the Role of the leader as obektn yj the factor vosprijati I on lighted ika

In a modern science there is no unequivocal definition of a phenomenon of a role. Quite often definitions vary from indistinct formulations of a role as the sums of cultural status cliches, expectations concerning the person holding a post, through assumptions of the carrier that bears in itself роль4, to narrower concepts of a role as of some the rights and обязанностей1.

In the political

1Вебер M.Politika as calling and a trade//veber M. the Selected products. – M, 1990. – 706 with.

2Президентские elections of 2012//Dominants. 2012. №3. With. 27-32.

3Щербакова E.E. About conformity of requirements to image and personal characteristics of the politician//the Theory and practice of the Russian political psychology: materials of the scientific conference devoted to the 20 anniversary of chair of political psychology of St.Petersburg State University. SPb., 2009. С.243.

4Paige G The Scientific Study of Political leadership. London, 1977. 99 pp.; Greenstein F. J. Can Personality and Politics Be Studied Systematically//Political Psychology: Key Readings/ed. by John T. Jost and James Sidanius. New York, 2004. P. 108–123.

To political science the role is understood, first of all, as a set of certain duties and the rights, as real function and the status connected with a place, occupied with the person in political system. In psychology the role is considered as the program answering to expected behaviour in structure social группы2. Within the limits of the given research the political role will be understood as set of is functional-role duties which are executed by politicians.

By consideration of specificity of a role and character of its influence on perception process, the account of crushing of a phenomenon of a role on 4 values is significant: role expectations (that is that the majority of people expect from the person occupying certain position); the concept of a role depending on those what value carrier puts in the role as it defines; the acceptance of a role leaning against the emotional relation of the person to duties carried out by it, and according to defining character (propriativnyj or peripheral) interrelations of the person and a role; role execution (it is expressed that the individual actually does with

By the role appointment also it is connected with its experience). G.Olport3 considering specificity of data

Role values, notices, that role expectations serve only as external model and stimulus (that is can be interpreted in another way be accepted or be rejected by the person). Role execution combines crossing of personal and social systems. In two other relations role kontsept belongs to the person. That as the individual defines a role for itself, whether it accepts it, does own or carries out it in a superficial manner, depends on its personal features (abilities, temperament, installations, dispositions, requirements, motives, kognitivnogo style and values etc.)

Undoubtedly, all values of a phenomenon of a role interconnected between self make appreciable impact on process of perception of the political leader-candidate in presidential election campaign.

The perception of the candidate in the presidents, subject to an estimation of role behaviour, occurs to the account first of all business qualities of the politician. The characteristic of success of execution by the politician of a role of the president and the candidate and the basic carried out role depends on experience of the leader. Degree of influence of a role of the president at the politician who was occupying and not holding earlier given post, will be raznitsja as well as it will be probable to differ degree of influence of a role of the candidate on formation of images of the politician which participates for the first time in elections and which more than once acted as the candidate. The role concept influences perception of the candidate through its behaviour, rhetoric, image during election campaign. Aspiration to a victory, and pre-election activity reflects in turn character of acceptance of a role of the candidate in presidential election campaign.

1Gibson J.L. Personality and elite political behaviour: The influence of self-esteem on judicial decision making//The journal of politics. Vol. 43. №1. 1981. P.109

2Человеческий the capital of the Russian political elite. The Politiko-psychological analysis / E.B.Shestopal, A.V.Selezneva. – M, 2012. С.76

3Cм.: Olport G.Stanovlenie of the person: the Selected works. M, 2002. 462с.

Within the limits of our research in more degree nevertheless we will pay attention to character of influence on process of formation of an image of the politician-candidate in presidents of role expectations and role execution. Significant here there is a probability of influence on perception of several role positions. It is a question of role expectations, execution of roles of the candidate, the president and a role which the political leader and during the interelective period carries out, roles steadier, long-term and it is not obligatory institutsionalno fixed.

In political researches the separate direction connected with studying of presidency has appeared in 1930-40е in США1. In the scientific literature it is allocated three basic approaches to presidency. Institutsionalnyj the approach, considers presidency in a context of political system, focusing attention to the powers used by the president for the permission of crisis situations, on factors and conditions constraining президента2. In frameworks liderskogo the approach to presidency ability of the president is investigated to use the power first of all, to consider another's interests, to develop strategy and to build коалиции3. R.Nojshtadt allocated three basic power sources of the president: the powers registered in the constitution, the professional reputation expressed in ability to make impression to show will and skills, prestige, the status in a society which depends on ability to impress the country. Researches adhering to the psychological approach to presidency pay attention to personal features of that who plays a role of the president. According to J. Barbera, personal features of presidents are stable enough and is the major factor defining their political behaviour in non-standard situations. Thus character of interrelation of the person of the president with situational особенностями4 is important.

