4.1. Party of socialists-revolutionaries as object of scientific researches

Features of a domestic historiography of Party of socialists-revolutionaries of second half 1950 - h become more obvious if preliminary to consider conditions in which the Soviet historical science developed in this period.
On the one hand, on it made serious impact historiographic tradition 1930 - the beginnings of 1950th, presence of external censorship and internal self-restriction of authors, orientation to following to rigid party installations, absence of an easy approach to the scientific information and original "sword of Damocles" in a kind «Histories VKP (. The Short course». To eserovskoj to subjects it is indirectly possible to judge "borders" of officially resolved reference under the instruction of directive party bodies of editorial board BSE, concerning the middle of 1950th the Editorial board has received «the List of a negative personnel about which brief information in BSE» can be given. In this "List" appeared E.F.Azef, A.F.Kerensky and V.M.Chernov235. The notes which have followed the similar instruction in the volumes published in 1954-1957, differed not only brevity, but also obvious tendentiousness of giving материалов236. On the other hand, after XX congress of the CPSU historians have received the permission to working out of such thematic plots, as history «not proletarian, conciliatory» the parties operating in the first quarter of the XX-th century. It is no wonder, that process of accumulation of scientific knowledge was far not equal and unequivocal. More likely, it looked wavy when the part of historians frightened of recent horror of Stalin terror, hardly was entered in new time conditions. Others, especially after an exit in 1959 of the first edition «CPSU History» under B.N.Ponomareva's edition, could soften estimations, giving eseram - «to enemies of the Soviet power, covered with a socialist mask» - "softer" epithets: «the nearest opponents», "compromisers" 237. In this plan, it would be desirable to note the characteristic detail inherent in the given stage of formation of historical knowledge. As soon as in the CPSU Central Committee there was a requirement and necessity of creation of "updated", "more truthful" history of Bolshevik party and history of the USSR, researchers of different directions were surrounded really with fatherlike care from party bodies. So, at creation of the first poslestalinskoj «CPSU Histories» to historians the state summer residence, spetsobsluzhivanie was allocated, and work was edited by the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, academician B.N.Ponomarev. This tendency has remained and further. Even spent the Soviet historiography collective of historians among which were JI.М.Спирин, V.V.Shelohaev, By S.V.Tjutjukin, J.A.Poljakov, etc., under the decision of the Political bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU have been invited to a summer residence in Silver to the Pine forest and have received a problem to prepare «Sketches of history of the CPSU» 238. The majority of historians in the late fifties - the beginning of 1960th It has been aimed at entering of amendments into fragments of the Soviet history, first of all CPSU histories, and only some of them have incurred the research problem of directly history of the organisations operating in the past in parallel with Bolsheviks.
In conditions when there was a process of a dethronement of a cult of personality of I.V.Stalina, his name has been excluded from the list of authors - founders of teoretiko-methodological classification of political parties of Russia. Affirmed, that its bases are put in pawn exclusively in V.I.Lenina's works. The Main objective facing to historians, studying «not proletarian, conciliatory» parties was defined as «revealing idejnopoliticheskogo bankruptcies right eserov, going on conciliation with bourgeoisie, and then levoeserovskogo extremism in 1918». As a matter of fact this requirement was reduced to two problems: « To show a historical role of proletariat as only thing till the end of the consecutive and revolutionary class, able to construct a new society under the guidance of Marxist-Leninist party », and also« to prove correctness of the Marxist theory as it is unique the scientific, revolutionary theory of the class struggle proving a real course to real socialism in struggle against the right reformism and the left revisionism and extremism »239. Revival of researches in the field of history of political parties passed under the sign of returning to the Lenin works, were a methodological basis for the Soviet historians. Therefore the publication in 1958-1965 of Full collected works of the leader of Bolsheviks became the important event in the Soviet historiography. V.I.Lenin in the performances, articles, letters as it was already marked, repeatedly addressed to activity of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. In V.I.Lenina's Full collected works the important documents, concerning histories PSR, such, as V.I.Lenina's confidential letter to the people's commissar of justice D.I.Kurskomu in February, 1922 «About problems narkomjusta in the conditions of new economic policy» 240 for the first time have been published. Studying of a Lenin theoretical heritage becomes one of the major problems of the Soviet historiography up to the termination of its existence in the late eighties. Number of the basic plots concerned the analysis of criticism of V.I.Leninym eserovskih concepts of the Russian revolution and the Soviet power, "exposure" in its works eserovskih ideas of "democracy" and «the third force», sights of socialists-revolutionaries at social and economic development страны241. Despite a significant amount of the similar literature, it is similar enough - the noncritical approach to Lenin ideas everywhere dominates, from work the same set of citations removes to work. The problem of historians was reduced to apologetics of sights of the leader, an illustration of Lenin positions by an actual material which in appropriate way stole up. In the fullest and finished kind this tendency is expressed in t to the collective monography «V.I.Lenin and history of classes and Political parties in Russia »(M, 1970) where along with the analysis of sights of V.I.Lenina on history of classes and parties degree of mastering of Lenin ideas was considered by the Soviet historians. Lenin works were proclaimed top of the scientific analysis, and development of the Soviet historiography was studied from the point of view of conformity of conclusions of historians to judgements V.I.Lenina. If sights of the author dispersed from the Lenin About Estimations they automatically appeared erroneous. Formation istochnikovoj bases of researches at the given stage has been connected with transfer of archives from conducting KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the order of Ministerial council of the USSR, and also anniversary actions for a case of the 40 anniversary of Bolshevist revolution. ^ so, on December, 17th, 1963 employees of the Central archive of KGB Have transferred to constant storage in the Central party archive of 28 folders of the documents representing a considerable part of party archive PLSR242. In TSPA IML two funds have been generated: 274 - Central Committee PSR and 564 - PLSR. A little later 564 fund has replenished with documents of the Union of socialists-revolutionaries - of extremists. As a result domestic researchers had an opportunity to present, first, an official position eserov on ideological, political, tactical and organizational questions; secondly, a spectrum of opinions and the points of view existing in PSR, PLSR, SSRM on these questions; thirdly, their evolution under the influence of changing in the country Conditions. With the middle of 1960th, after arrival to a management of country JI.И.