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Introduction

Urgency of a theme of dissertational research

In the modern politological literature to be resulted the set of the facts testifying to increase of the importance of the person of politicians during perception of political processes, since second half 20 века1.

Interest of voters to the political leaders who are representing itself as candidates on presidential election campaigns is especially great. Despite great volume of researches, in the literature there is no unity of opinions concerning the reasons of such growth of interest to images of leaders-candidates.

Carrying out the electoral choice, citizens operate with the images arising under the influence of representations perceiving (subject factors), features of objects of political perception (objective factors) and external information influences (communicative factors). One of the major research problems still is complexity, and sometimes and impossibility of consideration of a role of the various factors influencing formation of an image in the conditions of a concrete electoral situation. In a political science still there are no answers and to questions on specificity and the reasons of the changes occurring concerning voters to politicians, about the factors influencing dynamics of images and on their voting pro or

Contra the candidate.

The high importance of presidential elections forces researchers to pay steadfast attention to a problem of perception of candidates in Presidents mass consciousness and to influence of the generated images on electoral behaviour in modern Russia.

Development by the Russian society of institute of the democratic elections, accompanied by strengthening of original "immunity" to pre-election rhetoric does by even more actual a problem of revealing of specificity of political perception in the Russian electoral conditions. The given problem is connected and with the vector which has changed in last years of mass political moods at preservation of the general balance of forces in the Russian electoral space. Significant here there are also changes in structure Russian societies, for example arrival to a policy of the new generations, passing political socialisation in B.N.Eltsina's presidency, and in V.V.Putin's first two terms.

Stabilisation stage in the political sphere, occurring in first two terms of presidency of V.V.Putin and marked by broad support by its Russians of the political

1Cм.: for example, Miller A. H., Miller W. E. Ideology and the 1972 election: Myth or reality – a rejoinder//American Political Science Review. 1974. Vol. 70. P. 832–849; Clarke H. D., Jenson J., LeDuc L., Pammett J. H. Absent mandate: The politics of discontent in Canada. Toronto, 1984. P. 452–469; Brown S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada//Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. Vol. 21. P. 729–755.

курса1, in days of D.A.Medvedeva's presidency it is replaced by a credibility gap of the political power from the population and growth of protest moods. In the conditions of so sharp changes of social moods to become actual studying of influence of a condition of mass consciousness on perception of political leaders.

Uniqueness of a combination in an image of reflexions of real characteristics of object of perception and expectations of the perceiving party, its dependence on a dynamical Russian political reality, does actual modelling of perception of the political leader, both in theoretical, and in the practical plan. From a practical side, the theme of dissertational research first of all is represented actual, owing to that the analysis of an image of the politician - of the candidate in the conditions of a selective situation allows to correct a course of selective process. In the theoretical plan the research urgency is connected with studying of influence of an electoral situation for images of leaders. It has defined a choice, first of all, qualitative methods, their adaptation with reference to research problems and a concrete definition interpretatsionnyh schemes.

The dissertation is devoted specificity of political perception of leaders-candidates, at an estimation of influence on it first of all factors of objective, subject and communicative character. The given interpretation of a theme assumes consideration of an image of the real political leader taking into account its ideal prototypes. Degree of conformity of images existing in mass consciousness

The "desirable" and "really operating" leader is defined by level of its legitimacy and, finally, provides power and society communications. Actual in a context of the given problematics, studying of degree of integrity, consistency of images of political leaders in mass consciousness of Russians is represented, to their adequacy to inquiry of a society.

Degree of a scientific readiness of a problem

At research of perception of candidates in presidents the author leant against theoretical workings out in the field of presidency, political perception, its factors defining. In the presence of sufficient volume of a theoretical and empirical material in political science and political psychology for today there is no complex approach to research of specificity of perception of the real politicians operating in the conditions of real election campaign.

First of all we will allocate the block of works devoted to a problem of political perception of the power and leaders. The given question was shined in works of known foreign political psychologists and sociologists - F.Grinstajna, B.Gled, S.Dajsona, D.Kampusa, M.Kvejdera, D.Pontona, T.Prestona R.Stogdila, D.Trejsmena, E.Fidlera, M.Herman, not less significant are and

1Селезнева A.V.generation in the Russian policy: political representations and values: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 19.00.12 / Seleznev Antonina Vladimirovna. M, 2008. С.4.