About specificity of a presidential role speaks A.N.Olejnik, noticing, that the Supreme power not

Requires feedback with object of influence (society) as all initiatives proceed from the top, and present feedback carry out specific function, it is not so much vyrazhajushchejusja in care of interests of people, how many in the control of the representatives, state аппарата5.

1См.: Binkley W.E. The powers of presidents: Problems of American democracy. N.Y., 1937. 400 pp.

2См.: Rossiter C. The american presidency. N.Y., 1960. 342 pp.; Koenig L.W. The chief executive. N.Y. 1964. 298 pp.; Pious

R.M. The american presidency. N.Y., 1979. 327 pp.

3См.: Neustadt R.E. Presidential power. The politics of leadership with reflexions on Johnson and Nixon. N.Y., 1976. 318 pp.; Finer H. The presidency crisis and regeneration. Chicago, 1974. 374 pp.; Herring P. Presidential leadership. Westport, 1972. 366 pp.;

4См.: Barber J.D. Presidential character: Predicting performance in the White House. Englewood, 1972. 479 pp.; Buchanan B. Presidential experience: What the office does the man. Englewood, 1978. 200 pp.; Greenstein F.I. The presidential difference:

Leadership style from Roosevelt to Clinton. N.Y., 2000. 282 pp.; Renshon S.A. High hopes: The Clinton presidency and the politics of ambition. N.Y., 1996 P. 93–115.; Hargrove E.C. President as leader: Appealing to the better angels of our nature. Lawrence, 1998. 230 pp.; George A.L., George J.L. Presidential personality and performance. - Oxford, 1998. 287 pp.

5Олейик A.N.continuity and variability of prevailing model of the power: effect of a track in the Russian history//

politija. 2011. №1. With. 56

According to V.A.Zorina's position, presidency is represented a difficult political phenomenon and is not shown only to institutsionalnym by features. Really the working president modifies characteristics of the role, adapting presidency to the personal features. Thus, that the institute of presidency represents itself as steady size within the limits of action of one constitution, on neinstitutsionalnom level variability and dependence on characteristics of concrete executors constitutional is peculiar to presidency

Powers of the president 1. Accordingly, interdependence between the personal is observed

Characteristics of the president and specificity of presidency. High personification of institute of presidency illustrates its feature, expressed that in comparison with other political institutes, it to the greatest degree is plastic, flexible and dependent on personal specificity инкумбентов2. V.A.Zorina's research approach has allowed to prove, that citizens estimate politicians by own criteria. During the certain moments some of these criteria raise the importance, and some can be ignored completely. That is,

Under the influence of an urgency and the importance of personal characteristics of the politician, the mass consciousness selects and sorts necessary qualities.

The president is allocated by considerable volume of imperious powers, its role possesses the extremely powerful liderskim in potential of influence on work of machinery of state and society transformation. Bearing in itself both functional, and symbolical loading, the presidential role personifies the power in general and embodies its sacral смысл3. Significant presence of contradictions between society views on the power and the president and the maintenance of official documents here is. According to interrogations VTSIOM by the main source of the power and the sovereignty carrier in Russia the people as it is specified in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and the President are not. For 55 % interrogated the head of the state and the sovereignty is one and that же4. Here transformed character of a presidential role in Russia is observed, at preservation of an invariance of the Constitution. During Post-Soviet time it is possible to carry to the reasons of change of role features of presidency: The historical context, is a question first of all of balance of forces at a certain stage of development of the state (as an example it is possible to result a situation 90х, at which, possessing invariable volume of powers, the President of the Russian Federation was more dependent on a legislative branch of the power); economic situations in the country (which specificity is often reflected on sedate trust of citizens to the President); specificity of public moods and a condition of mass consciousness (interest of citizens to a policy, their political activity, the relation to imperious institutes, etc.).

1Koenig L.W. The chief executive. N.Y. 1964. P. 326.

2Там, P. 326.

3Стрелец I.E. Person Yeltsin and and the Russian presidency: psychobiographic research. Actual problems of modern political psychology. M, 2010. With. 273.

4Пивоваров JU.S.Russian the power and the public policy//Political researches. 2006. №1. S.12-33.

