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Subject factors of perception of the political leader Influence of the subject factor on process of political perception

Transformations of images of political leaders are determined not only features of personal aspects, but also specific lines of the perceiving party, changes in consciousness of the Russian citizens.

We will consider specificity of influence of subject factors of formation of images of political leaders. In the scientific literature the spectrum of the subject and social bases of political perception 3 is in detail enough investigated.

First, we will pay attention to dependence of process of perception and electoral behaviour

In election campaign from public opinion and moods. Within the limits of studying of the given problem, scientific offer some research approaches which mention:

-Socially-estimated paradigm (at which the public opinion is considered as a dual phenomenon, on the one hand it is the form of spiritual development of the surrounding validity, with another - a way of transformation of the world);

The-theory of a rational choice (elections act konsensusnoj as the form of collective agreements, and definition of electoral appeal of the politician is based on aspiration to provide the maximum optimisation of a comprehensible variant);

Place-position in structure of dejatelnostno-public relations (citizens periodically vote, spontaneously, as electoral behaviour is difficult-predicted process) 4;

The state university. 2013. №3. With. 28–29

1Данной positions adhere, for example, Konover, Feldman, Lo, Aldrich.

2К supporters of that position can carry Kaprara, Barbanelli, Zimbardo.

3См. For example, Huckfeldt R., Mendez J.M., Osborn T. Disagreement, Ambivalence, and Engagement: The Political Consequences of Heterogeneous Networks//Political Psychology. 2004. Vol. 25. Issue. 1. P. 65–95; Huckfeldt R., Plutzer E., Sprague J. Alternative Contexts of Political Behavior: Churches, Neighborhoods, and Individuals//Journal of Politics. 2003. Vol.

55. No. 2. P. 365–381; Newman B.I., Sheth J.N. A Model of Primary Voter Behavior//The Journal Of Consumer Research. 1985. Vol. 12. P. 178–187.

4Cм.: Soldatova A.V., Soldatov A.A. major factors of formation of electoral behaviour//the Bulletin Sankt -

The-public opinion acting as external force in relation to electoral behaviour ("atomic" microlevel of a situation of the voter matters also) 1;

- Growth in importance election campaign kognitivnogo aspect.

The certain effect on political perception renders the condition of mass consciousness characterised by deep structure. Its components differ from each other by criteria of prescription and duration of terms of their origin and the statement. The steadiest and ancient become elements of that, is defined as national character. Arisen rather recently usually form in its mass public consciousness most

Mobile and opened модификации2. That is the condition of political consciousness acting

The subject factor of perception of the political leader, it is closely connected with politiko-cultural tradition (concerning within the limits of our research model to contextual objective factors).

Thirdly, certain specificity of political perception is observed at the groups differentiated by a socially-demographic principle.

The reason of consideration of age aspect perceiving the political validity leans that the perception the person of other people and the phenomena develops together with development of the most perceiving and with formation at it requirement for dialogue, knowledge and труде3. Thus a considerable role plays not only age, but also in what conditions there passed process of political socialisation of the person as the complex of political values of each generation has the specificity which depends on a historical context of process political социализации4. Studying a question of generational specificity, A.V.Seleznev notices, that to structure of a modern Russian society the following generational a generality (Post-Soviet generation, "stagnation" generation, generation of Khruschev's "thaw", the military and post-war generation is presented by people is more senior 60 years) is allocated.

At research of age specificity of perception there are bases to assume, that at people of more mature age kognitivnaja about the power and leaders above, than at representatives of younger generation thus, however, it is necessary to consider complexity of representations and that stereotype of thinking with the years raises, and consciousness becomes more rigidnym. Also with the years at people requirements, including in relation to власти5 vary.

Considering in 2006 politiko-psychological profiles of various electoral groups

The Petersburg university, a series 12. 2011. №4.

1Cм.: Noel-Nojman. Opening of a spiral of silence: the Lane with nem./Obshch. red. And predisl. Mansurov N.S. M, 1996. 289 with.

2Галкин A.Rossija: dynamics of public consciousness as the factor of qualitative changes … With. 4.

