1.1 Structure of images of political leaders-candidates in presidents

Beginning the analysis of theoretical approaches to a problem of perception of political leaders, first of all it is necessary to define the basic concepts which are in focus of attention of given research.

First of all speech here goes about concepts of the political leader, political perception and an image.

In the scientific literature there is a set of definitions of political leadership. The object of the political perception considered in given work, the political leader, was understood as the person, having by the recognised authority, possessing the greatest influence in this or that political group, and also playing the central role in interaction of the given group with

Other organisations and society in целом1.

The political perception has been defined as reflexion process in mass and individual consciousness of such political objects as leaders, the power, parties, the state, etc. By consideration of political perception as the perception version социального2 (the term «social pertseptsii» is entered Brunerom) should allocate a number of its specific features, such as: character of an orientation on semantic and estimated interpretations of a political reality; high unity kognitivnyh and emotional components pertseptsii; mediated (mainly through mass-media) character, dominance submissiveness of values, stereotypes, installations mass сознания3. The political perception (unlike perception social) is caused, according to modern political psychologists, nearby of the theoretical and methodological problems connected with impossibility of carrying over of psychological forms and mechanisms on a political reality, structural specificity of separate perceived political objects and the account of influence of a national context.

Feature of political perception is reflected in many respects in the major element of the given process – an image. The image is represented as the generalised picture of the world (the phenomena, subjects), the information formed at processing which arrives through sense organs. At a science there are some approaches to concept of an image. First of all it is necessary to define specificity of the politological categories claimed today "image" and "image". Here prevails two research tendencies: obektivistskaja and subjectivistic. The first

1Филистович E.S.problem of research parliamentary ilderstvatv political psychology / Actual problems of modern political psychology. M, 2010. With. 281.

2Теория social pertseptsii it is in detail enough developed as in western (S.Ash, D.Bruner, G.Kelli, M.Hjuston and I.Jaspers, etc.), and in domestic psychology (K.Abulhanova-Slavskaja, G.Andreeva, A.Bodalev, M.Bobneva, A.Dontsov, E.Egorova-Gantman, etc.).

3См.: SHestopal E.B.political psychology: the Textbook. 2 izd., the reslave. And dop. M, 2012. 427с.

The tendency is presented by "the reflexion theory» and in a domestic science originates from a Marxist paradigm (A.N.Leonteva's school). According to the given approach, concepts "image" and

"Image" are accurately articulated on the basis of that the psychological image represents itself natural reflexion of the objective validity, and image it is artificial it is simulated.

The second tendency, konstruktivistskaja (A.Shults, P.Berger, T.Lukman, P.Burde) leans against idea, that a mental image as "fact" of political consciousness represents itself konstrukt thinking and show interchangeable concepts, being is artificial. Within the limits of our research the given categories are not identical. To a category "image" we will carry designed meaningly and purposefully impression, and to an image - impressions formed spontaneously.

The analysis of the modern literature shows, that within the limits of political psychology researches of perception of an image of the political leader are carried out serious theoretical and empirical. To become significant definition of the most widespread politiko - psychological approaches to research of images of political leaders.

Studying of features of political perception is characterised by occurrence of some new tendencies which find expression, first of all, in deleting of sharp borders between separate directions of researches, in their interosculation and interference. The considerable attention is given to system studying kognitivnyh the human structures, defining process of perception and knowledge the person of the world and its existence in нем1.

Researches of estimated interpretations by citizens of political leaders in conditions

Different political systems and cultures it is spent not so much, however, and existing allow to say about a uniform set of allocated lines that assumes necessity and possibility of development of the universal scheme of the analysis of an image of political leaders. L.Gozmana, G.Diligenskogo A.Devisa, E.V.Egorovoj-Gantman, T.Kendrika, K.Kitinga, D.Rendalla, U.Uajntrauba, D.Uintera, S.Walker, M.Hermann's works, E.B.Shestopal, etc. have brought the considerable contribution to working out of the given problem. The western researchers since 80th years a direction consideration of mechanisms pertseptivnyh processes in laboratory conditions with attraction of the methods borrowed from nejrobiologii, clinical psychology is actively developed. Research of an image of political leaders in the conditions of a selective situation the American and European researchers, as a rule, is subordinated to a problem of consideration of a question of electoral appeal of candidates. The basic accent in similar researches becomes on communicative aspect of political perception and potential imidzhevyh strategy of political leaders. Thus it is necessary to mention and existence of a considerable layer of the researches devoted to political leaders, mentioning studying of the personal

1Cм.: Perris C., I. M., Perris N Cognitive psychotherapy. Theory and practice. Berlin, 1988. 320 pp.

