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Factors of influence on perception of candidates in presidents

Before to pass to specificity of influence of factors of a different sort to perception of a political image it is necessary to consider it in the logician of formation and development. To us to become interesting the position according to which formation of an image passes three basic stages.

In the first stage of the existence, with a certain share of a schematization and idealisation, the image allows to receive the complete information on object in aggregate its significant properties. Process of formation of an image consists of its expansion, first abstract, characteristics by means of information accumulation. At filling by the concrete maintenance the image gets clearness and distinctness. On the second steel of development in image the displayed subject, and also system of its interrelations starts to be highlighted. That is the importance of a context of perception increases, on its background the image gets substantial dimensions, original semantic stereoscopy. At the third stage of development the image extends, goes deep, and is specified so, that there is possible a perception of more extensive information on a situation as a whole, is primary as if in image and not

The containing. At this stage the image gets the status представления2.

For us that many researchers consider process of perception of the political leader and the power from a position of factors on it influencing is significant. In the given paragraph examples only some factorial models presented in the scientific literature are resulted. Process of formation of an image of the politician in mass consciousness proceeds in the conditions of cross interference of the diversified political actors.

F.Grinstajn has suggested to make the politiko-psychological analysis of the political

1 SHestopal E, Novikova-Grund M.Psihologichesky and the linguistic analysis … With. 168–182.

2См.: SHelekasova N.P.not aspects of an image of the politician in mass consciousness (on materials of researches of regional election campaigns 2001 and 2003):.): avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 19.00.12 / SHelekasova

Natalia Petrovna. – M, 2006. – 24с.

Objects, in focus of such factors as: a historical context, sociopolitical conditions, predispositions of political actors, that is in temporalnom and factorial measurements. For perception of the candidate accordingly significant there is an ideological orientation, a political platform, party adherence and liking in the relation кандидата1. R.Tucker noticed, that to the important factors defining electoral appeal of the perceived politician, it is necessary to carry and its ability to reflexion of interests of concrete social groups and degree of interest of citizens to those problems which the given leader tries to solve. The politician is perceived as the leader, only, in that case if he offers the decision significant for the majority of the population проблем2.

N.Shelekasova carries to number of key factors of perception of the political politician:

The general electoral expectations; former political, economic achievements which are attributed to the leader; external events from which the specific situational political context is formed; available political resources which, however, are estimated on - a miscellaneous by experts and simple избирателями3.

L.Presnyakov allocates four groups of the factors influencing process of individual perception of the power, namely: group of objective factors (connected with characteristics of the political power and personal features of political leaders – power carriers); group of the factors connected with communicative components of perception (psychological pertseptivnymi mechanisms); group of factors,

Connected with situational components of perception (with a political, economic, social context; group of the subject factors caused by social and psychological features реципиента4. E.Egorov-Gantam at research of a question of factors of political perception of the politician a beret for a basis D.Kindera's concept about division of process of perception into understanding and judgement processes. It allocates three blocks of psychological factors which mention process of perception of the politician by its followers: the factors, concerning informative sphere of followers and mediating understanding process; the factors connected with process of judgement and characterising motivatsionno-potrebnostnuju sphere perceiving, and

Also the prototypes of the leader existing in their representations; socially-psychological features of followers as subjects восприятия5. E.Kikteva in research of features of formation of a negative image of the politician focuses attention on two groups of factors: the psychological factors connected with features political pertseptsii and development

1См.: Greenstein F. Popular Images of the President//Wildavsky A. (ed) Perspectives on the Presidency. Boston, 1987. P. 287 296.

2Tucker R. Politics as Leadership. N.Y., 1981. P. 161.

3См.: SHelekasova N.P.problem of research of not realised aspects of political communications//Psychology of perception of the power / under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2002. With. 135–139.

4Преснякова L.A.influence of personal features on perception of the political power in Russia (1990th years)//Psychology of perception of the power / Under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2002. With. 127–128.

5Имидж the leader. The psychological grant for politicians. M, 1994. Section III, gl. 1.