3Психология political perception in modern Russia … С.33.

4Селезнева A.V.political values and images of the power in consciousness of different generations of Russians … With. 49.

5Психология political perception in modern Russia … С.34.

And their coherence with perception of political leaders, N.Shelekasova characterises the senior age group as carriers of a public political stereotype and registers sometimes absurd conviction in correctness of accepted decisions, kognitivnuju simplicity and the perception emotionality, the expressed feeling of insult on an inattention from the power, nostalgic moods. From its point of view, nezanjatost, nevostrebovannost a society and also the raised level of social responsibility influence process of accumulation by pensioners negative emotions and aggression. Voters of middle age are characterised as less categorical in the estimations, they are more flexible, are inclined to the analysis, thus they are more interested in cooperation and discussion of variants. According to research of 2006 representatives of the youth environment, hope for the forces in achievement of objects in view, they perceive the future more optimistically. Young men are more inclined to individualistic moods, motivation of achievement and aspiration to construct a life on the western sample. They differ bolshej social mobility, dynamics, sharp perception of problems, fast

Reaction, but also unwillingness to show electoral активность1. More often youth till 29 years

(Mostly, pupils of high schools and technical schools), responds about itself as about liberals. 40-49 summer citizens to a lesser degree attribute to themselves presence of concrete political views, pensioners are more senior 60 years, name itself supporters of communistic ideology is more often, it is characteristic bolshy комформизм2.

Gender aspect of the perceiving. The gender is considered as one of base measurements of social structure of a society who is understood as sotsiokulturnyj aspect of relations between men and women, konstituirujushchy social relations at all social institutes, and determining systems of domination existing in a society and vlastvovanija.

At the heart of distinctions of perception of the same political phenomenon at men and women the same values, psychological features, public stereotypes and cultural stamps (so-called «gender roles») 3 lay.

Williams and Best believe, that men, unlike women differ bolshej ambition, rationality, independence whereas women are characterised as more sensual, emotsionalnyei and общительные4. For them the concept "freedom" possesses more spiritual

1См.: SHelekasova N.P.not aspects of an image of the politician in mass consciousness (on materials of researches of regional election campaigns 2001 and 2003 gg.) … C. 18.

2Согласно to results of research «Political peterburg» spent to 2010 the Center empericheskih political researches of chair of political institutes and applied political researches faklteta

Political science of the St.-Petersburg state university.

3Суслина M.V.Gendernye aspects of perception of Russia//Theses of the international scientific conference «Actual problems of political perception of Russia», Moscow, on November, 17-19th 2009. – With. 117.

4Williams J. E., Best D. L. Sex stereotypes and intergroup relations//S. Worshel, W.G. Austin (eds.) Psychology of intergroup

relations. Chicago. 1986. P. 244–259.

Semantic loading, than for мужчин1, thus in modern Russia representatives of "weaker sex" are interested политикой2 much less. At an estimation of this or that event or the phenomenon for women bolshee value has an emotional component, more stereotypic estimations are peculiar to them. To women it is characteristic bolshy conservatism and dogmatism in estimations, they more

lichnostno perceive insults. According to Johns and Schulman's researches, women in bolshej degrees are inclined to express feeling of fear and grief, and the man – display злости3.

Estimating gender specificity of political perception, we will notice, that as a whole, women are more loyal in relation to the existing power, men are less inclined to support the official power, they are adjusted more considerably, criticise politicians is more often. Women give more preferences to democrats and liberals, they are is more often apolitical, thus somewhat - are more patriarchal and are authoritative.

Degree and character of suggestibility of men and women differs. V.Markarjan asserts, that to information influence men, persons young and average возраста4 are more sensitive. Women are more difficult for overpersuading, calling in the help logic arguments, in their case to influence emotions easier. Unlike men, women are more inclined to illusory perception.

According to researches of political perception of political leaders in 2011-2012 on chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of judgement of women about the political leader are characterised bolshej by an emotionality, and at the man they are more rational. The first more show consideration for external and psychological characteristics of the politician, and the second are inclined to notice its professional and moral qualities.