Component of concrete politicians, their behavioural models within the limits of the international relations and internal policy, specificity of interrelation of personal features and character of carried out political leadership.

Now the most part of political researches of the USA in the field of political perception of the leader is concentrated to consideration of images in mass consciousness from the point of view of two structural components, making considerable impact on an estimation of the candidate, namely: competence, and integrity (kongruentnosti) образа1. There is no uniform treatment of dynamic characteristics кандидата2, are differently marked and interpreted in images liderskaja позиция3 and force кандидата4. At last, there are the considerable proofs confirming, that voters make an estimation of the candidate, leaning on more private personal features of politicians, such as appeal, charm, charm (charisma) and affinity to народу5

Russian авторы6, also consider an image as raznokachestvennoe formation,

Which mentions: a perception source; its last experience; the emotional relation to perceived object; intellectual features perceiving, its personal senses caused national, polovozrastnoj, a class, state accessory, a cultural-political context of perception. In the course of the figurative

1Cм.: Bean C. The electoral influence of party leader images in Australia and New Zealand//Comparative Political Studies. 1993. No. 26. P. 111–132; Brown S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada//Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. No. 21. P. 729–755; Markus, G. B., Converse, P. E. A dynamic simultaneous equation model of electoral choice//American Political Science Review.1979. Vol. 73. P. 1055–1070; McCann, J. A. Changing electoral contexts and changing candidate images during the 1984 presidential campaign//American Politics Quarterly. 1990. Vol.18. P. 123–140; Stewart, M. C., Clarke, H. D. The importance of party leaders: Leader images and party choice in the 1987 British election//Journal of Politics. 1992. Vol. 54. P. 447–470; Pancer M D. Brown S. and Cathy Widdis C. Barr Forming Impressions of Political Leaders: A Cross-National Comparison//Political Psychology. Vol. 20. No. 2. 1999. P. 366–369;

2Brown S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. Vol. 21. P. 729–755;

3Miller A. H., Miller W. E. Ideology and the 1972 election: Myth or reality-A rejoinder//American Political Science Review. 1976. Vol. 70, P. 832–849; Shabad G., Andersen K. Candidate evaluations by men and women//Public Opinion Quarterly. 1979. Vol. 43. P. 18–35; Winham G. R., Cunningham R. B. Party leader images in the 1968 federal election//Canadian Journal of

Political Science. 1979. No. 3. P. 37–55.

4Bean, C. The electoral influence of party leader images in Australia and New Zealand//Comparative Political Studies. 1993. Vol. 26. P. 111–132; McCann J. A. Changing electoral contexts and changing candidate images during the 1984 presidential

campaign//American Politics Quarterly. 1990. Vol. 18. P. 123–140; Pancer S. M., Brown S. D., Gregor P., Claxton-Oldfield S.

P. Causal attributions and the perception of political figures//Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 1992. Vol. 24. P. 371–381

; Schultz C., Pancer S. M. Character attacks and their effects on perceptions of male and female political candidates//Political Psychology, 1997. No. 8. P. 93–102; Shabad G., ndersen, K.//Candidate evaluations by men and women. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1979. Vol. 43. P. 18–35; Stewart M. C., Clarke H. D. The (un) importance of party leaders: Leader images and party choice in the 1987//British election. Journal of Politics. 1992. Vol. 54. P. 447–470.

5 Brown S. D., Lambert R. D., Kay B. J., Curtis J. E. In the eye of the beholder: Leader images in Canada//Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1988. Vol. 21. P. 729–755; Clarke H. D., Jenson J., LeDuc L., Pammett J. H. Political choice in Canada. Toronto 1979; Funk C. L. The impact of scandal on candidate evaluations: An experimental test of the role of candidate traits//Political

Behavior. 1996. Vol. 18. P. 1–24; Glass, D. P. Evaluating presidential candidates: Who focuses on their personal attributes?//

Public Opinion Quarterly. 1985. Vol. 49. P. 517–534; Keeter S., Zukin C. New romances and old horses: The public’s images of presidential candidates. In D. A. Graber (Ed.), The president and the public 1982. P. 39–82; Rahn W. M., Aldrich J. H., Borgida E., Sullivan J. L. A social-cognitive model of candidate appraisal. In J. A. Ferejohn AND J. H. Kuklinski (Eds.), Information and democratic processes. 1990. P. 136–159.

6См. For example, Labunsky V.A.Ekspressija of the person: dialogue and interpersonal knowledge. Rostov-on-Don. 1999. 608c.

