists as N.Lojd, M.Makkombs, D.Shou, S.Ajengar, D.Kinder.

5Л.Федотов, M.Gadzhiev, I.Dzjaloshinsky, Lenart, Bartels, Merril.

6Brynin M., Newton K. The National Press and Voting Turnout: British General Elections of 1992 and 1997//Political Communication. 2003. Vol. 20. No.1. P. 59–72.

7Andersen R., Tilley J., Heath A. Political Knowledge and Enlightened Preferences: Party Choice through the Electoral Cycle//British Journal of Political Science. 2005. Vol. 35. No. 2. P. 285.

8Марканян V.R.Vlijanie of mass media on electoral behaviour of citizens in modern Russia: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 23.00.02 / Markarjan Vadim Rafaelovich. M, 2004. С.11.

9Salma G. Filling in the Tapestory: the Second Level of Agenda Setting »in Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers in Agenda – Setting Theory, ed. Maxwell McCombs, Donald L.Shaw and David Weaver (Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1997. P. 314.

Perception stereotypes. Here to become significant the concept of the registration, concerning a question of influence of mass-media on the public summons дня1.

By consideration of influence of mass media on process of perception of political leaders during election campaigns it is necessary to note "cumulative" and multichannel character of influence of mass media. Besides it an important point for an estimation of interrelation of mass media and perception of candidates is that fact, that information sensitivity of voters increases in process of date approach выборов2.

Accent of politicians and mass-media during election campaign on the sharpest

Legality and morals questions influences character of perception of the political leader-candidate. Experimental tests of some political psychologists have displayed, that accent of mass-media on problems «eticheski the charged manner», induces people to pay more attention to ethical estimations of the candidate. The general importance of an image during realisation political выбора3 thus raises.

Modern political communications have no direct character, as its efficiency

Influences it is considerably connected with many factors (it depends on characteristics of the given influence, conditions in which occurs, features of the recipient, its trust to messages and readiness to perceive them). It is necessary to note increase of the importance of communicative aspect in the course of perception of political leaders in the conditions of election campaign as elections, representing itself as one of the major kinds of political communications in democratic conditions, represent not only political institute, but also specific limited in space and time a communicative situation. Modern pre-election struggle passes in an information field in which not operating real politicians or the political organisations, and their images broadcast on voters compete. Image of the politician is dependent on its personal features defining style of its interaction with voters, selection of certain themes for discussion, character of giving of these that. Thus, process of creation of image of the politician is process purposeful and included not only the politician, but also its inner circle, its command, mass-media, etc. the Problem of character of influence imidzhevyh strategy of the candidate on formation of the image and an image of contenders demands separate deep studying, therefore within the limits of the given research to it will not be given the big attention. We will note only possibility of dual treatment of image of the politician as factor of its perception citizens. Owing to that that image advertised during pre-election campaign is

1Entman Robert Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm//Journal of Communication, Summer 1993. P. 43. 2Марканян V.R.Vlijanie of mass media on electoral behaviour of citizens in modern Russia: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 23.00.02 / Markarjan Vadim Rafaelovich. M, 2004. С.14.

3Domke D., V. Shah, Wackman D. Rights and Morals, Issues, and Candidate Integrity: Insights into the Role of the News

Media//Political Psychology. Vol. 21. No.4. 2000. P. 641–665.

Result of activity and the candidate (its command) and mass-media rightfully specificity of its influence can be carried both to influence of objective factors, and to influence of communicative aspect.

Discussions about the importance of pre-election campaigns of candidates in the course of perception of politicians - of candidates and transformation of electoral appeal proceed any more one decade. It is a lot of years political scientists asserted, that campaigns made the minimum impact on results of elections. When the information connected with campaign activates the latent preferences, and distribution of resources stably results of elections basically are predetermined. This statement has been supported by conclusions, that results of elections can be precisely predicted how pre-election campaign is developed. However from the second half-fault 90х years among political scientists more popular there is an assumption, that pre-election campaigns have own independent mechanisms of influence on perception voters of candidates and their electoral behaviour.

If to adhere to a position, that pre-election struggle is capable to affect process of perception and electoral appeal of candidates it is necessary to mention about considerably

The importance of influence on political preferences during election campaign of receptions and the technologies used by candidates during pre-election campaign. According to O.P.Kudinov and G.A.Shipilov, use in the course of the Russian pre-election struggle of selective technologies begins with 1990 годов1. For example, to often used technologies used in Russian election campaign conscious forcing during election campaign of aggressive public power, strategy of the struggle dividing is

Society on irreconcilable camp. The technique of carrying out of election campaigns continues to be improved, there are new channels of the communications, certain receptions cease to work, therefore on change by it methods come new, effective at present.