By consideration of political leaders of the man and the woman are guided by different values. According to M.Suslinoj, the most significant values for men is the ambition, intelligence, a width of views, and for women – cleanliness, independence, logicality. Women pay much bigger attention on moral and psychological the characteristic

Image of politicians and on their personal qualities, for example, the relation to a family, vital философию5.

Thus, the female perception in bolshej is directed degree on personal characteristics. For women positive lines are - "gravity", "decency", "calmness",

1Атагунов V.I.Gendernye of distinction in perception of "freedom" and "nesvobody"//the Theory and practice of gender researches in a world science: materials of the international scientifically-practical conference. Penza-Erevan-Praga on May, 5-6th, 2010 [the Electronic resource].

2Варданян R.A.Demografija, public opinion and distinctions in electoral behaviour of women and men//Gender reconstruction of political systems. SPb., 2003. C. 344.

3Цит. On: Suslina M.V.Gendernye aspects of perception of Russia//Theses of the international scientific conference

«Actual problems of political perception of Russia». M, 2009. With. 117.

4Марканян V.R.Vlijanie of mass media on electoral behaviour of citizens in modern Russia: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 23.00.02 / Markarjan Vadim Rafaelovich. M, 2004. С.14.

5Психология political perception in modern Rossi … C. 400.

External charm, negative characteristics concern, according to women "reserve",

"Dependence", "uncertainty", "aggression".

Men turn bolshee attention to business and professional qualities of the politician, they consider the political leader first of all by criteria of a self-trust, judiciousness, adherence to principles, persistence. They carry to positive lines of politicians: ability to win an audience to be sustained, strong will, political convictions, negative qualities in bolshej degrees: softness, reserve, a sluggishness, discrepancy. It confirms also the assumption made A.A.Bodalevym, that women (in bolshej degrees than men) are capable is more thin to catch a condition of other person, first of all they pay attention to external shape of the person (fix the

Sight first of all on an exterior: growth, a hairdress, eyes etc.). 1

At an estimation of speeches of the acting political leader, the woman give more attention to a speech manner, men are interested in the performance maintenance политика2. At men disagreements in perception on verbal and nonverbal уровнях3 are much more often observed. They are less subject a concentration on the problems and isolation. In spite of the fact that to them the logic argument is more preferable, stereotype of thinking often does not allow them to distinguish logic from the pseudo-logic applied in systems убеждения4.

Consideration of gender aspect of perceiving political leaders it is connected and with to what floor it belongs. V.Agaev has shown, that at an estimation of business, communicative and personal qualities of strangers - representatives of the floor distinctions are less often found out, than by consideration of the representative opposite пола5.

O.V.Popova, considering degree of difference of political installations of gender groups a method

case study in St.-Petersburg, comes to conclusion about acknowledgement only some stereotypes connected, with representations about gender features of political consciousness. According to results исследования6 women are more conservative in the political estimations, support the left political forces less often, with big compassion concern the weak. Gender distinctions are most brightly shown at research of level of social uneasiness of citizens, here women show smaller political tolerance, paying attention on danger international, property, mezhkonfessionalnyh conflicts

1Цит. On Ilyin E.P.differential psychophysiology of the man and the woman. St.-Petersburg, 2002. With. 178

2Суслина M.V.Gendernye aspects of perception of Russia … With. 120–121.

3Там, With. 118.

4Cм.: SHelekasova N.P.not aspects of an image of the politician in mass consciousness … 24с.

5Цит. On: psychology of political perception in modern Russia … 432с.

6Попова O.V.Gendernye of feature of political consciousness of Petersburgers: we different?//Political examination: politeks. 2010. T. 6. № 4. With. 217–218.

Educational level of the perceiving. As to an educational level it also influences political representations of citizens. On it depends, degree of many-sided nature of images of perceived political leaders with how much difficult categories citizens can operate at those characteristics or other political phenomena. On an educational level depend criticality of thinking of the respondent, sistemnost criteria of perception of the politician, suggestibility (susceptibility to influence of mass-media, propagation and political advertising), criteria of an estimation of perception of the politician (evident representations or abstract ideas), degree of support of the politician.