Works of domestic authors – E.B.Abashkinoj, S.J.Belokoneva, I.K.Vladykinoj, E. V.Gikavogo, V.V. Grishin, T.V.Evgenevoj, E.V.Egorovoj-Gantman, V.A.Zorin, A.G.Kachkaevoj, E.A.Kiktevoj, E.V.Lobzy, S.Medvedevoj, S.V.nesterovoj, L.A.Presnjakovoj, E.S.Semenovoj, A.I.Soloveva, S.V.Tumanova, E.A.Ushakovoj, S.P.Tsoy, N.P.Shelekasovoj, E.B SHestopal, T.A.Shtukinoj, etc. the Greatest value for the given research work is represented by the works devoted to studying of features of perception of the first persons of the state and candidates in

президенты1, and also structures political образа2. The given scientific workings out have allowed

Accurately to designate key psychological measurements of images, and to be focused on studying of their specificity and interdependence.

The second block of works is devoted studying of specificity of process of political perception, depending on influence of factors of different type. The given problem rises in S.Feldman and P.Konover, M.Berbenka, F.Grinstajna, R.Hakfelda, V.Ran and D.Sullivan, S.A.Belanovsky, O.V.Bukreevoj, L.A.Efimovoj, M.I.Zhestkova, I.V.Zadorina, A.L.Zvereva's works, L.A Presnjakovoj and др3. There are bases to speak about an insufficient readiness of system model of political perception, taking into account influence on it of a complex of factors. Attention

1Cм.: for example, Kinder D., Fiske S. Presidents in the Public mind//M.Herman (ed) Political psychology. 1984. Vol II. P.193 - 218; Kinder D. R. Presidential Character Revisited//Political Cognition: The 19 Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. 1986. P.262–266; Fiske S., Neuberg S. A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation//Advances in experimental social psychology/Ed. by M.P. Zanna. 1990. Vol. 23. P. 1–74; Pishcheva so-called Political images: research and interpretation problems//the Policy. 2011. № 2. With. 47–52.

2Cм.: for example, Candidates and Their Images/ed. by Dan D. Nimmo, Robert L. Savage. California, 1976. 250 p.; Rosenberg, Shawn W., Kahn S., Tran T. Creating a Political Image: Shaping Appearance and Manipulating the Vote//Political Behavior. 1991. Vol. 13. P. 347; Kristensen N. N. Perceptions of Power and Democracy: Analytical and Methodological Dilemmas of the Construction of Images//Qualitative Studies. 2010. Vol. 1. No. 1. P. 21–27.; SHestopal E.B.image and image in the political

Perception: actual problems of research//Images of the states, the nations and leaders. M, 2008. With. 8–23; Romanovich N.A.

Formation and reproduction of an image of the power in the Russian society: the monography. 2009. 400 with.; Scherbinin N.G.political an image and image: a parity of concepts//Actual problems of modern political psychology: the anniversary collection of chair / Under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2010. With. 111–118; Vilkov A.A.mental perception of the regional power//News of the Saratov university. A series Sociology. Political science. Release 4. T. 10. 2010. With. 208–220.

3Cм.: Feldman S, Conover P.J. Candidates, Issues and Voters. The Role of Inference in Political Perception//Journal of Politics. 1983. P. 810–839; Rahn W.M., Aldrich J. H., Borgida E. Individual and Contextual Variations in Political Candidates Appraisals//

The American Political Science Review. March 1994. Vol. 88, No. 1. P. 193–199; Burbank M. J. How do contextual effects work?

Developing a theoretical model//Spatial and contextual models in political research. 1995. P. 165–178; Greenstein F.J. Can Personality and Politics Be Studied Systematically//Political Psychology: Key Readings/ed. by John T. Jost and J. Sidanius. New York, 2004. P. 115; Huckfeldt R., Mendez J.M., Osborn T. Disagreement, Ambivalence, and Engagement: The Political Consequences of Heterogeneous Networks//Political Psychology. 2004. Vol. 25, Issue 1. P. 65–95; Sullivan J. L., Oxendine A., Borgida E., Riedel E., Jackson M., Dial J. The Importance of Political Context for Understanding Civic Engagement: A Longitudinal Analysis//Political Behavior. March 2007. Vol. 29. Issue 1. P. 31–67; Presnyakov L.A.structure of personal perception of the political power//Political researches. 2000. №4. With. 135–139; Egorova-Gantman E.V., Pleshakov K.V.political advertising. M, 2002. 240 with.; Efimova L.A. Question about unconscious as to an irrational basis of political behaviour//Pressing questions of modern pedagogics. M, 2002. With. 41–47; Zadorin I.V.qualit and qualities of the power: perception of the population//politija. 2005. №2. With. 96–115; V.D.Paradoksy's Priests in destiny of Russia (communicative psychoanalysis of the power and a society). M, 2005. 152 with.; Belanovsky S, Dmitriev to Russia and possible mechanisms of its development. M, 2011. 33с.; Zverev A.L.psychological a context of perception of the modern Russian power//the Russian policy in the conditions of a selective cycle 2011-2012 the Collection of reports. 2011. With. 91–92.

