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Temporalnye factors of perception of the political leader

Time is the major factor influencing transformation of images. The political leader never remains invariable, its appearance, a manner of public behaviour, outlook varies. Sometimes the candidate reconsiders the political views under the influence of promptly changing external conditions or intrapersonal transformations, it is accordingly quite natural, that the result of political perception - an image (a policy, the authorities, institutes or a situation) also is subject to changes during time.

In the course of dynamic changes of political images in mass consciousness varies not only substantial fullness of these images, but also the optics defining character of perception »3. For example, change of a political context (arrival on a political arena of new leaders, occurrence of threat of terrorism or improvement of a social and economic situation) is capable to provoke transformation of the relation of a society to the state, political system as a whole, and to its separate subjects in particular.

By influence consideration temporalnogo the factor on perception of political candidates significantly, that researchers of contextual features adhere to a position that the image of a situation comprises subjective space and objective time. At the intensive

1в "News" - «Russia concentrates – calls which we should answer», in «the Independent newspaper» -

«Russia: an ethnic question», "Sheets" - «About our economic problems», in "Businessman" - «Democracy and quality of the state», in «the Komsomol truth» - «justice Building. Social policy for Russia», in

«To the Russian newspaper» - «To be strong: guarantees of national safety for Russia», in «the Moscow news» -

«Russia and the varying world»;

2 on NTV television channel – «Abrupt zero» and «to Get to the five», and on «the First channel» - «the Bridge over a chasm»;

3Шестопал E.B.teoretiko of a problem of research of images of the power//Psychology of perception of the power / under the editorship of E.B.Shestopal. M, 2002. With. 17

Actions of a selective situation (and electoral process differs high degree of activity) there is a prevalence of subjective time over objective пространством1.

With specificity of influence temporalnyh factors during the selective period it is connected komparativnaja perception model according to which, frequently images of the present power and politicians it it is formed on the basis of a parallel with the previous masters (their protection or discredit) within the limits of certain political culture. On a basis komparativnoj V.Orlando's Ki models has created model of "retrospective voting» according to which the electoral choice is made on the basis of a comparative estimation of efficiency of the operating power. We will notice, that, according to some researches, on electoral behaviour in presidential elections the "perspective" estimation renders bolshee influence not so much retrospective, how many. Electoral support

"Strong" institute of presidency fixes steady selective preferences as the "strong" institute forms long-term political strategy.

According to N.Polivaevoj at the initial stage of the Russian social transformations 90х bolshee value the perspective motivation of voting had, but at following stages from its point of view the importance of retrospective motives of an electoral choice considerably amplifies.

In the conditions of instability economic determinants of political consciousness react not so much to direct results of social transformations, how many on rates of the possible

Changes in будущем2. It is interesting, that change of a condition of mass consciousness after 2010

Are marked by actualisation of public inquiry about an image of the future, forming of national strategy of the country.

At a considerable quantity of the researches devoted to consideration of dynamics of images of politicians, the power and examples of consecutive consideration of images for a long time according to the uniform methodological scheme, not so it is a lot of. Therefore with confidence to speak about dynamics of political images often it is not obviously possible. Within the limits of the given dissertational research, a number of researches of images of the political leaders spent from the beginning 90х of years to this day by representatives of chair of sociology and psychology politicians of the Moscow State University is significant first of all, at the developed E.Shestopal's use of research model and qualitative methods.

For us influence temporalnogo the factor on formation of images of candidates is connected first of all with aspects of their change to, during time and after election campaign. Rajk, Bizli, Mark considered process of the psychological adaptation of voters to results of elections and allocated interrelation of variability of characteristics of candidates in representations of electorate, degree

1Радкевич S, Tarasevich A.Obraz. A symbol. A myth. Once again to a question on a paradigm of work of PR managers//Political marketing. 2013. №2. With. 18–32.

2Поливаева N.Napravlenie of evolution of political consciousness of Russians: factorial aspect//the Power. 2012. №6. S.70-71.

Its confidence of the political choice with features of transformation of images of candidates after elections. In this case change of images before election campaign has been explained by specificity of selective design and features of group consciousness, it was marked by decrease after elections of a mismatch of images of the lost candidates and

minimizirovaniem distances between polar estimations кандидатов1. Striker, Bass, Томас2

Having spent in the seventies a number of researches, noticed, that after elections candidates are estimated more благоприятно3.

Considering not numerous theoretical workings out of a question of transformation of an image till the electoral period, we will make the assumption, that, according to results carried out empirical researches, the substantial component of images of the same politicians - of candidates, to, during time and after election campaign will not be invariable, and in time prospect to images appreciable transformations will be characteristic.

