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the Characteristic of empirical research

Revealing of specificity of perception of candidates in presidential election campaign of 2012 was a main objective of empirical research.

Not person of each separate politician, and its image generated in mass consciousness of citizens was object of research in a case.

The attention has been given not only to the description of images of candidates in consciousness of electorate, but also to consideration of character of influence of a complex of the factors influencing perception during presidential election campaign on 2012 the Major value here have: objective factors of perception – properties of the person of the politician, its action, role features, a political context, in which election campaign (structural kontsepty the Russian political culture (an image of the ideal president, an image of the candidate in a selective situation), situational aspect of election campaign is developed; subject factors of perception (a condition of mass consciousness, socially-demographic and political characteristics of the perceiving party); communicative aspects of election campaign; temporalnye factors of perception of the politician (transformation of an image before election campaign);

Within the limits of research it has been applied several techniques: a technique of deep interviews to use of black-and-white photos of politicians in quality stimulnogo a material and associative tests, a technique of designing of fantastic plots - a method of the analysis of secondary certificates (publications in mass-media, analytical materials, political portraits, istoriko - politological reviews, materials of interrogations).

For consideration of images of candidates in presidents the given researches, spent by a method of the deep focused interviews to use of a method of the fixed associations and a presentation to the respondent stimulnogo a material in the form of a black-and-white photo of the politician have been used. Research passed on chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova in January, 2012 and had qualitative character. In sample 3 age groups have been proportionally presented: from 18 – till 30 years, from 30 – till 55 years, also is more senior 55 years. Approximately in equal quantity people with higher education and without it. Research was spent in 6 regions of Russia (Moscow, the Saratov area, St.-Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk region, the Oryol area, republic Dagestan). As a result it has been interrogated nearby

200 respondents. Data have been subjected the coding and have been processed by statistical program SPSS17.

At the analysis of images the methodology developed by E.B.Shestopal for research of images of politicians was used. The received materials were processed by a method shkalirovanija estimations of personal characteristics of leaders, by means of the substantial analysis of estimations of separate respondents and allocation of rational and unconscious levels of estimations of politicians, comparison among themselves.

At the analysis of images of political leaders at both levels of perception 3 measurements of the person offered in J were used. Осгудом1: appeal (attraktivnost), force and activity.

On a scale appeal – unattractiveness the image was estimated, according to parametres: appearance (a behaviour manner, clothes); corporal characteristics (health – illness, the constitution, completeness – leanness, bad habits, age, temperament); moral characteristics (ethical estimations of the politician); psychological characteristics (the character, separate lines of the person, speech turns); political, professional and business qualities (political orientations, organising abilities, lidersky potential).

On a force scale – weaknesses came to light dominating tendencies of attributing of force or / and weaknesses concerning appearance, corporal, psychological features, moral qualities, political and business characteristics. The activity scale – passivity concerns execution by the politician of imperious powers, to external displays, by those images, with which respondents assotsiirujut a policy. Also the motivational profile of images, on categories has been considered: the power is necessary for the sake of business, the power is necessary for the sake of money, the power is necessary for the sake of ambitions, the power is necessary for the sake of the power and the power is not necessary.

For consideration of an image at unconscious level has been used politiko - a psychological method directed ассоциаций2. Revealing of unconscious estimations of the leader demands the textual analysis of statements to reveal the unsatisfied requirements hidden behind them and criteria with which respondents compare the real politician. But besides it the method of the fixed associations with an animal, colour and a smell was used. The choice of the specified three types of associations has been approved time and again and has shown the efficiency. The greatest complexity in use of the given method consists in interpretation of the received results.

The analysis of data of the associations received by means of a method occurred to animals on following scales: appeal – unattractiveness of an animal, activity – passivity, aggression – neagressivnost, force – weakness, scale, role characteristics of an animal.

1Osgood C.E., Suci G.J., Tannenbaum P.H. The measurement of meaning. 1957. 323pp.