Брежнева, and statements as main "ideologist" of the Central Committee of the CPSU M.A.Suslova, process restalinizatsii, mentioned including a historical science begins. Most boldly it was showed in article «High responsibility of historians», published on January, 30th, 1966 in the newspaper "Truth". Begun after XX congress of the CPSU of the edition of sources soon have stopped, selective publications began to prevail. Besides the hand of the composer or the editor quite often interfered in their texts. The certain quantity of archival materials is transferred on spetshranenie and becomes inaccessible to the majority of researchers. In 1963 the large magazine «Historical archive» AN the USSR has been closed, the same fate has comprehended magazine «Historical sciences» istfaka the Moscow State University. Then «editorial editing» materials of All-Union meeting of historians of 1963 has begun known. At the same time on the basis of Institute of history of Academy of sciences of the USSR and IML at the CPSU Central Committee the circle of the historians who are engaged in studying «not proletarian, conciliatory» parties is formed. Moreover, in structure AN of the USSR the Scientific council on a complex problem «History of the Great October socialist revolution» in which work the direction on studying of "petty-bourgeois" parties was designated is created. Then in Kalinin problem council about studying of "not proletarian" and "petty-bourgeois" parties (the chairman has been generated V.V.Komin), and in Leningrad - problem council about studying «experience of struggle of the CPSU against opportunism» (the chairman V.M.Ivanov, then A.N.Shmelev). Further in a number of works, such, as «Neproletarsky parties of Russia. A history lesson» (M, 1984) were actually Demands for approach change to consideration are put in pawn Political life of Russia in the first quarter of XX century: not as Derivative of Bolshevik party activity, and as result of difficult opposition and interaction of all political forces and country parties. K.V.Gusev's historians, JI.М.Спирин and V.V.Shelohaev of a steel not only authors of heads of this work, but generators of ideas, its original brain centre Preparations and editions. Their creativity - indicative The certificate of how it is possible and was necessary, working on far not an "actual" research field of political history of the country, purposefully to go from a stage to a stage on a way of the decision of difficult research problems. Prominent aspect of the historiographic composition is the estimation of creativity of the historian, thus the answer to a question should be one of results of work istoriografa: what The real contribution of this or that expert to problem studying? Illumination of stages of the scientific biography of the researcher, revealing of the reasons of its reference to certain subjects, studying of working conditions of the historian, the analysis of the external and internal facts which have affected formation of concepts, judgements and the conclusions sounded to scientists becomes one of components of this process. The biographic plot helps to clear an author's plan and to glance in research "laboratory" of the historian. Obezlichennost many historiographic compositions does not promote understanding of that fact, that the historical science develops exclusively thanks to the concrete person; reduces value of work, at times reducing it to level of the bibliography and opisatelnosti. Thereupon the author of dissertation considers essentially important to show a portrait of the researcher of history PSR, the beginning of which scientific studying was necessary on the middle of 1950th though the numerous publicistic sketches previous it, were repeatedly published from the moment of occurrence eserovskogo movements. The majority of domestic historians PSR was born already after revolution of 1917. On the social origin almost all of them were natives of families of workers, peasants and employees. Teachers of the future historians of party eserov were I.I.Mints, I.M.Razgon, S.N.Valk, A.V.Shestakov, put in pawn still in 1920-1930 - e of a basis of studying of history of revolution and Civil war in Russia. The part of researchers began the scientific career in average educational institutions as teachers of history. Then, having passed all steps (the younger scientific employee, the senior teacher, the senior lecturer, the professor), they occupied elective offices - managing chairs in various high schools, and in some cases - rectors (I.S.Kaptsugovich, V.V.Komin). A number enough known researchers PSR was participants of the Great Patriotic War, in particular, K.V.Gusev, A.I.Zevelev, M.I.Stishov. Some of historians were exposed to unreasonable reprisals. So, in 1949 - 1953 on charge in "Anti-Soviet" activity V.V.Garmiza served time. The part of researchers combined scientific work with public work, including on a professional basis. For example, K.V.Gusev worked as the secretary regional and regional committees VLKSM, the secretary of party organisation AON at the CPSU Central Committee. Participation in party, state and Komsomol structures young "ostepenennyh" experts was prominent feature of the Soviet validity 1950 - 1980th years. At that time privately was considered, that for the professional party worker historical formation, and furthermore the Candidate degree - just right. It is necessary to tell and about the distinctions existing between historians PSR, living in Moscow, and their colleagues in regions. As a rule, material and moral compensation of work of the capital researcher was a little above, than in a province. The same remark concerns possibilities for professional self-realisation of experts. In 1980th wages of the senior lecturer, the candidate of sciences made 250-350 rbl., the professor, the doctor of historical sciences - 450-500 rbl. that was a little below material compensation in 1930 - the beginning of 1950th years. I will add also, that the faculty of the Moscow high schools in 1920 - was provided 1950th with prestigious apartments in the street Bitter. Indicative in this respect as an example the decision of Ministerial council of the USSR which have allocated in 1946 to group of leading historians of several tens of the "Finnish" small houses for the organisation of country-garden association in Moscow области243 can serve. In 1960th the room question of the Moscow historians dared by the introduction into housing co-operatives. Is material-household maintenance of regional experts was 10 times less though at existing then to system of planning transfer of the historian - the expert of the higher school provided maintenance with its apartment. A prominent aspect of a considered problem was and there is a convenience of the user, sufficiency of financial possibilities to long work of regional researchers with documents central arhivohranilishch, large capital libraries. Certainly, limitation of material means - the bad assistant in scientific researches. Among domestic researchers of history PSR in 1950 1990th absolute prevalence of men is observed. From thirty most known experts in a problem only five - women. Probably, women-historians choose "quieter" and politically "neutral" themes. Not denying all complex of influence of monoideology and a policy of Soviet times for development of domestic social science, as a result it is important to see and another: the real contribution of scientists and Highly professional creative collectives in processes of an increment of knowledge of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. Considerable changes in process of studying of the reasons of occurrence neonarodnicheskih the organisations, and first of all Parties of socialists-revolutionaries have occurred only in the late sixties though separate questions of a theme have received new perusal actually at once after XX congress of the CPSU. So, in two months after carrying out of a communistic forum, V.S.Orlov has published статью244 in which has lifted a problem of refusal of negative only estimations narodovolcheskogo terror. He noticed, that it is important to consider, in what conditions terror against whom has been directed what its productivity was