Perceptions there is an integration of new characteristics of object by consciousness into already generated image so that its integrity has not been broken. Depending on it effects of the perception in detail considered in psychology of dialogue and interpersonal interaction are formed a different sort.

Konstantnost conceptual psychological structure of a political image, defines a choice as the most fruitful approach to research of a problem of political perception – allocation of fundamental measurements of structure of an image of the political leader. We will consider a little the most significant for the given research of author's concepts.

First, according to the theoretical approach of a group of authors under the guidance of E.V.Egorovoj-Gantman, the image represents itself an image-knowledge, an image-value, an image potrebnoe будущее1. Images of the power, parties, the organisations, the countries and leaders are subject to influence of the information on the political life, arriving to the individual and specific image refracted through three allocated konstrukta. The image of the political leader, according to the given position, is certain by three basic components: personal, social and symbolical характеристиками2. To the personal carry physical (a floor, appearance, age), psychological (personal lines of the politician, its manner to speak, character), political, business and professional qualities (organising abilities, ideological orientations and political views, lidersky potential). As social characteristics it is understood: The status of the leader (defined by an official position, an accessory to social group, a financial position), an origin and the biography, character of interaction with social groups (in particular

Supporters and opponents). Researchers mark the tendency of strengthening of symbolical characteristics of an image of the politician, in the history turning-points, differing growth of public inquiry about uniting symbols when the leader is capable to personify sphere of fears and надежд3. Throughout the given research approach (specific to us unity of concepts of an image and image), it is necessary to mention and M.D.Zamskoj's position, excellent allocation in an image of the political leader imidzhevogo and the substantial block. Imidzhevaja the part of an image, according to the given concept, represents itself set of external, formal signs, corresponding or contradicting a substantial part for which the support is important on

The ideology, representing itself as system of significant ideas and values and informing all activity the target orientation giving to it смысл4.

1Имидж the leader. Under the editorship of E.Egorovoj-Gantman, M, 1994. C. 177, 212–213.

2Там. S.118-135.

3Edelman M. Constructing the Political Spectacle, 1988. P. 37.

4Замская M. D, Matveeva L.V.image of the political leader as an element of consciousness of subjects of political communications//the Moscow State University Bulletin. Сер.14:Психология. 2006. №1. S.19-29.

Secondly, if to start with a position, that the structure of an image of the politician in consciousness of the voter, is similar to its personal structure, and means a projection of dynamic interaction of physiological, emotional, intellectual and other conditions of the person significant there is an allocation in attitjude three elements: kognitivnogo, affective and konativnogo (behavioural). Accordingly the points of view of psychological structure of the perceiving subject it makes sense to allocate three basic components of an image of the politician: kognitivnyj (for example, a cognizance of the politician), affective (liking or an antipathy) and behavioural

Component (readiness to support it on elections) 1.

Thirdly, at C.Osguda's concept, the image of the political leader can be considered according to three measurements: attraktivnosti (appeal), force and activity. The offered method is based on the phenomenon sinestezii – thinking by analogy at which one sensual perceptions arise under the influence of others. In the given research the presented three estimated criteria have been recognised the most significant for formation of semantic space of the person. Indicators of appeal of the political leader in this case included: External (physical appeal, a behaviour manner, clothes), corporal characteristics (illness-health, age, completeness-leanness, bad habits, the constitution, temperament, maskulinnost-feminnost), psychological features (the speech features, separate psychological lines, character), morally-ethical estimations of the politician, professional, business and political qualities (political views, liderskie qualities, experience, skills, competence). Presence of parametres of force and activity, undoubtedly, strengthens appeal of a political image. Consideration of a combination of indicators of appeal of force and activity, allows most productively rassmatret specificity of electoral appeal of the politician (by elimination of many undoubtedly attractive, but unessential or effective qualities).

Fourthly, N.T.Shelekasova adheres to the approach to structure of a political image, as to the two-level system presented superficial (changeable) and deep (steady) уровнем2. Both levels can include both realised, and not realised components. Therefore here the assumption about многомерной3 and enough to dynamical structure of an image of the political leader (the given statement will be fair and in relation to perception of the separate individual, and in relation to mass perception) 4 is quite defensible. In superficial level of structure of a political image are included realised partially or

1Психология political perception. С19

2Cм.: Zorin V. A. A role of the personal factor in presidency formation in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: politiko - the psychological analysis of persons V.V. Putin, L.D.Kuchmy, A. G.Lukashenko … 25с

3Шестопал E.B.estimation citizens of the person of the leader//Political researches. 1997. № 6. With. 78–79.

4Cм.: Durdin D.M. "Image" of the political leader and possibility of its change//Political researches. 2000. № 2. S.133-151.