Communicative process and the political factors mentioning specificity of a current political situation and cultural-political контекста1. V.Zorin allocates as significant factors of political perception of leaders: the factors of the first category connected with the steadiest personal structures of the politician, reflected in public consciousness and supporting coherence of an image of the leader with a psychological reality of its person; the factors of the second category taking the source from personal structures of the respondent (voter); factors of the third category – the factors of the situational, contextual nature explaining, for example, possibility of change of political images depending on degree of success of the politician, its recognition, participation in defined событиях2.

S.Tsoy pays special attention on background and situational factors of the political

Perceptions. Background factors are connected with the mechanism of political socialisation, they are connected with representations about the political power and political leaders, with politiko-cultural features. Influence of background factors is in close dependence on degree of stability of political system, and the guarantee of certain political behaviour represent itself as. The researcher carries to background factors also norms-frameworks, i.e. rules by which the political leader is guided. Influence of situational factors on formation of an image of political leaders is connected with influence of concrete conditions, for example the characteristic of political system concerns situational factors. During the stable or crisis periods of development of the country from the leader applying for a political post, a society demands the different

Qualities, their estimation also occurs on-raznomu3.

A.Koshmarov and L.Matveeva within the limits of election campaign mark influence of the objective factor connected with, fixed in national mentality, a prototype of the political leader, and the subject factor connected with set of impressions and associations from this or that leader, received by members of a society and preobrazujushchihsja in имидж4. T.Pishcheva allocates two kinds of factors which define perception frameworks in structure of perception: long-term, connected with specificity institutsionalnogo design and political tradition, and short-term, defined by feature

Political situation. As she notices, that the political perception is influenced by features of mass political consciousness. To the factors influencing formation of installations on the candidate, motivators, ideological measurements, valuable konstrukty and ustanovochno-pertseptivnaja a prism concern. Trying to answer a question on a priority of personal and contextual features of perception

1Cм.: Kikteva E.A.feature of formation of a negative image of the political leader//Psychology of perception of the power

/ Under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2002. With. 180–194.

2Зорин V.A.Problema of perception of an image of the politician in a context of studying of its person. С.160.

3Cм.: Tsoy S.P.transformation of an image of the Moscow power during the late-Soviet and Post-Soviet periods (with 1987 on 2003гг.): avtoref. dis... kand. It is watered. Sciences. M, 2004. 24с.

4Кошмаров A.JU., Matveeva L.V. To a problem of perception of a television image of the political leader//the Bulletin

The Moscow university. A series 14. 2003. №4. S.15-29.

The candidate R.Lau and D.Redlavsk was assumed by probable influence on perception and voting of such factors which is, obviously, by more "superficial" and are connected with a selective context. Importance of lines of candidates, can go a hand about a hand with influence of such "deep" and steady factors as ideology. In perception, individualities of candidates matter various categories of voters that is important to take into consideration distinction between lines holding a post and lines претендента1.

It is necessary to notice, that the majority of authors converge in belief about close coherence and

Even interference of factors in the course of formation of a political image. However in the scientific literature insufficiently studied there is a question of a priority of factors of influence on process of political perception by their consideration in a complex. Researchers of political images seldom pay attention to consideration of a set of factors, as a rule, they focus the attention only to some of them. Franc, Piflej, Kaprara, Barbanelli, Zambargo attempt to consider process of perception of candidates taking into account interdependence of subject and objective factors has been made, having concentrated attention to actual attractive lines and an estimation

Selective ситуации2. In their opinion respondents, carrying out an electoral choice, consider:

-Lines corresponding to optimum performance, within the limits of a political post for which the candidate and their parity with unique lines of the candidate applies;

-Degree of expressiveness of such lines as friendliness, vigour, at an estimation of complexity of a problem field of election campaign and the comparative analysis of programs of candidates;

-Characteristics of the exclusive candidate, taking into account a self-estimation of respondents of their preferences and sights.

As conceptual model of the analysis of the factors influencing formations of an image of the candidate in our dissertational research, was the scheme of process of the political perception, the offered E.B.Shestopal is taken. According to it formation of a political image occurs under the influence of factors of different level: the factors connected with perceived, perceiving objects (objective and subject factors), factors communicative, temporalnyh and spatial (схема1.).