D.Kinder marked, importance of higher education of perceiving politicians, for more formed citizens bolshee value played competence of the politician, whereas for respondents with a low educational level - trust. E.Klimov wrote that the person with higher education distinguishes presence of adequate system of representations, including, ценностных1. N.Kozlov and A.Lebedev have established dependence of processes of perception of people on level

Them образования2. People with higher education in bolshej degrees are capable to estimate a situation

Objectively and impartially. Thus the perception of politicians people with higher education is more difficult, it is characterised by presence bolshej abstraction (especially moral and political qualities of the political leader). People with an average or the average vocational education possess less active vital position and in the course of perception can strongly depend on external influences, standards, traditions etc. which, certainly, leave traces on this process. They are inclined to perceive the politician, proceeding from ordinary experience and representations, and many difficult things are reduced with more simple and familiar things. Their perception differs presentation and situativnostju, i.e. there is no accurate hierarchy of criteria of perception of the politician (as consequence to predict appeal difficult enough).

Fourthly, by consideration of features of political perception it is necessary to mention importance of influence on this process of individual psychological, social, political characteristics of citizens. Among the factors influencing formation of installations on the candidate, So-called Pishcheva allocates motivators, ideological measurements, valuable konstrukty and ustanovochno - pertseptivnuju a prism. They define systems and frameworks of estimations of political leaders and their programs. E.V.

Egorov-Gantman after a number foreign исследователей3 is considered by concept «pertseptivnogo

The screen »– dynamic formation, some kind of the filter located between the subject of perception and object of a political reality, placing semantic accents and making direct impact on interpretation of the political information.

1Шехтер M.M.Tseli and higher education problems in modern conditions//Materials of the Siberian psychological forum, 2004. - Tomsk, 2004. With. 858.

2Козлов N.I., Lebedev of A.N.formation and perception positions [the Electronic resource]//http://www.propos.ru/2010-01-20-03-32-12/13-pos3

3Campbell A., Converse Ph. E., Miller W. E., Stokes D. E. The American Voter/New York. 1960. P. 42–89; Larry Bartels. Beyond

the Running Tally: Partisan Bias in Political Perceptions//Political Behavior. 2002. Vol. 24. P. 117–150.

Structural elements «pertseptivnogo the screen» are all kinds of images, stereotypes, installations and belief of the subject восприятия1.

According to L.Presnjakovoj2 to the important psychological characteristics of the subject of perception

The authorities and political leaders it is possible to carry features of personal socialisation and type of the person perceiving, the JA-concept of the person, its self-estimation, kognitivnyj style, and specificity of the motivational block - motives, requirements, level of the locus-control, value, installation and system of political convictions.

Does not cause doubts the statement about the high importance of political adherence of political leaders perceiving during perception. Possibly, at competitive struggle, characteristic for the election campaign accompanied by a concrete definition of political platforms, participating in race, candidates, importance of ideological adherence of electorate even increases. For formation of images of candidates degree of an inclusiveness voting in the political world, their interest in candidates and results of elections is significant also. According to researches of the American political scientists, citizens less involved in a policy show the big uncertainty at realisation of an electoral choice. They are guided by emotions during an estimation of the candidate, and at occurrence at them the dual relation to the politician, and a considerable quantity variativnyh lines in the generated image, they is more often

Support the candidate more positively воспринимаемого3. According to M.Asvendo and J. Kruger

Electoral success of the candidate not always leans against appeal of the candidate as voters quite often in the head of a corner put the importance of the fact of own voting, belief in importance of the voice.