Political leaders form through mass media "agenda" and identify the important questions discussed in a society, thereby drawing of attention to the programs and slogans. Media have possibility to formulate estimated criteria of events, parties and candidates by visualisation of the environment of political perception. Influence of mass-media on an audience carries konstituirujushchy character at the expense of accent on one events and the facts and concealing of other mass-media changes a problem field of campaign and influences knowledge of citizens of conditions, which

It is considered at realisation electoral выбора2.

The candidate, forming the image, is guided not only by preferences of the voter, but also on the mass-media acting subsequent retrosljatorom of this image. As consequence raznonapravlennost

1Кудинов Island P, Shipilov G. A. Dialectics of elections. M, 1997. With. 57.

2Пищева So-called Perception of candidates in presidents communicative aspects of election campaigns 1996, 2000, 2004 … C. 54.

The purposes and problems of voters and mass-media can promote an illegibility of image of the politician and as result of an image of the politician in mass consciousness of the population. During the account of the given fact, significant there is a question of independence of mass-media.

Considering influence of communicative aspect of perception on an image of the candidate, it is necessary to mention and such phenomenon of mass consciousness influencing electoral success of the candidate as a fashion. J. Roper and J. Strit notice, that modern politicians of the West aspire to imitate conventional "stars" of cinema, art, TV, creating a new layer of "star politicians» and becoming certain "standards" 1. E.Smoljakova carries a fashion on the leader to parametre, estimations of the electoral preferences, appeared only in 90х. Of the last century in connection with prompt development of communication technologies and substantial growth of quantity of sources and speeds of information interchange. The fashion on the political leader differs

Prompt transformation, and aspiration to imitation the standard, put in pawn in the mechanism of functioning of a fashion in the conditions of modern mediatizirovannogo societies to be one of the basic variables influencing electoral success of the candidate in the course of election campaign. In the course of an interactive mode of information interchange formed by mass-media conscious electoral expectations concerning the candidate will settle down within an information field in which there are voters. The mechanism of formation of electoral expectations concerning the politician-candidate becomes identical to the modern mechanism of creation of tendencies in a fashion. The voters who are in a uniform information field, using modern interactive media of exchange the information (significant here there is a network

Internet), actually independently generate an image fashionable political лидера2.

With 90х years and to this day, with each electoral cycle in Russia the importance of communicative aspects selective кампании3 increases at gradual development at voters

"Immunity" to pre-election rhetoric and behaviour of candidates and increase of criticality of its estimation. We will consider a level of scrutiny of a question of influence of the communicative factor on political perception during presidential election campaign 2012г. In the scientific literature.

Studying of features of communicative space in modern Russia allows to assert, that crisis of sociopolitical structures in modern Russia has led to absence of accurately formulated state policy in mass-media. It has affected situation creation when as freedom of mass-media it is understood, freedom of actions of owners of this mass-media, that is possibility to extend a position and the points of view favourable at all to a society, and uzkokorystnym to the purposes.

1Roper J. The Contemporary Presidency: George W.Bush and the Myth of Heroic Presidential Leadership//Presidential Stadies Quarterly, 2004. №1.P.132–142; Street J. Celebrity Politicians: Popular Culture and Political Representation. The British Journal of Politics and Interational Relations. 2004, №4, P.435–452.

2Смолякова E.A.fashion on the leader as the factor of influence on electoral preferences//the Power. 2008. №9. С.40.

3 Pishcheva So-called Perception of candidates in presidents communicative aspects of election campaigns 1996, 2000, 2004 … With. 156-159.

Appeals to adjust relations in an information field in turn are treated by mass-media as infringements of a freedom of speech which, perhaps, really does not exist, because of absence of necessary balance of interests between a society, the state and mass-media. Information transfer process becomes more unidirectional and mass-media become manipuljativnym

The tool, in the way «pressure upon minds», for reception only short-term результатов1.

Researchers of the Russian political communications notice, that by a boundary of the second decade of a new century changes an expert of the public communications interconnected with development of technologies and socially-demographic public Russian changes have been designated. The assumption More and more proves to be true, that jump registered in last 3-4 year "internetizatsii" the population in intermediate term prospect can lead to washing out of "kernel" of public sphere and decrease in rupture with "periphery". In this case during election campaign candidates should face an uneasy problem of mobilisation

The electorate scooping the information from differentiated каналов2. A modern Runet

Becomes the channel of an alternative sight of a society on a policy, representing itself as a place where not consent with a political policy, have an opportunity to show the discontent and to mobilise adherents for local actions протеста3. Blogs on platform Livejournal, microblogs Twitter, video-portal YouTube and a number of other popular network resources even more often act as platforms of active political debates, giving possibility to convert representation in a network the Internet in the political capital, that, at the arrival account in

To the politician of the new generation actively using given resources, pawns the serious bases to speak about possible transformation of a political conjuncture and creation of a reserve of political activity. At the same time the corner of illumination flowing sobytijnogo a context traditional mass-media forms a loyal position of overwhelming majority of the population in

The relation of the operating power, that in many respects stabilises political обстановку4.