1Cм.: Catellani P., Alberici A. Does the Candidate Matter Comparing the Voting Choice of Early and Late Deciders//Political Psychology. 2012. Vol. 33. No. 5. P. 619–635; Lau R. R., Redlawsk D. P. How Voters Decide: Information Processing during Election Campaigns. Cambridge. 2006. 344 p.

2Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Zimbardo Ph. When Parsimony Subdues Distinctiveness: Simplified Public Perceptions of Politicians’ Personality … P.79.

The scheme 1. The factors defining process of perception of the politician (model razrabotanna E.B.Shestopal)

Steady (political culture)
The person of the leader Role of the leader

Changeable (a situational context)

Contextual factors

Objective factors


The communicative

The spatial

Image of the politician

Temporalnye

Subject factors


Socially-demographic, political

Sex, age, formation, trade,

Psychological Individual:

The mass:

Ideological accessory

Requirements, motives, values, knowledge, representations, emotions and so forth

Conditions, moods, expectations, stereotypes, opinions, requirements and so forth

It is necessary to notice, that at loan of the given factorial model for empirical research of the dissertation the attention has not been paid to influence of the spatial factor and individual psychological features of images of candidates perceiving on formation in presidents. Having defined for themselves a set of the most significant factors influencing perception of the political leader in mass consciousness during presidential election campaign on 2012 (enc. 3), we will consider them more in detail.

Objective factors of perception of the political leader

Character of influence of objective factors on perception of political leaders is connected first of all with features of personal and role characteristics of directly most perceived leader, and competitive character of a context of election campaign promotes increase of the importance of role and personal characteristics of candidates - of contenders surrounding it.

Lichnost the leader as object nyj the fact or vosprijat ija politi ka

Because of the social nature, action of the politician can make considerable impact on the big number of people. A.I.Solovev names the political leader the institute connected with type of relations, concerning a civil responsibility. In this case political leadership characterises not only personal qualities of those who carries out these functions, but also their relation with the basic part of the population. Focusing of attention of citizens on political leaders promotes their simplification enough difficult for perception, a political life, to

Comprehensible пропорций1.

The concept "person" is widely used in politological researches. The personal factor acts as the important variable of the analysis of various aspects of political process. Within the limits of the given work to become significant the concept of the political person as special unit of the politiko-psychological analysis and representing itself as set of politically significant qualities of the individual.

Degree and the reasons of importance of personal aspect in an image of the political leader was considered by many researchers and have found the uniform answer to it a question. The American and Canadian political scientists, considering a question of increase of the importance of the person in perception of political processes from second half of 20 centuries, quite often allocated as its basic reason decrease in

Last 30 years of activity of political parties and easing party идентификации2.

Results of English politiko-psychological researches of the end 80х, registered decrease in influence of class specificity, as determinants electoral поведения3. However, by the end of 20 centuries set of researchers already sounded a position, that in the course of illumination of political events of mass-media focus attention to persons more and more, forcing the public to define essence of a policy in personal terms.

In attempt to define the reason of the importance of personal aspect in the course of D.Sars's perception asserted, that, in comparison with other political objects, «people are unusually simple symbols easily recognised and remembered» 4. In similar reasonings the Kinder has assumed, that personal characteristics give to people «a familiar and convenient way to cope with an avalanche of the information used daily» 5. According to the given position, individual lines of the person remain steady for a long time. Their attributing to political leaders, gives to voters some basis for an estimation taking into account role expectations connected by a post for which participants of election campaign apply. Political leaders are often perceived by the public (and quite often act actually) as founders of norms of public relevance and behaviour, in this connection also their personal features represent special interest.

Researches of the western political psychologists with 1952г. Show, that images of political leaders-candidates lean, first of all, against personal characteristics,

1Соловьев A.I.political science. The political theory and political technologies. M, 2000. With. 143.

2Cм.: Miller A. H., Wattenberg M. P., Malanchuk O. Schematic assessments of presidential candidates//American Political Science Review. 1986. Vol. 80. P. 521–540; Miller A. H., Miller W. E. Ideology and the 1972 election: Myth or reality-A rejoinder//American Political Science Review. Vol. 70. P. 832–849; Clarke H. D., Jenson J., LeDuc L., Pammett J. H. Absent

mandate: The politics of discontent in Canada. Toronto, 1984. P. 452–469.