Especially interesting to become studying of a question of influence of political preferences of electorate on specificity of images of candidates at the account temporalnogo aspect. P.Vikelman and K.Beridzh is noticed, that by citizens often having carried out the electoral choice, are disappointed in it after election campaign. The image of the candidate in their representations accordingly gets more D.Gilbert and T.Uilson's than unattractive fig. enter the term «miswanting» for the characteristic of a choice which is estimated subsequently accepted it негативно4. The question of transformations of images of candidates after elections taking into account political preferences voting was considered by such western political scientists as Bass, Vesberg, Getter, Ginsberg, Granberg, Savadzh, Sigler, Homas. According to results of their researches, after election campaign an image

The policy becomes more accurate at respondents-supporters of the lost candidates, than at supporters

1Egorova-Gantman E.V., Pleshakov K.V.political advertising. M, 2002. With. 138.

2Преснякова L.A.structure of personal perception of the political power//the Policy. 2000. №4. With. 137–138.

3Cм.: McGraw K.M., Edward Hasecke Kimberly Conger Ambivalence, Uncertainty, and Processes of Candidate Evaluation//Political Psychology. 2003. Vol. 24. No.3. P. 421–449.

4Cм.: Winkielman P., Berridge K. Irrational Wanting and Subrational Liking: How Rudimentary Motivational and Affective Processes

Shape Preferences and Choices//Political Psycholog. 2003. Vol. 2. No. 4. P. 657–681.

The candidate of the winner. If before election campaign respondents do not define one candidate after it the probability of intensive transformations of images is higher. Rajn, Bisli, Mark asserted, that after elections support and the general satisfaction a political policy among the citizens voting for potential победителей1 increases.

Let's consider the theoretical workings out of the Russian political researchers concerning

Specificity of the subject factor influencing formation of images during presidential election campaign of 2012.

First, it is necessary to note the high importance of general characteristics of a condition of mass consciousness in Post-Soviet Russia, first of all at its last stage of development. Namely that the mass political consciousness of a society of the modern Russian period differs discrepancy, segmentation, ideological and political diversity. Owing to liquidation of ideological restrictions, before peculiar to the Russian state policy, have increased: ability of citizens to critical thinking; activity and a variety of political behaviour; the judgement of a choice at the moment of voting, etc. Political perception of modern Russia to be under construction on a discord existing in mass consciousness. On the one hand, to the power and leaders attribute negative characteristics, with another, necessity of their existence and some success of their activity, in particular concerning maintenance admits

стабильности2.

To process of formation of a field of mass ideological preferences in Post-Soviet Russia complexity and discrepancy, presence of various tendencies are characteristic. However the group of political scientists under the guidance of D.JU.crimson allocates as the basic direction of transformation of this sphere in 90х-2000х dynamics from enthusiastic acceptance by a society of values of democracy to a disappointment condition in them and to promotion for the foreground of majestically - state installations. The main values of modern system can be considered as consequence of tearing away of some aspects of previous model (a worship for the West, negation "normalnosti" Russian societies). Speech here goes about ideas of greatness, derzhavnosti and

Strong государства3.

According to V.E.Bojkova's researches the Russian political mode is perceived by citizens for today as symbiosis bureaucratic and "nachalstvennoj" (haughtily strict) form of management on the basis of negative experience of mutual relations of citizens with authorities because of necessity of reception of some services. Thus it is necessary to note, what even,

1 Cм.: Ryan K., Beasley, Mark R. J. Cognitive Dissonance and Post-Decision Attitude Change in Six Presidential Elections//Political Psychology. 2001. Vol. 22. No. 3. P.521–538.

2Жестков M.I.Soderzhanie of images of the power in modern Russia: the politiko-psychological analysis: avtoref. dis. … kand. It is watered. Sciences: 19.00.12 / Zhestkov Maxim Igorevich. M, 2013. С.11

3Idejno-symbolical space of Post-Soviet Russia: dynamics, institutsionalizatsija, environment, actors / D.JU.

Malinova. M, 2011. With. 82.

In spite of the fact that 50 % interrogated attribute to the Russian politicians and officials bribery and an arbitrariness in actions, the relation of the majority to all branches of the government in comparison with last decade is appreciable улучшилось1.