Besides above specified general tendencies of change of the Russian communicative space considerable influence on communicative aspect of presidential election campaign of 2012, have rendered: features of degree predstavlennosti candidates for mass-media for the pre-election period; character of emotional colouring of illumination of actions of candidates, their professional and personal qualities.

Research positions concerning communicative aspect of election campaign 2012 converge in the statement, that during its period V.V.Putin kept a leading position on

1Cм.: Tsoy S.P.transformation of an image of the Moscow power during the late-Soviet and Post-Soviet periods (with 1987 on 2003гг.): avtoref. dis... kand. It is watered. Sciences. – M, 2004.-24s.

2Idejno-symbolical space of Post-Soviet Russia: dynamics, institutsionalizatsija, environment, actors. С.283.

3Зверев A.L.Transformatsii of modern mass consciousness of citizens of Russia. With. 108.

4Букреева O.V.Sravnitelnyj the analysis of rational and unconscious components of images of the power in modern Russia. С.15

Degrees predstavlennosti in an information field. The factor of contact value of an announcement (characterising an audience susceptibility to broadcast messages) in Putin's pre-election campaign also was faster the positive. However it is necessary to notice, that giving in material mass-media under a certain foreshortening was quite often perceived by citizens as signs of full submission of the mass media power and opposition "suffocation". The situation was aggravated with refusal potenialnogo the candidate-winner from participation in pre-election political debate (given reason by incompatibility of visiting similar actions with its work as the chairman of the Government). The similar behaviour was quite often perceived by a society as neglect in relation to the population. Translations on the central teleimage of debate with participation of representatives of V.V. Putin and party “Uniform Russia” and appeals to voting for the candidate from known people (for example, CH. Hamatovoj) were quite often perceived by the population negatively. Attempt of the candidate active distantsirovanija from an image of "Uniform Russia» was appreciable, however.

"Tonality" of reports of information about the candidates who have occupied 2 and 3 place on number of mentions in mass-media (Prokhorov and Zyuganov), quite often varied from mainly positive to sharply negative. Zhirinovsky was represented more often in an is neutral-negative information background, for it selective, campaign was marked by several appreciable scandals, rastirazhirovannymi in mass-media

Popularisation in mass-media of the point of view of experts was appreciable, that Vladimir Vladimirovich will win in pre-election struggle for a post of the President of the Russian Federation in the first round, supported with data of sociological interrogations VTSIOM, the Levada-centre and Fund "Public opinion".

Not stopping in detail on consideration pre-election campaigns of all candidates (from them

«With classical forms of communications», such as propaganda trips and report-back election visits, meetings with voters and various social groups, participation in pre-election debate, interview, press conferences, publications in mass-media of program positions), we will allocate only some features of pre-election activity mentioning communicative aspect of process of perception. So the communicative aspect of election campaign played an inconsistent role on perception first of all the candidate V.V.Putin personified with imperious circles-. Following aspects could influence process of perception of V.V.Putin:

-Selective strategy of pre-election campaign of the candidate of the winner (V.V. Putin) «over fight», at distribution to weights of idea about democratic character, «a transparency of electoral process».

-Numerous performances throughout all election campaign of authorised representatives in support of V.V.Putin, mass actions in support of the candidate «the All-Russian national

Front "and" Uniform Russia »at the maximum share of attention of mass-media to meetings on the Moscow mountain Poklonnoj and around sport centre" Luzniki ";

- The publication in the Russian newspapers program »статей1 Putin and an exit on TV

Documentary films about achievements Putin правления2, their active discussion in mass-media and a blog sphere in connection with Putin's charges in infringement of the selective legislation, the stated oppositional candidates for Presidents of the Russian Federation.

It is necessary to mention Zyuganov's active enough electoral programme and the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, how much large scandals during Zhirinovsky's pre-election campaign. 2012г and electoral programmes of its candidates it was possible to carry to the general lines of the political agenda of the Russian election campaign: the decision of foreign policy problems, problems of socially - economic stratification, a low standard of living, a rise in prices, unemployment. During propaganda the claim of candidates for conformity to an image of the new ideal postreorganization leader uniting both supervising political and economic elite was obvious.

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More on topic 1.2.3 Communicative and temporalnye perception factors Communicative factors of perception of the political leader:

  1. Temporalnye factors of perception of the political leader
  2. Subject factors of perception of the political leader Influence of the subject factor on process of political perception
  3. Factors of influence on perception of candidates in presidents
  4. concept of communicative behaviour and the communicative person of modern linguistics
  5. 2.3.1. Concepts «communicative strategy» and «communicative tactics» in the scientific literature
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  7. Chapter 2. Features of perception of political leaders - of candidates in presidents in election campaign of 2012
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