Considering interrelation of a role and an image of the politician, we will note possibility of existence both direct, and its mediated character. The interesting moment is studying of the given question in aspect of interrelation of a role and the person which carries out this role. The problem of a parity of personal properties and role behaviour is difficult and a little studied. There are cases of domination at the person of the same properties, in the course of realisation of various roles, and sometimes at performance of one role the person will be outwardly full contrast to itself in other role. Return influence of a role on the person of the politician is observed also. Here it is possible to give an example influences on a self-estimation of duration of stay of the leader on a high state post. On perception of the candidate also can affect and a phenomenon of professional deformation.

American scientist L.Seligman pays attention to multirole character of political leadership, owing to that the politician is compelled to play different roles, considering expectations of voters, the environment, an officialdom. Requirements to it at times are inconsistent, and the leader should support the numerous roles in certain balance. Thus role conflicts of a different sort, characteristic to this or that politician at the moment of elections can define specificity of perception of the candidate. According to a subject of our research, consideration of probability interrole (interrolevyh) and intrarole (intrarolevyh) conflicts (at level of role expectations and executions of roles) which promote formation washed away nekongruentnogo an image is important.

From the point of view of appeal of images it is possible to notice, that citizens pay to psychological characteristics special attention irrespective of a political role, however requirements at an estimation of the professional competence of the president and other political leaders considerably differ. The president of the country, according to citizens, should be exacting as supervises subordinates top-level. The president should be resolute and thus flexible in decision-making, its competence and experience are significant also. As to force and activity of the political leaders playing various roles on a political arena, it is possible to notice, that presence of force at images of the president has, certainly, the great value, the given category means ability to be influential and effectively to operate both on international scene, and within the limits of internal policy. Preservation by the president of the control over a situation in the country, maintenance of stability with it and achievements of objects in view, allows citizens to test confidence of own safety. The parametre of activity for leaders of the country also is important. Activity of the leader of the country (the president in our case) associates with development and progress in scientific sphere, creation of new modern technologies and manufactures, with revival and strengthening of positions of Russia on a world scene that causes in citizens feeling of trust, hope of an exit of the country from crisis, hope of life improvement.

There are few researches devoted to studying of distinctions between requirements to operating officials and applicants that represents complexity for studying of influence of a role of the candidate on process political восприятия1. Especially it is significant owing to that, according to some authors, the public sees the president, first of all from the point of view of its previous experience and behaviour, it is considered in bolshej degrees through a lens of direct events, than other elective officials, and those who had no possibility

To take given role positions. At estimations of the candidate – the working president occurs bolshee a concentration on political resources. One of presidential most important resources - its public репутация2.

M.Penser and S.Braun3 having carried out cross-country-national research of perception of politicians -

Candidates mark importance of distinctions of role expectations concerning the head of the state in parliamentary and presidential political systems. So, for example, in their opinion the role of the American president-head of the state individually representing both a moral and political management of the government and the country differs from a role of the British or Canadian prime minister heading collective leadership of the Office, regulating parliamentary activity and co-operating with leaders of opposition at constant illumination of mass-media. Accordingly importance of separate measurements of an image varies depending on problems which are attributed by respondents to the official about which elections there is a speech. A.Miller asserts, that line "responsibility" is the major in the course of an estimation of candidates

In American президенты4.

According to the Russian researchers, specificity of a role position of the president is reflected and in features perception of candidates during election campaign and the requirement to a role of the candidate in presidents differ: higher importance of designing of not disputed image in the course of pre-election campaign; necessity of high knowledge of the politician. In presidential campaign personal and professional features of candidates have the high importance as the president represents itself as the unique representative of the given elective institute.

Complexity of studying of a question of interrelation of a role of the politician and its image in mass consciousness is connected by that specific personal lines of a half-tic in many respects define an originality of execution by it of a political role that forms unique individual style,

1Pancer M., Brown S. Forming Impressions of Political Leaders: A Cross-National Comparison//Political Psychology. 1999. Vol. 20. No. 2. P.367.

2Just M, Crigler A Leadership Image-Building: After Clinton and Watergate//Political Psychology. 2000. Vol. 21. No. 1. P.179.

3Pancer M., Brown S. Forming Impressions of Political Leaders: A Cross-National Comparison. P. 380.

4Miller A. H. Partisan cognitions in transition. In R. R. Lau, D. O. Sears (Eds.), Political cognition Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum., 1986. P. 203–231.

Distinguishing the leader of one from другого1. Within the limits of the given dissertational research we will consider more in detail specificity of influence of a role not only the president, but also the candidate on process of formation of an image of the candidate in presidents. We will assume that an estimation of politicians as candidates, affects criteria of an estimation, the perception of the political leader in a selective situation as the candidate and for not electoral period will occur not equally.

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