Completely attributed to the leader, political and economic achievements, installations, values, stereotypes, the electoral expectations, the specific situational political context dependent on external events, resources, etc. 1. Deep level of structure of the political image, connected with the unconscious beginning and consequently mainly not realised, differs that on it the phenomena connected with deep components of political values prove, installations, expectations. Their influence can be realised only частично2. Archetypes, act, in opinion the Ship's boy, as the basic forces in depths collective unconscious, concern certain "samples", prototypes ideal political лидера3. According to the given concept, between superficial and deep the elements which are in constant movement, flowing of one condition (realised) in another (not realised) and changing the качество4 are present perception levels (in "diffuzionnoj" to a zone). Stability of these elements and their property to remain in one of spheres also depends on many factors (for example, from kognitivnoj structures of the person perceiving).

Fifthly, in structure of a political image allocate rational and unconscious components (perception levels). Rational components of an image represent, reflected in consciousness perceiving and realised by them, characteristics of political object. That is perceiving possesses ability to describe, that in the given politician it is pleasant to it or it is not pleasant and to explain the reason of its appeal. To unconscious level of perception prevalence practically not realised emotions, instead of kognitivnyh mechanisms is characteristic. Perceiving not always can explain the relation to the leader, at attempts to prove the answer it not always represents an authentic explanation, it is influenced already by a rationalisation phenomenon.

In any political image there are not realised layers. Unconscious characteristics can be connected with specific features of the subject of perception, with the mass stereotypes generated by mass-media, with the general deep cultural representations («archetypes collective unconscious» on the Ship's boy). And if, according to E.B.Shestopal, in the first case one specific features extinguish other specific features, at changeable enough second level mass stereotypes make appreciable impact on dynamics of images in connection with actions of the politician, its opponents and the power. The third layer, in turn, differs steady enough structures unconscious, put in pawn during primary socialisation and is closely connected with the fundamental

1Медведева S.M.political stereotypes and their influence on electoral behaviour of Russians in 1990th years//Psychology of perception of the power / Under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. — m, 2002. With. 75–76, 78.

2Кольев A.N.political mythology: realisation of social experience. M, 2003. With. 56–67.

3Cм.: Leontev D.A.Etalonnyj an image in a context of psychosemantic branding//Advertising and a life. 2000. № 1. 165с.

4Cм.: Bassin F.V.consciousness and "unconscious"//Philosophical questions of physiology of the higher nervous activity and psychology. M, 1963.

Psychological personal designs (for example, representations about semantic values of colour, a smell, structure imperious relations and social norms) 1. In the field of the rationalised and not realised aspects of perception of political leaders it is possible to carry the politiko-psychological research spent in 1999г To examples of modern workings out. The American experts K.Kittingom, D.Rendalom and T.Kendrikom assuming, that the physical shape of the person possesses influence full of inner meaning on perception political власти2. As a whole, results of their research testified, that the most thin not realised changes perceived fiziognomicheskih signs can be used for management of social perception of political leaders.

For today within the limits of individual, and collective researches system research of images of political leaders with accent on their maintenance psychological structure and mechanisms of influence on citizens is carried out. I.Vladykina, A.Grishko, A.Kachanov, E.Kikteva, E.Lobza, P.Malinovky, L. O.Popova, L.A.Presnyakov, etc. consider a wide spectrum of a problematics of a phenomenon of political perception. Collective of chair of sociology

And of M.V.Lomonosova under the guidance of E.B.Shestopal3, it is enough psychology of a policy of the Moscow State University

Long time is engaged in the analysis of the rational and irrational aspects, political images concerning the maintenance in consciousness of citizens. According to results of its researches citizens are capable to "read" precisely enough an image of the politician, despite lacking the accurate and full rationalised information at a stage of formation of an image. Their measuring tool including both realised and not realised mechanisms of perception, allows to carry out to voters emotionally comprehensible выбор4.

Works were the most significant for the given dissertational research

T.N.Pishchevoj, N.T.Shelekasovoj, S.V.Nesterovoj, devoted to the rationalised and not realised features of images of political leaders (in particular candidates) and considered structure of an image from a position of the complex approach. For example, N.T.Shelekasova considering an image of the politician defines some kind of pertseptivnuju a matrix formed as a result of imposing of three basic components of personal structure of an image (kognitivnyj, emotional, behavioural) on two measurements (rational, unconscious), on three estimated parametres (appeal, force, activity).

Throughout the characteristic of the presented approach, it is necessary to mention the examples which have met to us of doubts concerning idea of presence rational and

1Психология political perception. С17

2Cм.: Kiting K.F., Rendall D, Kendrik T.Prezidentskaja fiziognomika: the changed images, the changed perceptions//Political psychology: Hrestomatija. / Under the editorship of SHestopal E.B. M, 2002. S.413-431.