Researchers it is concentrated to consideration of separate aspects of formation of a political image more often.

First, the most developed kontseptom in the course of formation of an image of the political leader is the leadership category as object of perception. The leadership phenomenon is studied the different parties. We will allocate a part of works of the politological orientation focused on personal qualities which the politician to whom it is possible to carry works of J should possess. M.Burns, F.Grinstajna, B.Gled, K.de Landshir, D.Uintera of M.Herman, etc. To domestic researchers of leadership rightfully can carry E.B.Abashkinu, E.V.Egorov, V.A.Zorin, J.V.Irhina, N.M.Rakitjansky, A.I.Soloveva, E.B.Shestopal, T.A.Shtukinu, etc.

To a lesser degree in the politiko-psychological literature the question of interrelation of features of perception of the politician and a role which it carries out is considered. As a rule, researchers operate with concept of a role of the politician, to a lesser degree paying attention more to special cases, such as a role of the president, the member of parliament, the deputy, the governor, the minister (E.P.Dobrynin, I.I.Rogozar-Kolpakova) and that is important within the limits of the given research a role of the candidate. Researches of a context of perception are spent mainly in sphere personal and social

психологии1. Authors are usually limited to the description of status duties and role

The expectations shown to the political leader from the party общества2, to character of execution by politicians different ролей3. It is necessary to note especially works devoted to question consideration президентства4.

Secondly, we will note a number of the researches devoted to studying of subject factors of perception of political leaders, in particular socially-demographic особенностей5 and

1Cм.: Olport G.Stanovlenie of the person: the Selected works. M, 2002. 462с.

2См. For example, Nesterov S.V.some of feature of political culture in Modern Russia (psychological aspect)//Civil culture in modern Russia. 1999. C. 78–100; political psychology, culture and communications / E.B.Shestopal. 2008. 320с.; Kasamara V. A, Sorokina A.A. the "Ideal" president eyes Russian and

The French students//Social studies and the present. 2012. №1. With. 5–15, etc.

3Cм.: the human capital of the Russian political elite. The Politiko-psychological analysis / E.B.Shestopal, A.V.Selezneva. M, 2012. 342с.

4например, Barber J.D. Presidential character: Predicting performance in the White House. N.Y., 1972. 479 pp.; Hargrove E.C.

President as leader: Appealing to the better angels of our nature. Lawrence, 1998. 240 pp.; George A.L., George J.L. Presidential personality and performance. 1998. 287 pp.; Mitrokhin V. I. Russia: the power, the president, elections. M, 1996. 158с.; Salmin A.M.legalit, legitimacy and assignment as problems of today's Russian statehood//politija. 1998.

№1; Perception of an image of the president in a context of democratic transformation of political culture//New Russia: a policy and culture in modern measurement. 2003. With. 129–139; Olejnik A.N.continuity and variability of prevailing model of the power: «effect of a track» in the Russian history//politija. 2011. №1. With. 56.

5Cм. For example, Williams J. E., Best D. L. Sex stereotypes and intergroup relations//S. Worshel, W.G. Austin (eds.) Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago. 1986. P. 244–259; Vardanjan R. A. A demography, public opinion and distinctions in

Electoral behaviour of women and men//Gender reconstruction of political systems. SPb., 2003. 991 with.; popova

O.V.Politicheskie of generation: distinctions and stability of political views//politanaliz / Under the editorship of G.P.Artyomov. Vyp. 8. SPb., 2007. With. 92–100; Suslina M.V.Gendernye aspects of perception of Russia//Theses of the international scientific conference «Actual problems of political perception of Russia. 2009. M, With. 117; SHehter M.M.Tseli and higher education problems in modern conditions//Materials of the Siberian psychological forum. 2004. With. 856.; Seleznev A.V.generation in the Russian policy: political representations and values. 23с.;

Features of a condition mass Russian сознания1. It is necessary to notice, that complete concepts of perception of leaders and the power do not exist for today neither in foreign, nor in domestic political psychology.