3Cм.: Clarke H. D., Czudnowski M. M. Political elites in Anglo-American democracies: Changes in stable regimes DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. P. 44–64.

4Sears D. O. College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology’s view of human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986. Vol. 51. P. 364.

5Kinder D. R. Presidential character revisited. In R. R. Lau, Sears D. O. Political cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1986. P. 235.

Which maintenance, in general, irrespective of a national context 1. In the course of an estimation of importance of separate elements of an image, such as strategic models, ideological orientations and individual characteristics, the last it is obvious преобладают2. The raised importance of personal qualities of images of candidates has been registered and by consideration a determinant of electoral appeal and успешности3.

According to the Russian researches, on acceptance of the electoral decision by the majority of Russians bolshee influence is rendered also by personal qualities of politicians, instead of acquaintance with their political программами4.

Frequently the role of the personal factor in political processes is considered in a context, theories political лидерства5. In a course kontseptualizatsii influences of the person on political process and a theoretical substantiation of character of presidency as special kind of political leadership modern researchers use F.Grinstajna's works, J. M.Burns, M.Hermann, E.V.Egorovoj-Gantman, G.K.Ashina and others исследователей6. In the given dissertational research the attention to the theoretical analysis of theories of political leadership has not been concentrated, the accent has been made on research of a question of the most significant personal qualities for the candidate in election campaign.

According to the spent research of a theoretical material, it is possible to speak about absence of a common opinion concerning a priority of influence of this or that personal characteristic on electoral appeal of the political leader-candidate. D.Stevens confirms, for the politician it is the most important to cause trust to itself the parties of voters, than to be in their eyes competent and interested in public problems, and Clark insists that

1Cм.: Graetz B., and McAllister I. Popular evaluations of party leaders in the Anglo-American democracies. In H. D. Clarke M. M. Czudnowski (Eds.), Political elites in Anglo-American democracies: Changes in stable regimes1979. P. 44–64; Nie N. H., Verba S., Petrocik J. R. The changing American voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1976. Pancer M, D. Brown S. and Cathy Widdis C. Barr Forming Impressions of Political Leaders: A Cross-National Comparison//Political Psychology. Vol. 20. No. 2. 1999. P. 366–369; Shabad G., Andersen K. Candidate evaluations by men and women//Public Opinion Quarterly. 1979. Vol. 43. P. 18–35.

2Cм.: Brown S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada//Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. Vol.21. P. 729–755; Miller A. H., Wattenberg M. P., Malanchuk O. Schematic assessments of presidential candidates//American Political Science Review. 1986. Vol. 80. P. 521–540;

3Cм.: Archer K. A simultaneous equation model of Canadian voting behaviour//Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1987. Vol.20.

P. 553–573; Bean C., Mughan A. Leadership effects in parliamentary elections in Australia and Britain//American Political Science Review. 1989. Vol.83. P. 1165–1179; Brown, S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. Vol. 21. P. 729–755; Jones P., Hudson J. The quality of political leadership: A case study of John Major//British Journal of Political Science. 1996. Vol. 26. P. 229–244; Markus, G. B. Political attitudes during an election year: A report on the 1980 NES Panel Study//American Political Science Review. 1982. Vol.76. P. 538–560; Schultz C., Pancer S. M. Character attacks and their effects on perceptions of male and female political candidates//Political Psychology. 1997. Vol. 18. P. 93–102; Stewart M. C., Clarke H. D. The (un) importance of party leaders: Leader images and party choice in the 1987 British election//Journal of Politics. 1992. Vol.54. P. 447–470;

4Гершевич O.Osobennosti of formation of image of the political leader in modern Russia//the Power. 2008. №3. С.26. 5См.: Burns J.M. Leadership. N.Y., 1978. 400 pp.; Greenstein F.I. Personality and politics: Problems of evidence, inference, and conceptualisation. Princeton, 1987. P. 287–296.; Psychological examination of political leaders. / Ed. by Hermann M. New York. 1977. 345 pp.;

Presidentialism and democracy in Latin America / Ed. by Mainwaring S., Shugart M.S. - Cambridge, 1999; Mainwaring S., Shugart M.S. Linz J.,

Presidentialism, and democracy//Comparative politics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 291–309; Ashin G. K. Criticism of modern bourgeois concepts of leadership. – M: Thought, 1978. – 136 with.; Egorova-Gantman E.V., etc. Politicians are not born: How to become and remain the effective political leader. – M, 1993. T 2.