The situation of the first decade of 21 centuries differed appreciable alienation of the population from political sphere. Russians have shifted burden of political responsibility for development on the president, accordingly the importance of role expectations to the candidate for presidents for formation of an image depends not only on activity, but also from kompetentsy and efficiency of their activity. And decrease in interest in the politician does not mean indifference to

To results of activity state власти2, in mass consciousness the inquiry is looked through on

The effective capable state, justice and порядок3. Results of regular monitoring of the public opinion, presented by sociologists under the guidance of J.Levady, display invariably high level of alienation of the population of an imperious class, sensation of mistrust to the state institutes and figures. J.Levada notices, that rupture between sphere political and daily occurrence sphere is convenient to both parties as protects them from вмешательства4. The Russian society and a condition of mass political consciousness corresponding to it, continues to remain postsocialist, and modernised. In the course of its transformation difficult interaction of modern and traditional installations is observed,

Valuable orientations, representations and institutes owing to what in it disproportions and рассогласования5 can be observed.

Secondly, domestic researchers quite often mark the importance of the factor of evolution of the mass consciousness promptly adapting for an actual format of dialogue of the power and the population. For consideration of specificity of perception of candidates of presidential election campaign 2012г., significant is features of transformation of a condition of mass consciousness in modern Russia registered by many Russian researchers. Researches of employees of chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of 2010 have fixed for the first time sharp shift in mass consciousness of valuable orientations of a society. E.B.Shestopal, speaking about the major trends of mass political consciousness of citizens on the eve of presidential elections, notices, that inquiry about stability, characteristic for 2000th years though remains still, but already is exposed to essential updating, there is a serious differentiation of a society in relation to the power. For the formed middle class (especially men) and youth of the included

1Бойков V.E.Sotsialno-politicheskie valuable orientations of Russians: the maintenance and realisation possibilities//Sociological researches. 2010. №6. With. 35.

2Поливаева N.Napravlenie of evolution of political consciousness of Russians: factorial aspect//the Power. 2012. №6. С.70–71. 3Поливаева N.Transformatsija of mass consciousness in the conditions of updating of political system//the Power. 2008. №9. With. 39–43.

4Левада JU.A.composition: a problem of the person. M, 2011. With. 186.

5Поливаева N.Transformatsija of mass consciousness in the conditions of updating of political system. With. 39–43.

In new forms of political communications, more and more to become sharp growth of criticality in the relation власти1 is characteristic. Long before events of the end of 2011 was increase of the importance of value of activism, the strong state, equality, responsibility is registered. At the same time, there is a decrease in value of observance of laws, stability therefore readiness for protest behaviour increases. Most confidently researchers of a condition of mass consciousness mark 2011-2012 increase of inquiry about moral and political values, otstaivaemye usually representatives of the left political forces. As consequence, the estimation of the power and politicians occurs from the point of view of such categories as justice, honesty, порядочность.2 more carefully

Results of research «Political Petersburg-2010» have reflected understanding washing out

Values of justice as marker left ideas, more often the given value is considered in treatment of liberal ideology. The concept of justice of representations of citizens correlates with social equality principles ever less, is more often it correlate to an equality principle before законом3.

In 2011-2012 there is a reconsideration of concept of the "strong" and "active" power, the inquiry "from below" on effective dialogue of an imperious top and a society is staticized. It is impossible to speak to the full about political crisis in Russia, is faster about inevitable political transformations and dynamics of mass political consciousness, partly than cyclic character, partly – mobilisation. Citizens are still deprived accurate political orientations. Bukreeva O. V speaks about existence on modern political a stage of possibility of converting of interest to a power theme in political activity. From its point of view, sharp splash in attention to sphere political testifies 2011-2012 to latent mobilisation and ability to predict splash in political activity – both constructive, and protest, not conventional. Here, obvious to become the tendency distantsirovanija bolshej parts of the population from sphere political in view of nevostrebovannosti their political potential from the power, and also owing to the expressed mistrust to it, its perceptions as closed and

Highly bjurokratizirovannoj структуры4.