applied. The author considered, that in struggle narodovoltsev with autocracy when there were no conditions and possibility for revolutionary mass work among peasantry and the more so proletariat, terror has played certainly positive role, being as a matter of fact unique means of struggle of these revolutionaries. The historian has estimated Eserovsky terror exclusively negatively, believing, that socialists-revolutionaries, having possibility of the organisation of mass protest movement, meaningly limited itself to individual terrorist activity, withdrawing wide broad masses from struggle against autocracy. Founders of studying of history of occurrence of party eserov at a new stage of the Soviet historiography became M.I.Leonov, V.N.Ginev and B.V.Levanov, specially addressed to this problem, and also K.V.Gusev, H.A.Eritsjan, V.V.Komin and D.A.Kolesnichenko in which works have found reflexion the separate 1 ' AT Aspects of a theme. Occurrence of special interest to this problem in the late sixties, in our opinion, can be connected with three circumstances, characteristic for a historiography. First, a theme choice - business casual. Hardly who from professional historians, being the first-year student, has accepted for itself(himself) «the decision to be engaged in this problematics is unique correct». In - the second, having selected certain subjects, the historian devoted it the life and handed down to pupils, completing thus «scientific school». Thirdly, to the beginning of 1970th as the most developed problems in Soviet historiography PSR were considered history of party left eserov and parties eserov in 1917, received illumination in K.V.Guseva's works and H.A.Eritsjana. Studying of history of earlier stages eserovskogo movements in a domestic historiography as a matter of fact remains vacant. In 1972 the first has been published during the Soviet time Special work about party formation eserov, written in і •j The core on not claimed before archival sources. In 1987 M.I.Leonova's monography about the initial stage of history of party eserov in which sights of the historian have been stated most детально245 has been published. The Soviet historians carried deep crisis and populism decline To the reasons of occurrence of Party of socialists-revolutionaries, particularly Shown in split of groups of radical intelligency on supporters and opponents of "circulation" in the people, uses as tactics террора246, and also adherents of more and more gaining in strength Marxism. Last circumstance, M.I.Leonov considered, has had huge influence on populists, as well as on all Russian formed общество247. According to V.N.Gineva, despite prevalence in emancipating movement Liberal populism, the revolutionary line in this movement did not interrupt: «With revival of the radical The moods caused by hunger 1891-1892 and epidemic of a cholera, emancipating movement has led to occurrence eserovskih groups and circles »248. As believed N.A.Troitsky, from narodovoltsev 1880th to sotsial - to democrats were passed by only small part. The majority was lost in prisons and on penal servitude or has departed from revolutionary struggle against autocracy, and the kept belief were included into party эсеров249. The social doctrine eserovskih the organisations, according to M.I.Leonova, represented an inorganic combination of orthodox Marxism to basic principles of classical populism, thus on the basic problems, including about destiny of capitalism to Russia, these policy statements were made by loan (in a different measure) of the exemplary project of the program of parties II Internatsionala and projects of programs «Group of clearing of work» 250. As the Soviet historians, autocratic Russia believed, entering XX century suffered from the unsoluble contradiction: in the country there were the considerable groups of the population focused on the European cultural values, including Marxism, liberalism, constitutionalism, and the government concerned them as to exclusively imperial poddanym, not having any rights and freedom. As a whole process of formation of party eserov from levonarodnicheskih revolutionary groups domestic historians characterised as search of new forms with fluctuations in a choice of ways of struggle and the tendency to revision narodnicheskogo doctrines with reference to new conditions. As it was marked in the collection of articles «Bolsheviks in struggle with neproletarskimi, groups and currents», published by results of carrying out of large scientific conference: «1890th Becoming more active from the middle revolutionary narodnicheskie groups, having passed a number of stages in organizational and ideological development, have formed Party of socialists-revolutionaries» 251. Among prominent aspects of history of occurrence PSR the special accent became on finding-out of its number and a social composition. N.D.Erofeevu was possible to define number О1 eserovskih the organisations on the eve of 1905 - 2651 persons. Thus the historian used reports of gendarme managements, completely not faultless. Other data were resulted by M.I.Leonov. On its data, on the eve of 1905 esery totaled from 1500 to 2000 persons. In calculations the historian has explained an essential difference low qualification of the majority of provincial attendants zhandarmsko the investigation, hardly distinguishing liberals from the socialists sympathising from professionals, eserov from sotsial-demokratov252. M.I.Leonov changes a smog appeared since times A.I.Spiridovicha representation about eserah in 1905-1907 as to exclusively group of intellectuals-terrorists. In its opinion, Fighting organisation PSR has made only 5 % from the general number of acts of terrorism in the country. He noticed, that in the administrative board of party the type of the intellectual - the propagandist prevailed and the sharp lack of organizers was felt. Was not among eserov and the bright charismatic leader. M.I.Leonov has expressed the basic lines inherent in terrorist movement: propensity to liberalism and estrangement from weights. The author has made the conclusion on the basis of E.F.Azefa's recognitions which declared that takes part in fighting activity PSR only before autocracy overthrow, and then will leave to cadets, and also the analysis of a position of G.A.Gershuni who has acted in 1907 for the block with cadets. Process of formation of the Fighting organisation is shown in indissoluble communication with formation eserovskoj to party as a whole. In M.I.Leonova's following work the material about the regional organisations eserov was stated, the statistics of acts of terrorism across Russia taking into account all губерний253 was applied. The historian believed, that though at the highest levels parties were cultivated terrorist moods, the basic part partijtsev stood away from terror. The estimation of terrorist activity PSR was given by K.V.Gusev. He considered, that, despite a considerable quantity of political murders, their results have appeared equal political нулю254. Other historians have agreed With it, in particular, B.V.Levanov also. B.V.Levanova's book as a matter of fact is devoted not eseram, and V.I.Lenina's struggle and Bolsheviks with them. Despite small volume (164 pages) it has made essential impact on the subsequent studying of activity of socialists - of revolutionaries during the period till 1917 and has been highly appreciated by the Soviet scientific community as the standard among works of the given genre. The author put before itself two problems: to show, how V.I.Lenin criticised petty-bourgeois essence of program installations of party eserov in revolution 1905-1907 and as Bolsheviks exposed "adventurous" tactics 27 eserov. In our opinion, B.V.Levanova's monography is extremely tendentious and apologetichna. It is sated by a large quantity of the Lenin Citations, terrible formulations, type «narodnichesky 28 The socialism has turned to rotten and stinking carrion », and angry resumes. As to failure eserov in the first revolution the author saw its reason first of all