Problem of influence of conditions of mass consciousness on perception process, and parities

«Ideal models» with images of real political leaders it is considered with different позиций2. One authors are concentrated to search ideal konstruktov, as mobile categories of mass political consciousness, poverzhennyh to appreciable dynamics and role expectations closely connected with a category. Other researchers consider an image of the ideal leader from positions arhetipichnyh installations of the Russian political culture.

Thirdly, for research of dependence of political perception from contextual factors, significant there were the works devoted to studying of political culture России3, the works devoted to a sociopolitical context восприятия4 and the works considering dependence of political perception from electoral специфики5.

Fourthly, in work the attention has been paid to studying of the communicative factor of formation of an image of the political leader. Till now remain maloizuchennym questions of the separate parties political коммуникаций6, ways and possibilities of influence on process of perception for the purpose of increase in efficiency of interaction of the politician and граждан7.

The most significant for dissertational research are researches of collective of chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova under the guidance of E.Shestopal. N.V.Bokova, N.S Vinogradova, T.V.Evgeneva, V.A.Zorin, S.V.Nesterov, So-called Pishcheva, A.V.Seleznev, N.P.Shelekasova, E.B.Shestopal, etc. consider a wide spectrum of the questions connected with process of political perception of objects of a various sort, systematising structural psychological measurements of political images rather

Rational and unconscious aspects восприятия8.

1Cм. N.N.Bogomolova, A.I.Dontsova, G.G.Diligenskogo, S.V.nesterovoj, D.V.Olshansky, O.V.Popovoj, T.V.Folomeevoj's works.

2См. For example, Dubov I.G., Pantileev S.R.perception of the person of the political leader//Psychological magazine. Volume

13. № 6. 1992. With. 25–34; Makarenko B.I.phenomen of political leadership in perception of public opinion//Bulletin ROPTSb. 1996. № 26. With. 20.; images of the power in Post-Soviet Russia. Under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2004. 534 with.;

3Cм. O.V.Bukreevoj, O.V.Gaman-Golutvinoj, A.A.Zaharova, J.V.Irhina, N.I.Lapina, V.I.Pantina, V.O.Rukavishnikov, A.I.Soloveva, A.I.Scherbinin and N.G.ShCherbininoj's works, etc.

4См. B.I.Makarenko, M.M.Nazarov, D.V.Olshansky, V.I.Pantina, V.B.Pastuhova, V.F.Petrenko, O.V.Popovoj, V.O.Rukavishnikov, T.N.Samsonovoj, G.A.Satarov, L.A.Sedova, M.J.Urnova's B.G.Grushin, L.Gudkova, I.G.Dubova, I.M.Kljamkina, J.A.Levady, N.I.Lapina, J.A.Levady's works;

5См. D.Bjukenena, V.J.Gelman, G.V.Golosova, E.Daunsa, A.Campbell, E.B.Meleshkinoj, G.Talloka, M.Fioriny's works.

6См. S.Ajengara's works, So-called Dorozhkinoj, D.Kellnera, and. M.Koksharovoj, L.Kejda, B.I.Makarenko, M.Makkini, M.V.Novikovoj-Grund, V.F.Petrenko, S.V.Razvorotneva, J. Tedesko, V.V.Fedorova, etc.

7См. P.Abramsona, E.I.Bashkirovoj, E.Dennisa and D.Merila, I.G.Dubova, E.V.Egorovoj-Gantman, J.Kosolapova's works, J. Oldricha, G.G.Pocheptsova, D.Rouda, A.P.Sitnikova, A.M.Tsuladze, etc.

8Психология political perception in modern Russia / E.B.Shestopal. M, 2012. 432с., Etc.

As the basic object of research of the given dissertational work process of perception of political leaders-candidates in presidents citizens of Russia has been selected.

Consideration of features of perception of political leaders - of candidates in the presidents, caused by influence objective, subject communicative and temporalnogo factors in election campaign of 2012 became an object of research.

The purpose of dissertational research is the analysis of specificity of formation of images of political leaders-candidates in consciousness of electorate in the conditions of presidential election campaign.