6Greenstein F. Can Personality and Politics Be Studied Systematically//Political Psychology: Key Readings / ed. by John T. Jost and James Sidanius. – New York, 2004. – P. 108–123.

Perception of these three measurements of character considerably коррелировано1. G.Best investigating profiles of German members of parliament confirms dominating opinion, that the set of personal lines is genetically fixed and stable also the sum of individual personal characteristics and set of distinctions between groups remains steady for a long time. There is a considerable quantity of political leaders, untied with the years, a post and concrete elements institutsionalnogo контекста2. A.V.Skudenkov investigating dynamics of leadership in different historical epoch notices, that the new warehouse of consciousness of all mankind based on consumer thinking, at the expense of improvement of quality of a life, growth of its duration, strengthening of influence of a mass culture is now formed. The social role of the leader thus depends on social transformations of an image. A postindustrial society (сер.20в. – on an ice crust.) With its formal observance of laws, freedom of actions, self-determination and improvement of quality

Lives, on the foreground the requirement for self-actualisation through an accessory to group puts forward, accordingly the leader is only the one who samoaktualiziruetsja with the highest group or costs more close to ней3.

In mass consciousness, it is possible to present a parity of characteristics of a personal profile of the politician and the basic structural elements of its image in the form of the scheme (enc. 2). That is traditional in psychology In this case matters allocate three cores podsruktury or level of structure of the person: biological, psychological, and social. Accordingly within the limits of research of interrelation of structural personal characteristics and measuring estimations of political leaders (structural components of an image) within the limits of biological level the temperament, a sex, age, a state of health is allocated. Being directly the connected with external and corporal characteristics of the image, the given lines can define and some behavioural lines of an image, specificity of rhetoric, ekspressivnost force and activity of an image. Qualities of psychological level (emotion, will, character, intelligence, memory, abilities) are closely connected with psychological characteristics of an image. Features social personal level of the politician (with reference to its politician it is possible to present in the form of socially-psychological level – the purposes of the politician, value, interests, motives, outlook, installations, and politiko - psychological level – specificity of political socialisation, political values, norms, samples of behaviour) often defines moral, political, professional and business characteristics of an image.

1Stevens D., Karp J. Leadership Traits and Media Influence in Britaint Political studies. 2012. Vol. 60. P. 804; Clarke H., Sanders D., Stewart M., Whiteley P. Performance Politics and the British Voter, first edition. Cambridge, 2004. Vol. 54 (4). P. 66–78.

2Бест G.Geneticheskaja predefiniteness or education? Stability of the big five of the basic personal lines of German members of parliament. Citizens and leaders in comparative prospect (results of a round table «Political leadership»)//the Power. 2013. №1. С.185.

3Скуденков A.V.Liderstvo and social development//Socially-humanitarian knowledge. №2. 2013. C. 23

There is no accurate border of dividing line, more likely the person acts as the whole set of features, only concerning independent and blocking each other. There is no unequivocal answer to a question on interconditionality of personal fig. According to G.Olportu, some lines are blocked initially as the person is inclined to react to events and the phenomena the generalised

образом1.

To the most significant factors of perception of political leaders of D.Kinder2 carries psychological qualities (ability to sympathise, decency, leadership, competence, honesty). About a priority of psychological qualities in the course of perception of the candidate spoke and Brejden, the Hacker, Louden, MakKlif. Quite often separately with the important component allocate ability of the politician to react for arising political problems and varying обстановку3. B.Makarenko considers, that for the electoral success the politician should show ability to understanding, it should have a wide outlook, to be clever, formed, skilled, besides it it should show the moral decency treated as personal (honesty, nekorrumpirovannost), or institutsionalizirovannyh (fidelity to the law) характеристик4. In 1991 of research of Dubova I.G. and Pantileeva S.R. have allocated five factors, estimations of the political leader with mass consciousness. The perception occurs according to scales: artless decency - resourceful insidiousness; talented kulturnost – ignorant mediocrity; force – weakness; extremism – restraint; having behaviour – pushing away поведение5. R.F.Romashkina6 gives special attention to influence on representations about personal characteristics of the leader of the archetypes peculiar to Russian people, it defines the high importance of such lines, as ability of the politician to show force, authoritativeness, kindness, generosity and social justice. E.B.Shestopal carries to the basic measurements of an image attraktivnost, force and activity perceived личности7. J. Barber represents three elements of personal structure of the political leader: style, character and outlook, them also to define as behavioural, affective and kognitivnyj components which reflect actual values for a policy, installations and orientations личности8.