in« petty-bourgeois »to the class nature of socialists - of revolutionaries. B.V.Levanov asserted, that« esery could not define up to the end an own accurate political line, get rid of swayings, conciliation and instability, 29 t g To gain trust of broad masses and to become at the head of them ». Except"melkoburzhuaznosti","conciliation"eserov became object of criticism of the historian. B.V.Levanov wrote, that, having got to deputies of II State Duma, esery «had boldness» to carry on negotiations not only with Bolsheviks, but also with cadets. They «could not get rid of ideological and political hegemony of liberal bourgeoisie», their tactics helped liberals to deceive broad masses and to distract them from revolutionary struggle. To a similar conclusion V.N.Ginev has come also. He has noticed, that at eserov the "superradical" program of socialisation of the earth peacefully got on with refusal of proletariat and peasantry dictatorship, with possibility of coming to power of liberal bourgeoisie: «Esery have put forward the slogan of liquidation of landowner landed property and transfer of the earth to peasants, and then have refused appeals to zahvatnoj to struggle for the earth and were blocked with cadets» 255. Display "levoblokistskoj" tactics of Bolsheviks including political agreements and compromises, including with eserami became a new element in B.V.Levanova's book, perhaps, the only thing that distinguished it from publications of predecessors. Joint actions of Bolsheviks and eserov during the All-Russia October political strike and December armed revolt of 1905 became an example of it. The party appeal eserov to armed revolt in the conditions of recession of a revolutionary mass movement in the country was considered as an example «an eclectic mix of adventurism and dogmatism». The question on «the left block» has drawn also V.N.Gineva's attention. Studying tactics of Bolsheviks in relation to eseram, the historian has come to conclusion about «fear of the last» for the influence among peasants as esery saw in Bolsheviks of the unique competitors on influence on peasantry. From this the historian has made, in our opinion, not absolutely logical conclusion: « The understanding of political strike only from competition positions is rather characteristic for party eserov »256. Among the Soviet historians studying struggle PSR against autocracy, there was no unity on a number of basic and important questions, such as the relation to agrarian terror, a role of "liberal" populists in party formation eserov. For example, V.N.Ginev has subjected to criticism a position of historians 1930 - the beginnings of 1950th believing, that socialists-revolutionaries were lineal heirs of "liberal" populists, and as a whole narodnicheskoe the direction year from a year is forward evolved towards revolutionism loss »257. In its opinion, predecessors of socialists-revolutionaries were« revolutionary »народники258. D.B.Pavlov criticised a method of agrarian terrorism eserov and simultaneously recognised as fair necessity of revolutionary captures of the landowner earth and punishment over large land owners» 259. The same years in works of historians the differentiation was outlined in studying neonarodnicheskih parties. N.D.Erofeev has shined history is national-socialist party, its mutual relations with eserami and трудовиками260. Though the author has a little belittled a role eserov in revolutionary movement, and positions enesov has excessively pull together with cadet, its work became a sign of the new, more weighed approach to studying of neopopulists. N.D.Erofeevu was possible to show background enesov, process of organizational registration of party, its number and a social composition. He considered, that from all neonarodnicheskih parties enesy have most close approached to liberals. At this N.D.Erofeev has subjected to criticism the occurring thesis about formation enesovskoj to party from the right wing of the party eserov. It has come to conclusion, that enesy were initially formed as independent political структура261. It gave the chance to analyze program installations of national socialists through a prism of ideological views of their predecessors - liberal populists, to deprive this party «eserovskoj colouring», kotraja was inevitably shown in previous researches. In 1980th the number of the researches devoted to an initial stage of history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries, has increased. On materials SSRM history eserovskogo movements investigated ' HP A.F.Zhukov. He considered, that «agrarian terrorists» who idolised such subjects of Russian history as S.T.Razin and E.I.Pugachev were predecessors of extremists. The purpose SSRM it was defined by the researcher as struggle for socialisation not only the earths, but also factories, factories. The historian gave reason for the opinion the analysis of the slogans proclaimed extremists: «Down with the program - a maximum! Down with the theory of commodity manufacture!». At the same time, estimating tactics of the extremists, propagandised by them individual terror and ekspropriatsii, A.F.Zhukov has noted an inaccuracy of the characteristic of members SSRM as the banal criminals, meeting for example, in S.M.Saushkina262's some works. Giving reason for the position, A.F.Zhukov refers to V.I.Lenina's works, in which such estimations отсутствовали263. Bringing some results, we will notice, that the Soviet historians had been did certain work on studying of activity PSR in struggle against autocracy, however as a whole degree of research of a theme mismatched that value with what this party occupied in history of revolutionary movement of Russia. It is impossible to tell, that historians did not realise such requirement. So, according to V.M.Katushkina, activity eserov among industrial workers, intelligency, in army, their tactics in relation to menshevikam and кадетам264 required profound studying. And, as it is represented today, it would be possible to expand the list of these problems essentially. Besides for experts in history of pre-October period PSR incomplete use of sources narodnicheskogo origins, duplication of many stamps of previous stages of a historiography, including refusal eseram in any progressiveness, the statement about aspiration of socialists - of revolutionaries to immortalise a small country economy was characteristic. As well as at the first stages of studying of a problem, the basic attention of domestic historians of the middle 1950 - the end 1980 h was involved with the period of revolution of 1917 in Russia. The considerable contribution to studying of history PSR to these years have brought K.V.Gusev, H.A.Eritsjan, V.V.Komin, V.V.Garmiza, JI.М.Спирин265. Certainly, domination of Marxist-Leninist methodology did not allow domestic researchers to express freely the opinion, to oppose official installations. Probably, that they of it to do did not want, sincerely believing that write. However and in such situation the part of historians has managed to generalise an important actual material, to make interesting supervision and conclusions. For example, JI.Г.Протасов has tried to understand and explain the reasons of why in the spring-summer of 1917 socialists - revolutionaries were leading political force in a field army and in rear garrisons. The historian noticed, that «two thirds of number of soldiers were made by peasants and in the class relation city to them city and rural handicraftsmen, small dealers, the lowest employees, the intellectuals mobilised in army. More than the percent of noblemen was twice reduced and relative density of petty-bourgeois elements, especially on the lowest floors of the officer case has grown.... Other channel eserovskogo penetrations into army were semimilitary men 42 The unions of zemstvoes, cities, military-industrial committees ». JI.Г.