The given purpose has caused statement and the decision of following problems:

1. In a theoretical part of research:

The-analysis of theoretical approaches to studying of process of political perception as a whole and, specificity of formation of images of political leaders in particular;

-Revealing of factors of influence on formation of images of political leaders in presidential election campaign, and also forms and degree of their influence on perception process;

-Construction of conceptual model of research of perception of political leaders - of candidates in presidential election campaign;

2. In an empirical part of research:

- Revealing and the analysis of prototypes of the political leader as politiko-cultural components of the Russian mass consciousness;

The-analysis of characteristics of images of candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012 at rational and unconscious level and their comparison;

-Estimation of character of a coordination of prototypes of the political leader and images of candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012;

-Consideration of transformations of images of candidates to, in a course and after presidential election campaign in 2012г.;

-Consideration of character of influence of major factors on formation of images of candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012;

The basic hypothesis of the present research is the assumption of distinct dependence of an image of the political leader-candidate of presidential election campaign from objective, subject, communicative and temporalnogo factors.

In the dissertation following additional hypotheses are formulated:

1. Feature of process of perception of political leaders in election campaign consists in increase of the importance of activity, competitiveness, independence of the leader - of the candidate.

2. In election campaign value of a role which was played earlier by the politician, decreases and gets latent character whereas the role for which it applies as the candidate, is staticized.

3. Character of perception of the candidate in presidents is dependent on the prototypes containing in mass political consciousness (an image of the ideal president/governor and an image of the winner of election campaign).

4. The political situation of the end 2011-has begun 2012, accompanied by increase of political activity of weights, and caused by transformation of a condition of mass consciousness, has made appreciable impact on process of perception of elections and candidates.

The teoretiko-methodological basis of research was made by the politiko-psychological approach being most relevant for the decision of problems of dissertational research and developed on chair of sociology and psychology politicians of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova under the guidance of E.Shestopal. This approach assumes the account of specificity of perception of the Russian political leaders on rational and unconscious уровнях1. The basic methodological principles of the politiko-psychological analysis developed in works of foreign and domestic scientists, assume accent on consideration of subjective measurement политики2.

In research of factorial specificity of political perception F.Grinstajna's works, J were significant. K.MakGrou, J. Mendesa, B.Newman, T.Osborna, R.Hakfelda, O.V.Bukreevoj, M.I.Zhestkova, A.L.Zvereva, S.V.nesterovoj, So-called Food, L.A.Presnjakovoj, E.B.Shestopal and other 3 other 3

Research of specificity of a political context, and character of its influence on process of formation of images of political leaders was carried out according to the concept ideal прототипа4, the revealed domestic researchers, features of the Russian

1Пищева So-called Perception of candidates in presidents communicative aspects of election campaigns 1996, 2000, 2004 … С.10

2Political psychology: Contemporary problems and issues / Ed. by Hermann M.G. San Francisco. 1986. 255 pp.; Handbook of political psychology / Ed. by Knutson J. San Francisco, 1973. 542 pp.; Political psychology: Cultural and cross-cultural foundations / Ed. by Renshon S., Duckitt J. L. 2000. 374 pp.; Thinking about political psychology / Ed. by Kuklinski J.H.

Cambridge, 2002. 252 pp.; Mayer of G.Vlast, anarchy and social changes – psychological aspects

Micropoliticians//Psychology of perception of the power. M. 2002.; SHestopal E.B.political psychology. M, 2012. 427с. 3Newman B.I., Sheth J.N. A Model of Primary Voter Behavior//The Journal Of Consumer Research. 1985. Vol. 12. P. 178–187; Huckfeldt R., Mendez J.M., Osborn T. Disagreement, Ambivalence, and Engagement: The Political Consequences of Heterogeneous Networks//Political Psychology. 2004. Vol. 25. Issue 1. P. 65–95.

4Kinder D., Fiske S. Presidents in the Public mind. P. 193–218.

Political culture and ideal лидерства1, and sobytijnogo a context of presidential election campaign 2.

Studying of a problem of political leadership and presidency within the limits of research leant against works of the researchers considering leadership as a certain political institute, not existing without the последователей3. Such approach in dissertational research has allowed to transfer accent from the person of the politician on character of its mutual relations with potential voters, and specificity of perception them of personal characteristics of the political leader. Thus, the theoretical approach with use of a system method which has allowed has been selected

To consider major factors of influence on perception of political leaders (objective, subject, contextual, temporalnye, spatial, communicative) 4.