3Cм.: Shestopal E.B., Novikova-Grund M.V.Vosprijatie of images of 12 leading politicians of Russia (the psychological and linguistic analysis)//Political researches. 1996. № 5. With. 168–191.

4Cм.: SHestopal E.B.estimation citizens of the person of the leader//Political researches. 1997. № 6. With. 57–79.

Unconscious aspects of political perception. So, for example, V.V. Grishin investigating specificity of social trust in mentality of Russians comes to conclusion that the requirements of Russians shown to politicians, are not display of an archetype of slavish consciousness. They are determined by concrete characteristics of subjective representations of Russians about the country as a whole, that is the personal experience which does not have any irrational bases. That is, in this case the unconscious component is excluded from sphere of formation of political representations. It is interesting, that, according to the majority of modern models political

восприятия1 Regular rationality of the subject, as fundamental is denied,

The dominating basis the emotional component of perception admits unconscious, especially. From the point of view of O.V.Bukreevoj there is a levelling of a primacy of the rational bases of perception because of insufficient knowledge of the subject or, on the contrary, high complexity of optimisation of a choice at information glut, rigidnosti perceptions, influences of the external communicative environment, orientation to a concrete reference group and of some others обстоятельств2.

With the above described concept the approach of consideration of an image is closely connected with

Positions of parametres kongruentnosti and the functionality, defining degree of the coordination of rational and emotional installations, its abilities to correspond dominating, actual at present to public requirements.

By question consideration kongruentnosti images of candidates we will notice, that the image elektoralno the successful political leader on all key parametres should be kongruentnym, balanced and harmonious, however actually similar is faster an exception. It is important, that rational and unconscious characteristics of an image of the politician never coincide completely, at different political leaders raznitsja uniformity, degree of coincidence and a vector of an orientation of the given characteristics defining level of complexity,

mnogoslojnosti an image and accordingly, the difficulties connected with them восприятия3.

The image of the politician developing at citizens also as any psychological image, is represented reflexion of real properties of object of perception (the political leader) and thus comprises a projection of expectations of the subject of perception (citizen). The political leader can send to a society insufficiently clear signals caught by it as inconsistent and

1В the first turn can be carried to them: dispositional and komparativnuju models, model of "political labels», the political-economical and communicative approach to political perception, the theory of "the limited rationality» and research concepts of studying of political images within the limits of political neurology. 2Букреева O.V.Sravnitelnyj the analysis of rational and unconscious components of images of the power in modern Russia … C. 14

3Шестопал E.B.teoretiko of a problem of research of images of the power//Psychology of perception of the power... With. 28–27.

Not co-ordinated systems сообщений1. Irrationality of perception can arise and because of the subject of perception. According to psychoanalytic researches, people supersede disputed or injuring experiences and representations in sphere бессознательного2. The contradiction between system of values socially approved in current time and true preferences of voters can become one of the reasons of a mismatch of an image of the politician. The conclusion made as a result of long-term researches E.B.Shestopal is significant that in the conditions of a mismatch of not realised and rational components of installation respondents will be guided more possibly emotional предпочтениями3.

From the point of view of foreign researchers the important reason of distortions of perception of political objects, are kognitivnye features, (stereotypification, интуитивность4, kognitivnaja rigidnost the subject of perception), ignoring to contradicting developed installation of the objective political information (so-called – «motivirovannoe a reasoning» 5). P.Ditto and D.Lopes is defined by preferences of the voter in quality there is nobody the compromise between attempt to receive a certain conclusion and desire to define obviously угодный6. As the reason nekongruentnosti an image can act and kognitivnyj a discord certain by L.Festingerom and placing emphasis on discrepancies of subject installations and поведения7. Interesting the phenomenon of growth of liking to the candidate in the conditions of translation of translation to voters of the negative information on it, registered in the course of consideration of specificity of preservation of the status-kvo and the relation to alternative позициям8 here is. It is necessary to remember, however, opposite effect konformnosti the subject of the perception, influencing preservation of steady interrelations of electoral preferences the major social норм9. Interpretation of the given question can occur and taking into account R.Lapera10's considering a problem nerelevantnosti of real behaviour and verbal installations paradox, and also effect of "a silence spiral» E.Noel-Nojman11 according to whom there is an intended concealment of subjective opinions at domination of other point of view for the reason

1Шестопал E.B.estimation citizens of the person of the politician//Political researches. 1997. №6. S.78-79; Shestopal E.B., Novikova - Grund M.V.Vosprijatie of images 12 leading Russian politicians (the psychological and psycholinguistic analysis). With. 168–182. 2См.: Freud Z.JA and It: the Lane with it. / Z.Freud. Kharkov, 1998. 1037с.