Протасов Has drawn a conclusion that the petty-bourgeois party eserov professed socialist ideals at a stage of spring of 1917. « It seemed to weights, - the researcher, - that wrote party disagreements not in understanding of the purposes of struggle, and in means of their achievement (after all all for socialism). PSR has not settled still the democratic potential. She actively participated in army democratisation, headed the majority of Councils and committees, used elections of delegates from soldiers-peasants on the All-Russia congress of country deputies in April-May. Esery have taken part in creation and dominated in military-country Councils of Ryazan, Tula, the Eagle, Kursk, Yaroslavl and others rear гарнизонах266. J1. G.Protasov also has paid attention to an essential divergence at number calculation eserovskih of the organisations. It tended to that the most real technique of calculation has offered V.I.Miller, correlating quantity of the voices submitted for PSR on elections in the Constituent assembly, with number of the separate front and army organisations. According to the historian, the number of members PSR in a field army «not much more exceeded 250 thousand and 10 thousand on fleet» 267. G.D.Alekseeva noticed, that «popularity growth eserovskoj parties after February revolution reflected objective process of awakening of petty-bourgeois layers of a city and village that mattered for revolution development...» 268. In V.V.Komina269's volume monography along with history of other political parties materials about activity eserov in 1917 have been presented, their relation to questions on the power, war, the earth, to an ethnic question is analysed. The author has given the big place to the characteristic of various currents in party eserov. The question on degree of influence of this party in 1917 in mass organisations of workers, including trade unions and fabzavkomah became the important element of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries. A.G.Egorova asserted, that esery kindled between separate fabzavkomami and trade unions competitive struggle for a survival, and it caused a damage nation-wide интересам270. In this case, in its opinion, factories and factories turned from giving of "compromisers" in «independent federations of semianarchical type, as a whole discrediting the government» 271. Issue of the monography of M.V.Spiridonov and V.I.Nosacha's sketch became a step forward in studying of the given question. Thanking it the materials have been entered into a scientific turn, allowing to show chronology of "petty-bourgeois" influence in professional союзах272. So, V.I.Nosach has revealed date of a withdrawal of Petersburg printers from eserovskogo influences, naming not autumn of 1917, and July, 1918, and the Moscow printers could To "overcome" eserovskoe influence, according to the author, only in the summer 1920 года273. Other sphere eserovskogo influences in 1917 remained co-operative societies. To L.F.Morozov, I.A.Farutin and V.P.Dmitrenko274 in a number of sketches have shown «persistent resistance eserov, the co-operative societies which have sat down at boards» 275. Struggle between Bolsheviks and socialists - revolutionaries for young generation in 1917 became a subject 53 A.J.Lejkina's researches. The historian has noticed, that this problem was a considerable part of the general struggle of parties for weights and dared in sharp rivalry. According to the researcher, the basic Bolshevist method of replacement eserov from the youth organisations was infiltratsija young communists in the unions of youth and capture there managements in the hands. In a number of researches negative only judgements, unfortunately, are traced. So, M.V.Spirin has drawn a conclusion, that after February revolution the concept of agrarian socialism was wrecked from the point of view of a way, i.e. possible realisation of the program of socialisation of the earth in the conditions of the bourgeois power that has led to ideological and political defeat party eserov, and after October - from the point of view of concrete measures of the program of socialisation of the earth and its theoretical обоснования276. Special value for studying of history PSR in days of Civil war had research JI.М.Спирина277. The historian in the Soviet science has given for the first time the detailed analysis of history of all political parties of Russia per 1918-1920. Portrait PSR has been created: the program, a social base, personal structure of directing bodies, number, fractions and currents at all stages of Civil war. For the first time the fullest data for that moment about results of elections in the Constituent assembly were cited. JI.М.Спирин has considered 44 million 433 thousand 309 voters on 65 округам278. From them for Russian eserov 17 million 942 thousand 947 persons that made 40,4 % of all voters voted. JI.М.Спирин has tried to define number of party eserov in 1917 that was uneasy business at absence in PSR the adjusted party account. According to the researcher, in the summer 1917 Year number PSR made 400 thousand человек279. However In a year of Party of socialists-revolutionaries as the mass organisation did not exist any more, in it, specified JI.М.Спирин, there were mainly heads and active workers. The historian gave reason for the conclusion that in the autumn 1917г. There passed process "polevenija" not only "bottoms", but also "tops" PSR. As quite often it was accepted at that time, the historian referred to V.I.Lenina's opinion which wrote, that 40 % of heads PSR have passed in camp left and «below, in proletariat and peasantry, especially the poorest, the majority"left"280. In the conceptual plan of an estimation and conclusions of the historian about activity PSR in days of Civil war were not beyond the positions which have affirmed as the Soviet historiography. At the same time L.M.Spirina's book has put variety of questions on history PSR, demanding profound studying: right esery and The constituent assembly, activity broken away eserovskih groupings, history of local organisations PSR and especially - destiny of party at the final stage of its existence in the Soviet Russia. L.M.Spirina's following book «Russia 1917 From history of struggle of political parties» reflected new trends, which have appeared then in a historical science (wider, than before, use of foreign publications on a theme and works eserovskih the authors taken from spetshrana, strictly dosed out introduction in a scientific turn new eserovskih documents from the Soviet archives) 281. K.V.Guseva and H.A.Eritsjana282's work, along with K.V.Guseva283's later book, became the classical sample of Soviet historiography PSR. In it from Lenin positions evolution process eserov is analyzed, the social base of this party, its program positions is considered. Key idea of this research, as well as all Soviet historiography PSR, opposition eserovskogo the socialism which crash, according to researchers, was quite natural, to proletarian scientific socialism was. As confirmed G.D.Alekseeva, after October populists have definitively come off weights, their activity began to reflect already interests not peasantry, and intellectual groups of different sense, though in variety of works of the Soviet authors, for example P.A.Podbolotova, By G.F.Barihnovskogo it has been established, that PSR had a certain social base and reflected interests of a part крестьянства284. Socialists-revolutionaries, wrote the Soviet historians, have passed a way from «petty-bourgeois revolutionism» before counterrevolution. Tactics of Bolsheviks has only accelerated process of disappearance PSR from a political scene, but at all was not the reason of it. K.V.Guseva and H.A.Eritsjana's research leant against a solid circle of sources. Especially it is necessary to note attraction of documents party, eserovskogo origins - Materials eserovskih party congresses and Party councils; periodicals PSR, from 274 funds of Central party archive IML at the Central Committee of the CPSU created on the basis of affairs, transferred in the early sixties from TSA KGB of the USSR. It had the big positive value though frequently the given sources were treated rather tendentiously. The memoirs literature of socialists - was obviously