It is impossible to deny and probable susceptibility of estimated criteria to character of experience

Interactions of electorate with rather recent authoritative remembered politicians. It is necessary to notice, that as a rule, comparison occurs to politicians the identified respondents as «», for example, in the western researches

1Олпорт G.Stanovlenie of the person: the Selected works. M, 2002. 462 with.

2См.: Kinder D, Peters M, Abelson R, Fiske S. Presedential prototipes. Political behaviour, 1980,2, pp. 315–338.

3Cм.: Lindsey M. Is She «Man Enough»? Women Candidates, Executive Political Offices, and News Coverage//Journal of Communication. 2012.No.62. P. 175–193.

4Макаренко B.Fenomen of political leadership in perception of public opinion//Bulletin ROPTSb, 1996. № 26. C.20.

5Дубов I.G., Pantileev S.R.perception of the person of the political leader//Psychological magazine. T. 13. № 6. 1992. C. 28.

6См.: Romashkin R. F. Formation and functioning of image of the political leader. The author's abstract... kand. The psychologist. Sciences, With. 13

7См. Psychology of perception of the power. Under the editorship of E.Shestopal. M, 2002, gl. 1.

8Barber J.D. Presidential character: predicting performance in the White House. Englewood, 1972. 479 pp.

Such figures as, M.Thatcher in the Great Britain or R.Reagan in Connected Штатах1 were mentioned. Accordingly it is possible to speak about existence of evolution of the requirements shown to the Russian political leader and the candidate, dynamics caused not so much ideal politiko-cultural konstruktov, how many change of concrete persons to the Russian policy. The given specificity defines in many respects obvious etapnost in perception of politicians during the Post-Soviet period, So if in the beginning-middle of 1990th one characteristics (harizmatichnost, aggression, external fakturnost figures of the leader) with V.Putin's first arrival to the beginning 2000 have been claimed., expectations concerning leaders have essentially changed. The society any more did not demand from them that they were charismatic and large, but thus they should be healthy and young, professional, capable to put things in order. It is clear, that many requirements have arisen, first of all, by contrast with B.Eltsinym who has left from the post and specificity of a figure of V.Putin. The stage before the beginning of new Putin presidency has brightly shown weariness from habitual images of figures which long occupied a political scene, the inquiry on new persons who while are very rare both in the power, and in opposition is formed. There was also a growth of the importance of moral characteristics of the leader. It is necessary to note, the invariable importance in all electoral cycles maskulinnosti, aggression and professionalism

Political деятелей2.

For us consideration not only estimated categories of a personal component of images of political leaders, but also research of a problem of preferable personal characteristics of an image of the candidate in the scientific literature is significant.

Such researchers as E.Denis and J. Меррилл3, K.Dzhemison4, D.Kellner5, S.Kraus6, L.Kejd, M.

Makkini, J. Тедеско7, E.Mickiewicz, C.Fajerstoun and L.Rouzell8 the position adhere, that for the majority of citizens the role of the candidate is connected with such personal qualities of politicians as force of character, a self-trust, liderskie abilities. Investigating electoral behaviour of the American citizens, U.G.Flenigan and N.G.Zingdejl, have come to conclusion, that in presidential elections the individual choice acts as result of support of force and influence of short-term influences (the person of the candidate, actual problems

1Cм.: Kinder D. Presidential Character Revisited//Political Cognition: The 19 Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. – 1986.

– P.262–266; Miller, A. H., Wattenberg, M. P., AND Malanchuk, O. Schematic assessments of presidential candidates//American Political Science Review. – 1986. – Vol. 80. – P. 521–540; Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum P.348.