2Интерпретация leant against the technique of the psycholinguistic analysis developed by E.Shestopal and M.Novikovoj-Grund.

Associations with colour have been considered taking into account following formal categories: colour tone (light – dark); warmth (warm – cold); brightness (bright – dim); dopolnitelnost (the basic – additional). Associations with a smell were differentiated on following scales: smell presence-absence, appeal – unattractiveness, naturalness –

tehnogennost, sweet-tartness (feminnost – maskulinnost), social markers запахов1.

Images of candidates of presidential election campaign 2012г. Sociologists and psychologists of a policy and earlier were investigated by experts of chair. At use of similar toolkit results of a series of researches of images of political leaders (since April 1996 were considered – till December, 2012), however, results of three gaugings have undergone to detailed consideration: April, 2011, January, 2012, and December, 2012 that has allowed to consider transformation of images V.V. Putin, G.A.Zyuganov, V.V. Zhirinovsky, S.M.Mironov, M.D.Prokhorov, to, during time, and after election campaign.

For studying of an image of the ideal president (governor) at rational level of perception the materials received during answers of respondents on open questions within the limits of deep interviews (enc. 1) also were used. Data have been received on chair of sociology and psychology of a policy of faculty of political science of the Moscow State University of M.V.Lomonosova. Research was spent in a year of presidential election campaign and had qualitative character. In sample 3 age groups have been proportionally presented: from 18 – till 30 years, from 30 – till 55 years, also is more senior

55 years. Approximately in equal quantity people with higher education and without it have been interrogated. Research was spent in 6 regions of Russia (Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk region, Murmansk area, the Chelyabinsk area, Dagestan) therefore 200 persons have been interrogated nearby. Revealing of base characteristics of an image of the ideal president was an objective of this research. The obtained data have been analysed by means of a method shkalirovanija (on the same scales of appeal-unattractiveness, force-weakness, activity-passivity). Data have been subjected the coding and have been processed by statistical program SPSS17.

For research of an image of the ideal president at unconscious level of perception and an image of the candidate in a selective situation the method of designing of fantastic plots was used. Sample has made 50 persons. Research was spent in Moscow and Krasnoyarsk region in 2012 and had qualitative character. Sample is balanced on a sex, age and formation. Procedure of carrying out of research provided creation for the respondent of emotional comfort, a condition of slackness, safety and trust to the interviewer, then it was offered to think up a fantastic plot on a theme "Elections".

Considering a problem of perception of the candidate in a selective situation, we have faced necessity of use of toolkit which not only will allow to consider an image as

1Психология political perception in modern Russia. S.54-68.

That, but also will reflect its specificity in the set situation, its functionality. Use of a method of designing of fantastic plots has allowed to study wider palette of the demanded and interconnected political prototypes, to reveal not realised components of images. The designed fantastic plot it is not simple result of imagination, it is the picture of the world displaying fears and hopes composing, of the world ideal and during too time real.

The method of designing of a fantastic plot is used mainly in practice of group and individual psychotherapy, sotsiodrammy, and applied to revealing of intrapersonal conflicts and the analysis of social conditionality. In the collective form, built in in work of focus groups, it was used at modelling of the desirable future by collective of authors under the guidance of A.G.Asmolova1, at research of a prototype ideal

Leader I.K.Vladykinoj, S.N.Plesovskih2.

During processing of the received materials the principle kategorizatsii characters of fantastic plots on the basis of their role positions has been used. In the analysis following categories of characters have been allocated: "Candidate-winner", «the Contender of the candidate-winner», "Voter",

«The ideal governor», "Enemy", «the Magic assistant», "Wise man" 3. The characteristic of images

The basic characters occurred mainly on parametres of three scales offered by C.Osgudom: attraktivnosti, force and activity. Appeal and unattractiveness were considered on parametres of external, morally-ethical, psychological and professionally - business characteristics, the motivational profile of images (on above listed categories) besides was estimated.