3Шестопал E.B., Novikova-Grund M.V.Vosprijatie of images 12 leading Russian politicians (the psychological and psycholinguistic analysis). With. 167–168.

4См.: Redlawsk D.P., Lau R.R. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cognitive Heuristics in Political Decision Making//American

Journal of Political Science. 2001. Vol. 45. P. 956–959.

5См.: Taber Ch. S., Lodge M. Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs//American Journal of Political Science. 2006. Vol. 50. Issue 3. P. 755–769.

6Ditto P.H., Lopez David F. Motivated Skepticism: Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Nonpreferred Conclusions//Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1992. Vol. 63. P. 569.

7См.: Festinger L.Teorija kognitivnogo a discord. – SPb., 1999. With. 15–52.

8См.: Nyhan B. When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions//Paper presented at the 2006 annual meeting o f the American Political Science Association. – http://www.dartmouth.edu / ~ nyhan/nyhan-reifler.pdf

9Coleman S. The Effect of Social Conformity on Collective Voting Behavior//Political Analysis. 2004. Vol. 12. P. 77.

10Cм.: La Piere R. Attitude versus action//Social Forces. 1934. No 13. P. 230–237.

11См.: Noel-Nojman. Opening of a spiral of silence: M. 1996. 289с.

Isolation avoiding. Considerable influence on a mismatch of an image of the political leader can render a number of the contextual factors connected with stability of political system. For example, disbalans political perception it becomes most obvious in social shocks and crises, the perception becomes most emotionally sated, as

It was mentioned by us above, there is its activization unconscious начал1, is observed

Transformation of images and paradoxical examples of electoral behaviour.

To a question kongruentnosti a political image the problem of ambiguity of treatment (variability) of characteristics of an image of the political leader which is quite often interconnected both with objective and with the subject party of perception is close. So, for example, variability of an image of the politician, can be in many respects dependent on needs and preferences of its followers. G.Littl noticed, that to followers is specific to choose the leaders predisposed to certain type of relations, and domestic researcher B.I.Kretov2 says, that political leaders are only original reflexions of mass expectations, emotions and desires. In A.N.Zhmyrikova and G.S.Shljahtina's works 3 even different types of the social groups making own demands to political leaders are presented. According to CHona, Felmana, Zallera, Stimbergena, Brevera, in a basis variativnoj treatments of lines first of all lay valuable features voting (their intrapersonal conflicts). Krejg, Avalanches, Metert turn bolshee attention to the emotional relation of voters to candidates. From their point of view, variability of characteristics in image often happens is connected with discrepancy of positive and negative reactions to certain data about кандидате4.

The investigated question to become more many-sided by consideration of features

Displays of variability among rod and minor characteristics of an image, and also characteristics, in bolshej degrees defining electoral appeal of the politician. According to T.Parsonsu5 as dialogue process, consists from kognitivnogo and emotional components, and the perception of the leader in many respects consists of perception of business qualities and emotional appeal of the politician. According to members of research group

"ZIRCON", and political leaders it is possible to carry competence, foresight to most difficult treated and estimated characteristics of the power, патриотизм6. From the point of view of Makgrou, the dual relation to the politician and variability of treatment of its image can lead more

1См.: Evgeneva T.V.transformation of an image of the power in conditions sotsiokulturnogo crisis//"New" Russia: the power of the right and the power right: materials of the Russian interuniversity scientific conference on November, 28-29th, 1997 under the editorship of Logunov A.P. M. 1997. With. 35–37.

2Кретов B.I.leadership: sociopolitical problems. M, 1996, With. 9

3Жмыриков A.N., Shljahtin G. S. Psychological problems of political leadership. 1991. With. 8–26.

4Cм.: McGraw K.M., Edward Hasecke Kimberly Conger Ambivalence, Uncertainty, and Processes of Candidate Evaluation//Political Psycholog. 2003. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 421–449.

5Цит. On: Kudryashov E.V. The leader and leadership. Arkhangelsk, 1996. With. 80

6Качества the authorities: perception and population representations//politija. 2011. №4. С.134.

To negative estimations, especially, among less formed citizens.

Variability of treatment of personal characteristics of the politician citizens can be connected and with the general ambiguity of treatment of some qualities in cultural a field (for example, cunnings), communicative aspect, personal features of the politician.