2Шестопал Political leadership in new conditions: change of a paradigm of perception//Political researches. №2. 2013. C. 175.

3Dennis E.E., Merrill J.C. Media Debates: Great Issues for the Digital Age. Belmont, 2001. P. 213–252.

4См.: Jamieson K.H. Eloquence in an Electronic Age: The Transformation of Political Speechmaldng. New York, 1990. 140 pp.; Jamieson

K.H. Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising. New York, 1996. 608 pp.

5Kellner D. Grand Theft 2000: Media Spectacle and a Stolen Election. Lanham, 2001. 292 pp.

6Kraus S. Televised Presidential Debates and Public Policy. Mahwah, N.J., 2000. P. 172.

7Kaid L.L., McKinney M.S., Tedesco J.C. Civic Dialogue in the 1996 Presidential Campaign: Candidate, Media, and Public Voices. Cresskill, NJ, 2000. P. 278–291.

8См.: Mickiewicz E.P., Firestone Ch., Roselle L. Television and Elections. Durham, NC, 1999. 79 pp.;

Campaigns) 1.

The question of interdependence and interference of factors of a different sort during formation of an image of the political leader, is difficult and maloizuchennym. About coherence of personal features with contextual, speaks for example So-called Pishcheva. In its opinion, among the most important political qualities of the candidate the boldness, competence, a constancy of political views, resoluteness are allocated at decision-making, positive background, "time sense". In the characteristic of the politician-candidate its status to and at the moment of elections is significant. It is necessary as to note and influence kognitivnyh aspects of an image on electoral preferences. So high differentsirovannost and kognitivnaja complexity of an image is peculiar to politicians who occupy in

Mass consciousness in the lead позиции2.

J. Bejlinson has experimentally established, that in case of absence of the sufficient information on the candidate voters are inclined to give the preference to the candidate possessing external data similar to them.

The western researchers of electoral appeal of candidates, often I focus to a soya attention not to a complex, influencing perception and voting, personal characteristics, and on deep consideration of separate fig. According to similar "private" researches the perception of age of the candidate matters on campaigns for presidential elections, especially when the candidate consider "too old" 3, direct communications between rhetoric of the candidate and its electoral popularity (the candidate, differing rhetoric inclined to negativism it is probable, will come off second-best on выборах4) are registered.

S.Nordstr and S.Thomas have revealed propensity of the voter to give the voice for the candidate possessing steady political views and belonging to a certain political wing. Other researches show, that in case of a lack of the information on the candidate of the party voters are inclined to form its image proceeding from stereotypic representations about party. In this connection R.Pirs and Z.Tomassen enter model of political perception – model of "responsible party». From the point of view of researchers, voters have a system of representations about political party, and candidates of the party should correspond to the given representations. The ideological differentiation of the presented political forces has ceased to be original «an ideological code» for potential voters. However, not identifying themselves in existing political space, they, nevertheless, start with

1См.: Flanigan W. H., Zingale N. H. Political behaviour of the American electorate.//Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2002. 240 pp.

2См.: Pishcheva So-called Perception of candidates in presidents communicative aspects of election campaigns 1996, 2000, 2004: dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 19.00.12 / Pishcheva Tatyana Nikolaevna. M, 2006. 199с.

3Cм.: Kenski K., Hall K. The Effects of Candidate Age in the 2008 Presidential Election//Presidential studies quarterly / September 2010 449-463.

4Conway III L., Gornick L., Burfeind C., Mandella P., Kuenzli A., Houck S. Does Complex or Simple Rhetoric Win Elections? An

Integrative Complexity Analysis of U.S. Presidential//Campaigns Political Psychology. Vol. 33. No. 5. 2012. P. 595–619.

The unique civil and political position having the form of latent moods,

"Rationalisation" and verbal интерпретации1.