The public inquiry about certain qualities of politicians as a whole is stable enough (especially concerning cares of the people, justice and legality). And still in the conditions of enough deep distrust of the population to imperious institutes a special urgency at an estimation

1Шестопал E.B.political leaders and the power in representations of citizens on the eve of elections-2011. A round table of chair of sociology and psychology of a policy: the Russian society and the power on the eve of elections//Political researches. 2012.

№1. С.153.

2Психология political perception in modern Russia. С.379.

3Попова O.V.Politicheskie of installation of Petersburgers before a new electoral cycle//the St.Petersburg State University Bulletin. 2011. A series 6. №1. With. 74.

4Букреева O.V.Sravnitelnyj the analysis of rational and unconscious components of images of the power in the modern

Russia. With. 22.

Political leaders are got by a theme of corruption, lawlessness, abusing властью1. Sociological interrogations of the end of 2011 registered inquiry about new political persons mainly at citizens disloyal operating власти2, as the primary goals which, according to citizens, should be the presented candidates for electoral programmes acted: a raising of a standard of living of the population, care of citizens, economy strengthening. Mistrust to imperious institutes and confidence of possible falsifications according to interrogations is the main causes of a failure of citizens to vote on elections. By consideration of ratings of political leaders-candidates, we will notice, that according to researches «Fund public

Opinions »in election campaign negative estimations of all candidates increased, the especially intensively given increase occurred concerning V.V.Zhirinovsky (from 19 % in December 2011г. To 30 % in January 2012г.). Only at V.V.Putin growth and positive характеристик3 has been registered.

Kontsept "stability", has undergone for these years basic substantial changes.

In 2012, it has returned on a proscenium in especially guarding appearance. If the power discourse remains on advantage guarding «stability in danger» it will be necessary to confirm the thesis constantly, that will demand not only speeding up of mobilisation and confrontational rhetoric, but also, we will tell softly, escalation of authoritative tendencies in political practice – differently the power risks to seem неубедительной4.

In mass consciousness the place of concepts "competence" has changed. According to

To sociological researches if earlier this quality chose together with is more often

"nekorrumpirovannostju" and "legality" today for citizens significant there is its combination to "efficiency", "foresight", and "openness". In public political representations concepts of "stability", "responsibility" have considerably approached and

"Morals". A number of researchers notice, that paternalistsky the factor any more is not dividing and differentiating Russians, as now there is no sharp opposition paternalistskoj (the father of the nation, the fair, reliable defender) and liberal (the effective, competent manager strictly observing laws) of models of perception of the power and the political leader. If earlier "force" was perceived as addition to such qualities as "authority",

"Respect", "patriotism" now it appears as an antithesis of morals and порядочности5.

According to A.Galkin a rod basis of modern dominating moods concern

1Результаты the research project of Research group ZIRCON. Qualities of the power: perception and population representations//politija. 2011. №4. С.134.

2Президентские elections of 2012//Dominants. №3. 2012. With. 27–28.

3Президентские elections of 2012//Dominants. 2012. №.5. With. 3–8.

4Кертман G.L.Obshchestvo will estimate the power by new criteria. A round table: Images of leaders in mass consciousness on the eve of presidential elections//Political researches. 2012. №4. With. 167

5Качества the authorities: perception and population representations//politija. 2011. №4. С.134.

Following installations: representation, that the Russian political system displays interests of the provided part of the population, ignoring requirements and inquiries of less provided majority, as consequence, any impulses proceeding from the power sustain losses. As consequence, the extremely guarded relation of a society to new reforms which, according to the developed sights, regularly change a situation to the worst is registered; the confidence that, that the large property, has got to 90th of the last century, to hands of so-called oligarchs, as a result of frauds, than has caused an incalculable loss to the state and a society; uncertainty, that at the present stage of development of the country it is not necessary to count on creation or partial restoration of system of the social shock-absorbers allowing each citizen to count on a guarantee of comprehensible conditions of existence throughout all his life; Conviction in that, the usual citizen has the minimum chances of vertical social mobility, despite all its efforts; the confidence, at the heart of a society, lays set of offences, that with

It is possible not to be considered as the right, as the right is not capable to be considered as a regulator взаимоотношений1.