The analysis occurred to the account pervostepennosti and minority for the analysis of characters. Because of a research problem of consideration of images of candidates in election campaign, in attention focus there were characters-candidates, and interest to the reasons of electoral appeal has forced to pay first of all attention to the maintenance and classification of images of a category "Candidate-winner" and «the Ideal governor». In a fantastic plot heroes of a biographic order, the characters participating in election campaign in a role of the candidate and as a result winning and held vacant post concerned a category of the candidate-winner. In the course of the analysis of materials it was possible to reveal a number of types of the aforesaid

The character, on the basis of the most strongly pronounced характеристик4. Certainly, not always

There was a possibility to carry the character, to any allocated type, in force, sometimes,

1Асмолов A, Berezin I, Borisov A.Prezident for choice. Modelling of the desirable future. M, 2000. 190с. 2Владыкина I.K., Plesovsky S.N.designing of fantastic plots as a method of revealing of a prototype of the ideal leader among youth//the Moscow State University Bulletin. A series 12. Political sciences. 2000. №5. S.98-103.

3В process of allocation of categories of characters "Enemy", «the Magic assistant», "Wise man" classifications of known philologist-specialist in folklore V.J.Proppa were considered.

4В an analysis course following types of the character of the candidate – the winner have been allocated: «the candidate unique","the candidate

– The receiver "," a command of professionals "," the candidate uncontested "," the candidate-protege », the candidate – the false master».

Enough its poor descriptions, however, the sufficient volume of the received materials has allowed to create the certain classification, met in plots, images and to spend their comparison according to the allocated criteria.

Studying of character of influence of factors on perception of candidates of presidential election campaign of 2012, leant against the analysis of various secondary certificates (the publication in mass media, analytical materials, political portraits, istoriko - politological reviews, materials of interrogations).

It is important to notice, that the majority of techniques used during the given research have qualitative character, and it does not allow us to speak about claims on reprezentativnost on the scale of all country, however use of a combination of the above-stated techniques has provided possibility of complex consideration of features of perception of candidates in presidential election campaign of 2012

Considerable role of object of research in political process and necessity of the decision of one of the basic research problems, namely revealings of relationships of cause and effect of process of political perception of concrete politicians in a concrete selective situation, have caused necessity of use for an empirical part of research of a comparative method case-study. As the given method in political psychology understand consideration of "case" or «a set of cases» by means of empirical check of real events in their context

Real existence, without a direct control of the phenomenon, and it контекстом1. E.Shestopal

The politician or гражданин2 defines case-study as qualitative research of the separate, concrete cases focused on unique individualities, whether it be. The technique case-study has allowed to expand empirical base of research, to use given received by different methods, such as deep interviews, designing of fantastic plots, polls. Consideration of specificity of perception of an image taking into account studying of influence of various factors on process, does in our case by the extremely significant ability of a technique case - study to trace other variables in the cases, initially not being in attention focus, but the important interpretations at a stage. In our case initially were following variables are taken for

The analysis: images of the ideal president (governor) and the candidate in a selective situation in consciousness of citizens; images of candidates in presidential election campaign of 2012; the complex of factors influencing perception of the politician-candidate in election campaign.

1Карбо J., Bizli R. K. Practical guidance on application of a comparative method case-study in political psychology//Political psychology. Hrestomatija: the Educational grant / of the lane with English Sost. E.B.Shestopal. M, 2002. С.27 2Шестопал E.B.psychological a profile of the Russian policy 1990. Theoretical and applied problems of political psychology. M, 2000. С.48

As separate cases (cases) in research features of perception of candidates in presidential election campaign of 2012 have been chosen: V.V. Putin, G.A.Zyuganov, V.V. Zhirinovsky, S.M.Mironov, M.D.Prokhorov.

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A source: Smulkina Natalia Valentinovna. of FEATURE of PERCEPTION of the RUSSIAN POLITICAL LEADERS During PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN. 2014

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