insufficiently used Revolutionaries which, on the contrary, was very actively quoted in a foreign historiography. Avariciously also theoretical platform PSR after tsarism overthrow is not clearly stated. In general creation of large monographic researches was characteristic line of the Soviet historiography of political parties of second half 1960 - the beginnings 1970 годов285. This process has mentioned also historiography PSR. Studying of "counterrevolutionary" and terrorist activity eserov after October, 1917 was a traditional direction of Soviet historiography PSR. However the Soviet historiography of the middle 1950 - the end of 1980th, as a matter of fact, has only added editions of 1920th with a quantity of the actual material which is rather carefully picked up and not contradicting the official concept. Widely quoted source on history of "counterrevolutionary activity» PSR was "Bill of particulars" of process of 1922 and the brochure were eserovskogo the insurgent G.I.Semenova (Vasileva). Use of the given sources in the Soviet historiography had noncritical character: legitimacy of charges, Shown in 1922 to socialists-revolutionaries, never under doubt ставилась286. The basic attention in works of the Soviet authors was given to two parties «counterrevolutionary work» right eserov. In - the first, this realisation of acts of terrorism by summer of 1918 - murder of the commissioner on affairs of the press of Petrograd Council of V.V.Volodarsky, the chairman Petrograd CHK M.S.Uritskogo and attempt at V.I.Lenina's life. D.L.Golinkov who most full has taken up this question, specified, that «right esery after October revolution did not stop before application of any means in political strike with Bolsheviks». All description of terrorist activity PSR of D.L.Golinkov gave «on Semenovu», involving at the same time endurances from the neopublished shorthand report of process of 1922. It its book favourably differed from other works of the Soviet authors on the given theme, having frequently popular character and/GO Containing actual errors. The author, first, accused party of the work eserov in 4 razvjazyvanii terror and Civil war. Secondly, «Exposed artful plans» Parties of the left socialists - of revolutionaries in carrying out of V All-Russia congress of Councils. For time the author's approach in the description of process of 1922 (for the first time in a domestic historiography), a statement of positions of the accused party, let in rather compressed kind was innovative. Up to occurrence in 1982 of the book of the Netherlands historian of M.Jansena specially devoted to court over eserami, D.L.Golinkova's book contained the most detailed story about events of 1922. Among the major directions of studying of history PSR in the Soviet historiography of 1960-1980th the aspect of activity of Party of socialists-revolutionaries last years its existence in the Soviet Russia is allocated. This theme specially practically was not considered, except for I.J.Trifonova's published still in 1950 годы69 article. In P.A.Podbolotova, J.V.Muhacheva, G.F.Barihnovskogo's works and other authors activity PSR in the first years has been analysed 70 nepa. /about Sm: Kostin N.D.shot in revolution heart//Don. 1968. №4. S.141 - 158. 69 Trifonov I.JA.end of petty-bourgeois parties menshevikov and eserov//Uch. zap. I LIE. 1959. №258. Вып.30. S.143-172. 70 Podbolotov P. A. Crash of esero-Menshevist counterrevolution. L, 1975; Muhachev JU.V.tactics right eserov after transition to nepu and its failure (1921-1922)//Bankruptcy of petty-bourgeois parties of Russia. 1917-1922 Sb. Works. Ч.II.1977. S.137-149; Barihnovsky G.F.Idejno-politichesky crash beloemigratsii and defeat of internal counterrevolution (1921-1924). L, 1978. So, P.A.Podbolotov noticed, that in the country during this period there were social strata on which support could count mensheviki and esery though these parties have already ceased to exist as mass organisations. The Soviet historians marked change of tactics of socialists - of the revolutionaries, trying to use legal forms of struggle and to strengthen the influence in the trade-union and co-operative organisations. In the answer the Bolshevist management has undertaken the whole complex of measures on liquidation of socialist opposition. To number of doubtless advantages of the monography of P.A.Podbolotova who most in detail has covered this process, it is necessary to carry wide use of materials of periodicals of those years, and also documents RKP () on the organisation mass antieserovskoj campaigns in connection with court over Central Committee PSR in 1922. P.A.Podbolotov has analysed for the first time reaction of the Russian emigration to process of 1922, its attempts to organise The international protection of defendants eserov. As a whole, despite a habitual set of ideological stamps, P.A.Podbolotova's book has generalised the material saved up in the Soviet historiography, having added with its number new изысканий287. The important part of history PSR actively studied by the Soviet historians, the problem of the relation of party to country revolts the day before nepa and in its first years, standardly called «kulatsko-eserovskimi mutinies» 288 was. Revolts on Tambovshchine and in Western Siberia, along with more local performances of peasants in the Soviet Russia, in a domestic historiography directly contacted activity PSR. «Petty-bourgeois counterrevolutionary parties, especially esery, - I.J.Trifonov wrote, - bear full idejnopoliticheskuju responsibility for the organisation kulatskogo gangsterism on the eve of transition to nepu and in the first years nepa» 289. As the proof to that were served by participation separate eserov in revolts, and also that «platforms kulatskih gangs reflect influence eserov» 290. Most in detail in this plan in the Soviet historiography the Tambov revolt 1920-1921 годов291 has been studied. The Soviet authors asserted, that «the party Central Committee eserov directly supervised over revolt of fists, gangsters and deserters in the Tambov and Voronezh provinces» 292. Were actively used published chekistskie documents, in particular, report VCHK about opened and liquidated on territory of RSFSR plots against the Soviet power for May - June, 1921, for the first time Appeared on July, 24th, 1921 in «News VTSIK». In the report it was noticed, that at arrest of the representative of Central Committee PSR on the Tambov area J.Podbelskogo the materials proving a management by Central Committee PSR Tambov восстанием293 have been withdrawn. However the concrete data confirming it, in 1920th years, later it was not resulted. All certificates on participation PSR to events on Tambovshchine had indirect character. In this connection some historians, for example D.L.Golinkov, did not dare to confirm categorically about direct responsibility PSR for the Tambov revolt, being limited to instructions for a role eserov in its preparation (the organisation «Unions of labour peasantry») and use eserovskih slogans восставшими294. The question on participation PSR in the Tambov revolt is combined enough. It is impossible to deny certain influence eserov on country revolts 1920-1922, however measure of this influence to estimate uneasy. In connection with obvious necessity of deep working out of this question it has drawn again attention of domestic historians in 1990th years. Revolt of peasants in Western Siberia in 1921 also was considered prepared pravoeserovskim as "the Siberian country union» 295 in spite of the fact that the union was only ol In a formation stage. In acknowledgement eserovskogo character of revolt affirmed, that esery skilfully masked the essence as «the union with Denikin and Kolchakom has thoroughly undermined their influence in the people, and they have decided to speak on behalf a name 81 Non-parties ». In a modern historiography the thesis about participation eserov in revolts it is denied. Country resistance 82 Carried, out of everyones doubt, antisocialist character. In its management there were the most different