The methodology of the dissertational research leaning on empirical data, had mainly qualitative character and cannot apply on reprezentativnost on the scale of the country, however use of qualitative methods gives us possibility to consider feature of political perception and to reveal certain prototypes, universal for all Russia. Application of methods of deep interviews and designing of fantastic plots has allowed the author of dissertation to consider not only rational, but also not realised level of perception of political objects. Research of images of political leaders of candidates was carried out by means of deep interviews to use of black-and-white photos of politicians in quality stimulnogo a material and associative tests. The given technique has been developed on chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova under

E.B.Shestopal5's management.

Empirical base of research

The materials received at use of various qualitative methods of research of mass consciousness were the basic sources of dissertational research: the data received as a result of deep interviews, collected on sociology and psychology chair

1Cм.: Medvedev T, Pylaev S.O., Sivkova N.I.analys of visual images of the political power//Scientific socially - political magazine «Problem fields of a political science». 2006. №1 (1). With. 30–35; Bondar A.V., Dines V. A. The Russian political traditions and the Russian statehood//the Power. 2008. №4. With. 3–8; Political psychology, culture and communications / E.B.Shestopal. M, 2008. 320с.; Romanovich N.A. To a question on power personification in Russia//the Power. 2009. №9. With. 13–16.

2Cм. B.I.Makarenko, M.M.Nazarov, D.V.Olshansky, V.I.Pantina, V.B.Pastuhova, V.F.Petrenko, V.O.Rukavishnikov, A.P.Sitnikova, T.N.Samsonovoj, G.A.Satarov, L.A.Sedova, M.J.Urnova's E.I.Bashkirovoj, B.G.Grushin, L.Gudkova, I.G.Dubova, I.M.Kljamkina, N.I.Lapina, J.A.Levady's works other

3Psychological examination of political leaders / Ed. by Hermann M. New York, 1977. 345 pp.; Burns J.M. Leadership. N.Y., 1978. 400 pp.; Ashin G. K. Political leadership: optimum style//Social studies and современность.1993. № 2. S.115-127; Egorova-Gantman E.V., etc. Politicians are not born: How to become and remain effective political

The leader. M, 1993.; Zorin V. A. A role of the personal factor in presidency formation in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus:

The politiko-psychological analysis of persons V.V. Putin, L.D.Kuchma, A.G.Lukashenko: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 19.00.12 / Zorin V. A. M, 2003. 25с.;

4Использовалась the factorial model of political perception developed on chair of sociology and psychology politicians E.B.Shestopal.

5Психология political perception in modern Russia. With. 54–68.

Politicians of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova (with 1996 on 2012); the data received as a result of research, spent by the author a method of designing of fantastic plots (2012);

For studying of factors of political perception in addition as sources were used: secondary certificates (analytical articles, istoriko-politological reviews, publications in mass-media), containing data which reflect the most important stages in election campaigns 1996-2012; materials of sociological interrogations of the All-Russia centre of studying of public opinion, Fund "Public opinion", "Levada-centre", etc. with 1996 for 2012 At the analysis of the given materials have been applied a method of secondary processing of the information.

Scientific novelty of the given dissertational research and the received conclusions consists in the following:

The-author reveals specificity of perception of political leaders in the conditions of concrete election campaign of 2012 taking into account transformation of images to, in a course, and after election campaign;

-In the dissertation value of an image of the ideal president as component of a politiko-cultural context for the first time is shown, its parity with images of real candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012 is revealed

In dissertational research the author's method of designing of fantastic plots is applied to consideration of an image of the real candidate in the conditions of a selective situation and its ideal prototype. The principle kategorizatsii characters of fantastic plots on the basis of their role positions is used. The author of dissertation offers model of the analysis of a selective situation, with use of the fantastic plots revealed in tests, offered respondents;

The-author of dissertation enters into a scientific turn great volume of new empirical data concerning features of perception of an image of the ideal president and the Russian political leaders.

The positions which are taken out on protection:

1. Formation of an image of the political leader-candidate in presidential election campaign, unlike the interelective period, has a number of the features connected with the raised importance of characteristics of electoral appeal and specificity of perception by citizens of the political leader, operating in the conditions of a selective situation.

2. The perception of the candidate in presidents is subject to influence first of all factors of objective, subject and communicative character. Degree and specificity of influence of the given factors on process of formation of an image are determined by uniqueness of their combinations and interferences.