Within the limits of the theory of a rational choice it is considered to be, that the ideology can play a tool role, promoting decrease in the expenses connected with consideration of position of separate candidates and political сил2. In a multiple selective situation with a considerable quantity of candidates and absence of a dominating figure when level of a supply with information and the electoral importance is low, strategy of electoral behaviour leans against ability to lower effort, to reception of the information on problem measurements of the selective

The companies. Here the ideology becomes means of economy the voter of efforts to acquisition информации3. A.Dauns considers, that there is a localisation of models of electoral behaviour round several dominating ideological полюсов4. Later politiko - psychological researches call into question this вывод5. According to given to R.Dzh. Daltona, only 21-35 % of citizens to the USA and Europe consider ideological orientations at a choice партии6. Results komparativnyh electoral researches register paramount value at an electoral choice social and economic статуса7. Thus, P.Dzh's works. Konovera and S.Feldmana have shown, that reference of to this or that ideology (especially liberally -

Conservative currents) it is defined not so much by an ideological position, how many group принадлежностью8. That is citizens use more likely ideological labels, rather than ideological knowledge.

At research of the importance of personal qualities of leaders the greatest interest for researchers of different directions always caused – charisma. This concept has entered into M.Veber's science, he understood as charisma «certain quality of the person thanks to which it separates from usual people and is considered as« allocated supernatural, superhuman or,

1Букреева O.V.Sravnitelnyj the analysis of rational and unconscious components of images of the power in modern Russia … С.4.

2См.: Arrow K.J. Social choice and individual values. New Haven, 1951. 125 pp.; Buchanan J., Tullock G. The calculus of consent. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962. 315pp. Olson M. The logic collective action. Cambridge, 1965. 322 pp.; Clark H., Whitely P. Perception of Macroeconomic Performance, Government Support and Conservative Party Strength in Britain. European Journal of Political Research. 1990. Vol. 18. P. 97–120.

3Hinich M., Munger M. Ideology and the Theory of Political Choice. Michigan, 1994. 267 pp.

4Cм.: Downs A. An economic theory of democracy. N.Y, 1957. 310 pp.

5Cм.: Kinder D.R. Opinion and action in the realm of politics. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, G. Lindzey (eds.) Handbook of social psychology. New York, 1998. Vol. 1. P. 778–867; Converse P.E. The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In D.E. Apter (Ed.) Ideology and discontent. New York. 1964. P. 206–261.

6Dalton R.J. Citizen politics. New York, 2002. P. 251–284.

7Lijphart A. DEMOCRACIES - Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty–One Countries. London. 1984; Rose R. Electoral Behavior: A Comparative Handbook. New York. 1974;

The opposite point of view is presented in work: Converse P.E. Some Priority Variables in Comparative Electoral Research//Rose R. (ed.). Electoral Behavior: A Comparative Handbook. New York. 1974

8Conover P.J., Feldman S. The origins and meaning of liberal/conservative self-identification//American Journal of Political Science. 1964. Vol.

25. P. 617–645.

At least, special and exclusive qualities »1. The subsequent researchers began to mean by this concept a complex of personal features, such, for example, as ability to influence people, popularity, ability to manipulate in weights etc. Within the limits of our research, we will adhere to position Behlinga, Makfilena, Brajmana, Kongera, Hauela, Spenglera and Vojka which trying to define, that are put by voters in the given term, connect it with such characteristics as confidence, purposefulness, inspiration, optimism, care.

According to sociological interrogations of 2011-2012 in Russia at answers to a question on the most important data of the concerning candidate in presidents, respondents mentioned first of all, character and personal qualities of the politician, his career, the biography, formation, and возраст2. According to E.E.ShCherbakovoj the main requirement to the politician applying for a presidential post, is presence at it the objective state thinking including: understanding of relationships of cause and effect in political processes; decision-making improving quality of a life, and adjustment of public relations of all social strata; the highest level of professionalism, high level of synthetic intelligence and high moral уровень3.

The personal factor was always appreciable in the Russian policy and its importance in process

Perceptions of the Russian politicians as it is conclusive. In dissertational research by object of research acted not so much politicians candidates, how many their images generated in mass consciousness of a society. Accordingly we on carried out the analysis of personal profiles of politicians-candidates. Undoubtedly, consideration imidzhevyh strategy, political biographies, participants of pre-election campaigns considerably would enrich results of research, however within the limits of the given dissertational work it has been put outside the brackets (researches of a similar sort demand application of additional specialised methods and the separate detailed analysis).

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A source: Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN. 2014

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