people. For election in supervising insurgent bodies the service was not an obstacle at the former authorities - imperial, Provisional government, Kolchaka or communists. Despite it, some modern historians believe, that the role of "the Siberian country union» in the West Siberian revolt was ключевой296. The reference to emigrant period PSR became a new plot of the domestic literature of 1960-1980th. The Most significant research devoted to this question, became JAL. L.K.Shkarenkova's work. The author managed to restore an existence picture eserovskih groups and currents abroad. In its opinion, split eserovskih groups in emigration was a consequence of the inner-party conflict of 1917. The historian has specified, that leaders of right wing PSR of N.D.Avksentev, M.V.Vishnjak, V.M.Zenzinov, standing up for a wide coalition with nesotsialisticheskimi, were grouped round edition of political magazine «Modern notes» (1920-1940). Representing left centre V.M.Chernov has organised the magazine edition «Revolutionary Russia», the Foreign committee have formed enesy. Broken into small groupings esery, wrote L.K.Shkarenkov, autumn of 1931 Have made an attempt to unite, having collected in Paris Representatives of so-called regional committee, nju - jorkskoj, the Prague and Harbin groups, but practically Wasps Associations it has not turned out. The historian has explained the reason of failures eserov structural defects of their party, various vision of prospects of social development, and, as consequence, Permanent splits in their environment. Simultaneously L.K.Shkarenkov has in detail shined a "counterrevolutionary" role eserov among «the Kronstadt rebels», having underlined them «the latent and fierce struggle against the Soviet power in new forms». It is necessary to tell, that attempts to prove participation eserov in To preparation and the organisation of the Kronstadt mutiny were undertaken repeatedly. So, J.A.ShChetinov even Asserted, that «the Kronstadt mutiny would be inconceivable without purposeful, organizujushchej petty-bourgeois elements of activity eserov, menshevikov and other representatives 87 Antisocialist forces ». The estimations given eseram by S.N.Semanovym were even more categorical, the Kronstadt mutiny became object of which special research. In work« on March, 18th, 1921 »(M, 1977), in the head« That is Councils without communists »the researcher directly has connected eserovskuju emigration with heads of revolt.« Basically leaders of mutiny were people of petty-bourgeois moods and were under influence eserov and especially anarchists "," Eseromenshevistsky and anarchist elements, and also the latent White Guards who have been dug round in parts and by the ships of the Kronstadt naval base gradually prepared mutiny »297. At the same time S.N.Semanov recognised, that the head of mutiny S.M.Petrichenko consisted in 1919 in RKP (though in a re-registration and left party. But authentic data on its membership in party eserov to find out not удалось298. Thus, some considerable data about participation PSR in the Kronstadt events were revealed not. For today the statement extended in 1920th about membership in PSR the head Kronstadt revkoma S.M.Petrichenko299 has not proved to be true. On the other hand, both Soviet, and foreign historians recognised, that heads of "mutiny" were separate esery, for example, the editor of "News VRK of Kronstadt» eser-extremist A.Lamanov300. Now that fact, that PSR any participation is conventional in 92 The Kronstadt revolt did not accept. The basic requirements of the risen seamen on February, 28th 1921 Were: re-elections of Councils by ballot, a freedom of speech for anarchists and socialist parties, abolition of "communistic fighting groups». This requirement of the risen 93 Has allowed S.N.Semanovu to connect kronshtadttsev with eserami, however, as well as to L.K.Shkarenkovu asserting, that «esery and mensheviki supported the Kronstadt rebels». Unfortunate, according to both authors, attempt to head "mutiny" has made even more closed existence eserovskih groups abroad. After 1921 the greatest activity eserov was observed by security officers in Prague where V.M.Chernov published «Revolutionary Russia». But in 1931, according to L.K.Shkarenkova, it was impossible to speak already about presence even the party rests eserov, only separate private persons - were esery showed activity. The historian asserted, that «an interlacing of two processes: on the one hand, crushing, separation, degeneration of old and new emigrant groupings, with another - a recognition of new political realities, crash of anti-Soviet ideology, izzhivanie irreconcilability of the first years of emigration by its many representatives - an original epilogue eseram abroad» 301. Aspiration of the Soviet historiography to present spontaneous inherently Antibolshevist performances 1920-1922 as system of plots and the mutinies organised by socialist opposition, quite explainably. The Soviet historians have been compelled to follow V.I.Lenina's directly specifying on eserov and menshevikov as on inspirers and organizers of these events instructions. Meanwhile the actual material in most cases honesty stated by domestic historians, entered the sharp contradiction with ideologically "sustained" выводами302. In general it is necessary to notice, that the period 1960 - was 1980th exclusively productive by quantity of the published material and cases in point. Scientific conferences and symposiums in the Eagle (1985), Tambov (1987), Riga (1986), Kalinin (1986) have taken place. By estimates of O.V.Volobuyev, V.I.Millera and V.V.Shelohaeva in 1963-1975 16 monographies (by K.V.Guseva, V.N.Gineva, H.A.Eritsjana, A have been published. F.Zhukova, I.S.Kaptsugovicha, B.V.Levanova, M.V.Spirinoj, R.I.Vetrova, A.M.Chernenko, H.M.Astrahana, V.V.Komina, L.M.Spirina, O.N.Znamenskogo, E.A.Skrinileva, V.V.Garmizy, T.A.Sivohinoj, P.I.Sobolevoj, V.A.Soloveva) and one collection ~97 Articles. Further rates of studying of "conciliatory" parties not only have not decreased, but also have increased. By estimates of the author of the present dissertation, with 1976 on 1989 15 monographies (by G.D.Alekseevoj, M.V.Spirinoj, M.I.Leonova, B have been published. N.Gineva, L.M.Spirina, P.A.Podbolotova, A.P.Tolochko, OH C. A.Fedjukina, J.A.ShChetinova) and 48 articles. J.G.Felyntinskogo's work is included in this list «Bolsheviks and left esery also. On a way to one-party dictatorship» as it is written in Russian and with 1986 researchers could familiarise with it in spetshranah large Moscow libraries. In 1993 to the author who is the citizen of the USA the scientific degree of the doctor of historical sciences in Russia has been awarded. The collective monography «Neproletarsky parties of Russia became top of the Soviet historiography of the Russian political parties: a history Lesson» 303. The best forces of a domestic historical science have taken part In its creation - K.V.Gusev, JI.М.Спирин, V.V.Komin, S.V.Tjutjukin, N.G.Dumova. The monography covered the period from origin of multi-party system before definitive disappearance of the Russian political parties in emigration. Authors of sections about PSR - K.V.Gusev, A.JI.