Thirdly, some researchers, mark also appreciable transformations of socially - demographic structure of the Russian society last years connected and with process of transformation of a condition of mass consciousness and change of a political context and accordingly influencing perception of candidates during election campaign 2011-2012гг.

A.L.Zverev asserts, that now on the one hand is not observed bright generational opposition in available representations of citizens of Russia, on the other hand, events of 2012 they display split in generations of citizens depending on that pro or contra existing Russian власти2. Among the Russian political scientists all to become idea, about importance of arrival to last years in the Russian policy of new generation "zero" more popularly, or

«Stability generations» which has no direct communication with the Soviet past, but also it is not adapted enough in the Post-Soviet present for which individualism is characteristic, high mobility, active presence at social networks, potential propensity to political activity. Thus according to the analytical report of Research group ZIRCON considering specificity of perception of the power during the period 2005 2011гг. paternalistskie installations and value of justice cease to be characteristics of mass consciousness of the senior generation. The care of the people to become a general priority. The perception of the ideal power among youth has changed also. In comparison with 2005 for young generation justice to become more

1Галкин A.Rossijskoe a society 2013: structure of public moods and dynamics of mass behaviour//the Power. 2013 №4. With. 4 10.

2Зверев A.L.transformation of modern mass consciousness of citizens of Russia//the Bulletin of Tomsk State University. A series: Philosophy. Sociology. Political science. 2013. №3. С.107.

It is significant, than законность1.

The effect on perception renders also a parity of groups differing on inclusiveness degree in information streams. By December 2011года in network space of megacities not structured community protesting so-called «network homjachki, forming own position on the basis of convent of social networks was generated.

The period of 2011-2012 was marked by the tendency of activization of social groups, enough safe in the economic plan, but feeling a dissatisfaction politiko - economic expectations for which speed up in unparliamentary forms of a policy, is chance of a withdrawal from the habitual social role, to criticise the political structure inappropriate to representations generated at them about справедливости2.

In a modern Russian society it is observed raznonapravlennost vectors valuable

Orientations of different class groups. Disharmony of valuable claims and expectations forms potential for social transformations. According to V.S.Baguna, the valuable consensus in modern Russia is reached, orientation of overwhelming majority of the Russian population to a narrow number of fundamental values of safety, stability, традиционности3.

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A source: Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN. 2014

More on topic Subject factors of perception of the political leader Influence of the subject factor on process of political perception:

  1. Temporalnye factors of perception of the political leader
  2. 1.2.3 Communicative and temporalnye perception factors Communicative factors of perception of the political leader
  3. Factors of influence on perception of candidates in presidents
  4. Chapter 1. Theoretical approaches to a problem of political perception
  5. Chapter 2. Features of perception of political leaders - of candidates in presidents in election campaign of 2012
  6. the Prototype of the ideal political leader as an element of a political context of election campaign 2012г.
  7. Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN, 2014
  8. 2.2. Mechanisms and factors of political socialisation in the Russian political space
  9. the CHAPTER II. The ROLE And the PLACE of POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION In POLITICAL PROCESS of MODERN Russia
  10. the Chapter the third INAUGURAL REFERENCE AS ONE OF CHARACTERISTICS of the SPEECH IMAGE of the POLITICAL LEADER
  11. the Chapter the fourth INAUGURAL REFERENCE AS ONE OF CHARACTERISTICS of the SPEECH IMAGE of the POLITICAL LEADER
  12. 1.3. Ethnic identity as the factor of political socialisation in a transformed Russian society
  13. § 4. Access to the information on activity of political parties and other public associations, and also other socially - political information
  14. 2.3. Features of process of political socialisation in the conditions of a modern Russian society
  15. CHAPTER 2. INFLUENCE of TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS of the POWER And the POPULATION ON LEGITIMATSIJU POLITICAL MANAGEMENT
  16. Factorial structure of semantic space of perception and typology of image VS the Russian Federation
  17. 1.1. Political process reformirovanijagosudarstvennoj politicians in management sphere ground resources in Russia in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries
  18. 2.7. Perception of time