Conclusion of the theoretical chapter:

1. In the literature there is no accurately confirmed position about concept and structure of an image of the political leader as well as there is no universal answer to a question on what should be elektoralno the successful candidate. As a result of the conceptual analysis and the ordering existing in the scientific literature of approaches to studying of an image of the political leader, the most system and consecutive had been defined the model of political perception developed on chair of sociology and psychology politicians of the Moscow State University of a name of M.V.Lomonosova under the guidance of professor E.B.Shestopal. For it consideration of an image at rational and unconscious level of perception is characteristic. According to it rational estimations of politicians include three psychological measurements – appeal, force and activity. The extremely significant is the account of emotional colouring of the given measurements, namely definition of positive and negative qualities of candidates, and also consideration of a motivational portrait of an image of the politician (on categories: the power is necessary for the sake of business, for the sake of money, for the sake of the power, for the sake of ambitions, the power is not necessary). Appeal of the candidate according to research model includes: appearance, corporal characteristics, psychological, moral lines, political and professionally - business qualities. At studying of not realised estimations of candidates, the attention concentration on the most deep cut of perception of politicians for which revealing actual use of methods of the fixed associations has been defined with is significant

1Ryan K., Beasley I, Mark R. J. Cognitive Dissonance and Post-Decision Attitude Change in Six Presidential Elections//Political Psychology. 2001. Vol. 22. No. 3. P.521–538.

2См.: in the same place. P.521–538.

3Впрочем, Sigler, investigating electoral preferences of same time, has not revealed distinct tendencies of transformations of images of candidates after elections.

Animal, colour and a smell within the limits of deep интервью1. Expedient use has been defined at interpretation of the received results of the same criteria of an estimation (at small updatings), as in case of indicators of rational level of perception, namely scales of appeal, force and activity, and also statusno-role characteristics. As each leader has an own core round which its image is under construction, empirical research of an image of the politician has been added by its consideration from a position of rod fig. Expedient research of an image according to criteria kongruentnosti and unambiguity of treatment of its separate characteristics (enc. 6, fig. 1) has been defined also.

2. By consideration of perception of candidates during election campaign consideration of images of real political leaders, taking into account ideal political prototypes is important

– Significant konstruktov the mass political consciousness, leaning against the politiko-cultural bases. For concrete research by the actual consideration of images of political leaders-candidates taking into account two ideal prototypes has been defined: an image of the ideal president (governor), and an image of the candidate-potential of the winner in election campaign. Necessity of the similar approach has some reasons.

First, in the scientific literature there is unequivocal answer to a question to the substantial characteristic ideal konstrukta no concerning candidate for presidents. In bolshej to degree the attention is given to the generalised image of the ideal political leader which combines as arhetipichnye the politiko-cultural bases, and dynamical properties subject to outside influence the conditions of mass consciousness connected with features.

Secondly, researches by domestic authors of transformations of a condition of public consciousness last years illustrate an ambiguity of a priority and the importance of a prototype of the ideal president in the course of perception of real political leaders and definition of their electoral appeal. Growth of is passive-unsatisfied and protest public moods, original «the rate on negativism» in perception of the surrounding validity, increase in criticality concerning political pre-election propagation, experience of electoral behaviour staticizes a question: whether in the course of an estimation of the politician citizens are guided by an image of an ideal or in bolshej degrees consider, selective conditions and specificity of an electoral field.

Thirdly, owing to that each politician-candidate during selective campaigns plays some significant political roles, the question of consideration of the importance, hierarchy of role expectations, in the course of perception, revealing of general and their unique tendencies is important. For influence consideration interrolevyh and intrarolevyh conflicts on perception of candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012 in the empirical chapter follows attentively

1Методология E.B.Shestopal, M.Novikova-Grund is developed

To consider images of the ideal president and the candidate to pay attention to their comparison and internal kongruentnosti.

3. Definition of an image of the candidate as konstrukta, formed in mass consciousness under the influence of variety of factors became a separate important point of construction of research model. As conceptual model of the analysis of factors influencing formations of an image of the candidate, was the scheme of process of the political perception, the offered E.B.Shestopal is taken. According to it formation of a political image occurs under the influence of factors connected with objective, subject, communicative, temporalnymi and spatial factors (enc. 3). Within the limits of the given research we were limited to narrower set of factors, having focused attention to first three of them. Accordingly, empirical research of dissertational work leans against the statement, that transformation, kongruentnost an image of the political leader-candidate during election campaign, its electoral appeal are substantially subject to influence: Specificity of a personal profile of the given politician and its actions; the role positions connected with it; characteristics of a condition of public mass consciousness; socially-demographic features of electorate; contextual factors steady (politiko-cultural) and changeable (institutsionalnogo and situational) character.

Presented to the theoretical chapter of the dissertation the research model has defined two basic directions of empirical research, namely:

-Revealing of a substantial component of images of political leaders-candidates, in the course of consideration of an image of each politician as a unique case in a case, and carrying out of the comparative analysis of images, with ideal prototypes and between itself.

-Research of character of influence of a complex of the factors defining perception of the candidate during presidential election campaign.

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A source: Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN. 2014

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