The criterion of functionality of an image of the politician-candidate is connected with a question of a parity of a real and ideal image of the political leader. The significant moment in an estimation the individual of concrete politicians, is the presence fact there is nobody an ideal prototype to which there is a comparison of a real nominee. From a position of many researchers, the affinity of the politician to an ideal is considerably connected with degree of its acceptance. Existence in mass consciousness nobody a set of priority lines for the political leader, and correlation of an ideal image with real declines voters to a choice of the candidate closest to ideal model.

Political prototypes and their influence on perception process are many years in focus of attention of a political science. For last decades it has been spent weight of the researches devoted to revealing of qualities, necessary for the political leader, designing of portraits ideal президентов1. Quite often their results testified to the importance of honesty, knowledge, an openness of mind, boldness, liderskogo potential, and also about importance of a manner of behaviour, oratorical skills, external shape and ability to behave before

Chambers. Thus, researchers as a rule focused attention only on some lines, naming their priority, for example, American researcher D.Kinder2 allocated two most important for the politician of line: competence (mind, knowledge, strong leadership, appointment of good advisers) and trust.

In the theoretical workings out devoted to process of political perception, the importance of ideal prototypes still remains a question at issue. The same D.Kinder3 marks all, the low importance of an ideal prototype for an estimation of real political leaders. A source of formation of prototypes, in its opinion, activity of the working president and other known politicians, social and economic values of a society is not ideal konstrukty mass consciousness, and. It is interesting, that according to results of some Russian researches of an image of the ideal president, respondents mention mainly conventional, widespread beliefs leaning against cultural values, instead of the characteristics considered at an estimation real претендентов4.

1Политиками are not born … C. 263

2Cм.: Kinder D, Peters M, Abelson R, Fiske S. Presidential prototypes. P. 315–338.

3Idem. P. 315–338.

4Cм.: Nesterov S.V.some of feature of political culture in Modern Russia (psychological aspect) / civil culture in modern Russia. M, 1999. C. 78–100.

The American researchers was the model of "superperson" and model are offered

«The average person» 1, influencing perception and an estimation citizens of the president and other political leaders. The model of "superperson" comprises a postulate that the one who will appear in bolshej degrees capable to overcome the human nature border will use support, possessing big will power. According to the second model to an image of the leader installation «it same as we» is characteristic, supports in this case lose acting much worse and better the average person.

Consideration of a question of rod characteristics of an image of the political leader is one of the most popular, but at the same time not opened in the politological literature. There is a set of opinions concerning that what characteristics of an image of the political leader are defining, rod. According to G.Lebona for the leader (the leader of crowd) priority is – adherence идеи2. S.Moskvichi, adhering to a same position,

Noticed, that the leader should «be the person of belief, excessively, and insidiousness» 3; K.Jaspers4, believed,

That distinctive line of the leader is its desire to achieve the object, and ability to inspire will to weights. The theme of the importance of intelligence concerns questions at issue for the leader, is frequent more significant consider boldness, oratory, обаяние5. To the most important qualities of an image of political leader E.Egorov-Gantman carries referentost, activity, a manner of the politician to speak, professionalism, ability to express love and protection concerning followers and aggression in the relation врагов6.

Results of researches of L.Huana and V.Prajsa show, that bolshej clearness in elections images of those candidates which characteristics stereotipizirovany and are built round steady designs (klasterov) to which at respondents it is already generated bright emotional позиция7 differ. According to the Franc position, Pifleja, Kaprara, Barbanelli, Зимбардо8, the image is formed round the central lines, competence, liderskih

Lines, tolerances which can be subject to influence of political features (ideologies, level of political support, political views). Dependence of rod characteristics of the candidate on a political and ideological platform distinguishes estimation scales

1 Cм.: Nesterov S.V.some of feature of political culture … C. 78–100.

2Лебон G.Psihologija of the people and weights. M, 2011. 240 with.

3Московичи S.Vek of crowds. M, 1996. With. 164

4Ясперс K.Smysl and history appointment. M, 1991. With. 347

5Jennings E. An anatomy of Leadership: Princes, Heroes and Supermen. N.Y., 1961. P. 287–297.

6Имидж the leader... S.118-135.

7Cм.: Huang L., V. Motivations, Goals, Information Search, and Memory about Political Candidates//Political Psycholog. 2001. Vol. 22. No. 4. P. 667–688.

8Cм.: Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Zimbardo Ph. When Parsimony Subdues Distinctiveness: Simplified Public Perceptions of

Politicians’ Personality//Political Psychology. 2002. Vol. 23. No. 1. P.77–94.

The politician from rating scales national nonpolitical деятелей1.