3. The perception of the candidate in presidents is influenced some by role positions. Research has shown, that significant are: a role of the candidate; a role of the president; a role inherent in the politician and during the interelective period. Thus features of the Russian electoral process promote perception of political leaders not so much as candidates and potential winners, how many carriers of the certain already settled roles.

4. The important feature of perception of candidates in Presidents of the Russian Federation in 2012г. There was a changed condition of mass consciousness, growth of protest moods, a dissatisfaction of citizens with the power, the increased inquiry moral characteristics of leaders.

5. Research has shown, that conformity of the real candidate in presidents to an ideal prototype is not a guarantee its victories however containing in a kernel of this image parametres of appeal, force and activity promote its positive perception.

6. The image of the winner of election campaign of V.V. Putin differed the highest indicators of political support, rational and unconscious parametres of force, activity, psychological, political and professional appeal, competitiveness and independence, respondents attributed to it motives of business and the power is more often.

The theoretical and practical importance of research:

First, the theoretical importance of the present dissertational research consists, first of all, that the positions stated in it, ideas and conclusions can be used as by the further working out of the theory of political perception, and at expansion of the theoretical and empirical base of adjacent areas: sociological and political researches politiko-cultural konstruktov, researches of mass consciousness in the conditions of the Russian political transformations.

Secondly, results of research can be used as materials for the further analysis and working out of the concept of perception of politicians-candidates, at research of dynamics of images of political leaders and more detailed definition of the major factors influencing political perception during the electoral period.

Thirdly, along with theoretical importance of a problem of perception of political leaders - of candidates, the importance of the given research consists in working out and realisation of a complex of the politiko-psychological techniques, allowing to investigate perception of the political leader is not torn off from a political reality, and in a context of coherence with a selective situation.

Fourthly, the results of research displaying specificity of formation of an image of the candidate, can be used in the practical policy, at the analysis and forecasting of results of election campaigns, at designing of political images and formings of pre-election strategy.

Fifthly, the given dissertational research is capable to act as methodological base for working out of special courses within the limits of educational profiles: «political psychology»,

«Political management», "imidzheologija", "sociology" and "political science".

Work approbation:

The basic maintenance of work has passed approbation in author's publications and in reports at scientific conferences, in particular, in a course:

· the International conference «Krasnoyarsk region: the past, present, future» (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) – on November, 19-21th 2009;

· Scientific-theoretical conference «Social and economic problems of development of Russia at the present stage» (Irkutsk, Russia) – on April, 17th 2010;

· the Round table of chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova «Images of leaders in mass consciousness on the eve of presidential elections» (Moscow, Russia) – February 2012.;

· the International youth scientific forum "Lomonosov-2012" (Moscow, Russia) – on April, 9-13th, 2012

· the International conference «Citizens and leaders in comparative prospect. What can the political psychology offer for understanding of last trends and events in the politician?» (Moscow, Russia) – on October, 26-27th 2012;

· the Sixth All-Russia congress of political scientists «Russia in the global world: institutes and strategy of political interaction» (Moscow, Russia) – on November, 22-24nd 2012;

· the International youth scientific forum "Lomonosov-2013" (Moscow, Russia) – on April, 8-12th, 2013

· the International scientific conference: «Sociopolitical ideas of Century And Vernadsky and the modern world» (Moscow, Russia) – on April, 27th 2013;

· the International scientific conference

«Political culture of Russia and Poland» (Moscow, Russia) – on September, 27th 2013;

· Scientific conference with the international participation «the Power, business, a civil society in the conditions of modernisation of Russia: institutes, strategy and practice of political cooperation» (Moscow, Russia) – on November, 22-23nd 2013;

Work structure: the given dissertational research consists of the introduction, two heads, the conclusion, the bibliography and appendices.

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A source: Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN. 2014

More on topic Introduction:

  1. in introduction
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 10.1. Introduction
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. approbation and introduction of results.
  7. Introduction
  8. Introduction
  9. INTRODUCTION
  10. INTRODUCTION
  11. Introduction
  12. Introduction
  13. INTRODUCTION
  14. Instead of Introduction …
  15. PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION OF RESULTS OF WORK
  16. 5. Attention strengthening to questions of legal introduction.
  17. Introduction
  18. Introduction
  19. Introduction
  20. Introduction