The theme of dissertational research has caused consideration not only approaches to concept and structure of an image of the political leader, but also the basic models of political perception of the candidate in the conditions of election campaign. Foreign researchers, since U.Millera, D.Stoksa, D.Granberga, adhere mainly to two models of political perception of candidates for the electoral period, built in the general concept of the political perception, leaning on a primacy of the mechanism of formation of intuitive impression about the candidate on its verbal style, appearance and nonverbal behaviour, over process of the intelligent argument of its professional competence.

Within the limits of dispositional model the voter is declined towards the candidate, with which it of assotsiiruet. In the course of self-identification by contrast the voter not finding «personal things in common» is inclined to criticise the program of the candidate more actively. According to researches of J. Bejlinsona, at a lack of knowledge voters test the big liking to more outwardly similar кандидату2. The importance of external appeal of the politician for electoral success is experimentally proved by many western researchers. So the experiments devoted to an electoral choice on the basis of viewing of the image of the candidate, have reflected the fact of preference of voters looking more competently. To the political scientists, adhering to the given model, it is possible to carry as researchers of process

Perceptions of candidates-party of representatives and in particular characteristic to it of effect

«Acceptances wished for valid» – Donald, Granberga, Holberga.

The alternative model of "political labels», the offered P.Konover and S.Feldmanom, bears in itself idea, that in the absence of sufficient volume of the information on candidates, interpretation of the accessible information and forming on its basis of model of a political reality is peculiar to the voter kategorialnaja, taking into account value judgment (for example, formations, the social status, an ethnic accessory, political views of the candidate, etc.) have revealed S.Nordstrom and S.Tomas, that the voter quite often gives the voice for the candidate belonging to the certain political party and having steadier political views. According to other researches, at a lack of the information on the candidate of the countries with stable political systems the role of party stereotypes increases.

At existence of enough of the empirical bases, the presented models of political perception of the candidate, however, do not differ complex character, being validnymi only at level of separate persons. For reception concerning the exact

1Противоположной the pier which marked adheres to a position that electoral success of candidates in bolshej degrees is dependent on individual lines of leaders, instead of from their political programs.

2Cм.: Bailenson J., Garland Ph, Iyengar P, Yee N. Transformed Facial Similarity as a Political Cue: A Preliminary Investigation//Political Psychology. Vol. 27, No. 3. 2006. 373–386.

Results of political perception, it is necessary to recognise komplementarnyj character of both models.

As a result of consideration of a question of structure of an image of the politician in the scientific literature optimal for empirical research the model of studying of an image of the political leader, applied by researchers of chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of the Moscow State University of a name of M.V.Lomonosova has been defined. The image of the candidate in this case is considered at rational and unconscious level of perception, with use of scales attraktivnosti, force and activity. The estimation attraktivnosti occurs by criteria external, corporal, psychological, moral, and is professional-business characteristics taking into account a motivational portrait of the political leader. Considering the thesis, that the image of one differs from another system "differential signs",

Making it специфику1, as additional criteria of the analysis has been defined

Criterion of rod characteristics.

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More on topic 1.1 Structure of images of political leaders-candidates in presidents:

  1. Chapter 2. Features of perception of political leaders - of candidates in presidents in election campaign of 2012
  2. Factors of influence on perception of candidates in presidents
  3. Images of candidates in presidential election campaign of 2012 the Image G.A.Zjuganova
  6. § 2. A stage of excessive dependence of police from local authorities (1840-1930): a priority of realisation of interests of local political leaders In relation to maintenance of constitutional laws of the person
  7. 5.1 Working out of structure of system of machining and the analysis spektrozonalnyh images
  8. numeral processing of images of domain structure
  9. 5.4. Represents to the President of the Russian Federation of the offer on structure of federal enforcement authorities, about appointment on dole/snost and osvobolsdenii from a post of vice-presidents of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers, about imposing on them of summary punishments and about their encouragement
  10. Working out of structure of the interface block for a trouble-free operation of system of machining and the analysis spektrozonalnyh images
  11. a filtering zashumlennyh images at a preliminary stage of machining spektrozonalnyh images
  12. theoretical bases of a filtering spektrozonalnyh images at a predesign stage zashumlennyh images.
  13. § 2. Measures of counteraction to leaders of negative groups condemned
  14. Genetic methods of research - genotipirovanie on genes to candidates
  15. 2.2. Mechanisms and factors of political socialisation in the Russian political space
  16. formation of point images of installations in the presence of observed krupnorazmernyh images of installations
  17. §5. A role and a place of leaders of informal groups condemned in system subkulturyosuzhdennyh
  19. the Prototype of the ideal political leader as an element of a political context of election campaign 2012г.