Литвин, V.I.Miller and L.K.Shkarenkov - in enough compressed, but substantial sketches have opened process of evolution of party eserov, have given the characteristic to the major stages of its history. This work has actually summed up to studying PSR in the Soviet historiography. However she cannot be considered as simple generalisation of already saved up material. Separate aspects of history of party eserov have received in it deeper illumination, than in the previous researches. Authors have involved eserovskuju the press, materials of party congresses and sessions of Councils, and also (unfortunately, without references) memoirs V.Chernova, M.Vishnjaka, B.Sokolova. It has allowed to present a position of socialists-revolutionaries, their point of view for the key moments to histories PSR. Before memoirs eserovskih figures were used in the Soviet historiography obviously insufficiently though contained a lot of valuable материала304. If to compare their use in a foreign historical science it, on the contrary, showed to memoirs eserov considerable interest. In any measure for foreign authors it has been connected with availability of the given sort of sources; as to the Soviet historians sharply Antibolshevist orientation of memoirs of socialists-revolutionaries excluded their wide use in the Soviet historiography. Its development the narrowness istochnikovoj constrained bases, especially on the final period of existence PSR in 1920-1923 which studying has been inevitably connected with the analysis Documents VCHK practically inaccessible at that time - GPU. Therefore the overwhelming majority of historians was limited to time of civil war, where accessible sources (memoirs, eserovskih newspapers) was incomparable more. It is necessary to carry development of the regional researches considering history eserov in Urals Mountains to number of doubtless achievements of this period of Soviet historiography PSR, in Siberia, in the Volga region and in the North Caucasus. Known enough historians of Siberia, in particular, I.G.Chizhov, V.M.Samosudov, M.I.Kazantsev, N.A.Majdurova, A. JI. Afanasev, E.S.Haziahmetov, JI.М.Горюшкин, M.V.Shilovsky in most cases the understanding of this or that problem stated in a context «struggle of the CPSU with neproletarskimi» 305. For example, A.L.Afanasev, having studied dynamics of growth of organisations PSR in 1905-1907 and having compared it with number of organisations RSDRP, has come to conclusion, that esery have been doomed to political fiasco as a matter of fact from the moment of occurrence on arena political жизни306. A.P.Tolochko, having considered tactics eserov and the reasons of reduction of number of their organisations after defeat of the first Russian revolution, "has proved" their political банкротство307. Display "levoblokistskoj" tactics of Bolsheviks including political agreements and compromises, including with eserami became a new element in these works. After A.P.Tolochko confirmed, what even in 1970 - first half 1980th years when at the all-Russian level certain shifts were outlined in research of the specified theme, connected with the increased interest to consideration "levoblokistskoj" tactics, in conceptual approaches of historians of the Siberian region, behind few exception, former sights were defining and 104 Judgements. On materials of Siberia scientific research of activity of socialists-revolutionaries in Bolshevist revolution and Civil war is in many respects connected with I.M.Razgona's publications. The historian believed, that considerable influence eserov on the Siberian peasantry was quite often external, formal and was a consequence of insufficient work of Bolsheviks. «The Bolshevik at that time was the rare visitor in village, - wrote I.M.Razgon, - and esery there spent the day and spent the night, trying to involve peasants in numbers of the party» 308. Though I.M.Razgon did not put before itself a problem of special research of history Siberian eserov in all its aspects, its conclusions about degree of their influence on peasantry, evolutions of political moods in village, disagreements in party and organizational allocation of its left wing represent Unconditional interest. The appreciable contribution to studying of history Siberian eserov was brought by E.I.Chernjak investigating process of occurrence eserovskih of the organisations in 1917, their quantitative and qualitative structure, political positions and agitation-and-propaganda работу309. As believes A.V.Dobrovolsky, «and today it is possible to agree with conclusions of the Tomsk scientist, except one: 1917 was "Hour of triumph" of socialists-revolutionaries in Siberia, instead of 1 Л7 The period of their political bankruptcy » Various aspects of political activity eserov, their role in formation of new authorities in Siberia, influence on various public and political formations became a subject of researches of E.N.Babikovoj310. It has considered for the first time party and a social composition of Committees of public safety, mutual relation of Councils of Siberia with bourgeois bodies in a diarchy. Especially it is necessary to note M.E.Plotnikovoj's researches. In its works the history of "democratic counterrevolution» in Siberia is considered, the basic stages of formation and evolution of the "petty-bourgeois" power in region are analysed. In 1960th M.E.Plotnikova became one of the first researchers who have shown differences of positions right eserov from positions left in Years Civil войны311. In its opinion, in the ranks of PSR it is distinct Was outlined three currents. The first of them represented brightly The expressed right groupings, which together with menypevikami-oborontsami and national socialists have formed So-called «the socialist block» which it is unconditional Has supported A.V.Kolchaka's power. The second current was headed The Siberian regional party committee eserov which it is firm Stood on Central Committee PSR positions. «Struggle Tactics on two fronts, - Marked M.E.Plotnikova, - against Bolsheviks and against Dictatorships Kolchaka has led eventually to new split and To formation by spring of 1919 of the third current in the person «Siberian The union of socialists-revolutionaries »312. Some results of studying of activity of socialists - Revolutionaries in Siberia during the period of 1920-1980th were Are brought in E.I.Chernjaka's historiographic reviews and L.N.Jusupovoj313. In publications of the Ural authors also were mentioned Questions of joint actions of revolutionary parties against 112 Autocracies. In particular, N.N.Popov has stated an estimation Interactions of social democrats and socialists - of revolutionaries on attraction on the party армии314. It is necessary to underline, that at that time there was a private tendency, if not on hushing up, on underestimation of scales of activity PSR. So, in the collection of scientific articles «Revolution of 1905-1907 in Urals Mountains and in Siberia» (Tyumen, 1983) which has been prepared on materials of the large scientific conference devoted to the 75 anniversary of the first Russian revolution, there are only three mentions about эсерах315, but almost infinite set about Bolsheviks. This historiographic tendency was most widely reflected in school textbooks of that времени316. As a rule, pupils received the information on three socialists-revolutionaries: A.V.Uhtomskom - the machinist of a steam locomotive, the victim at rescue of insurgents on Red Presne, E.F.Azefe - the provoker, and B.V.Savinkove - the terrorist, the head of murders of the most severe imperial satraps. At the same time such problem questions as the reasons of formation PSR, its structure, number, a social composition, the analysis of the party program, practical actions appeared not opened. It was noticed only, that this party applied for were unique vyrazitelnitsej interests of peasantry. The party program was petty-bourgeois and utopian, and the ultrarevolutionary phraseology and terrorist tactics eserov were rather dangerous, as distracted working class and peasantry from mass struggle for socialist революцию317. Listing circumstances promoting "domination" eserov in Councils in the spring of 1917 authors of the textbook had boldness even to assert, that the Bolshevik party for years of war has been weakened by infinite reprisals, arrests and dispatches, and 117 esery were not exposed to such reprisals from tsarism. On materials of Urals Mountains separate aspects of history eserov have drawn F.S.Gorovogo's attention, 3. A.Amineva, F.S.Jufereva, P.I.Roshchevskogo, O.A.Vaskovskogo, I.K.Lisovskogo, I.F.Plotnikova, V.M.Kruzhinova318. Characterising their works, we will notice, that these publications have not been directly directed on history studying eserov, in them only fragmentary data on their political organisations were resulted. Shining agrarian history of Urals Mountains, researchers specified in a role eserov in the organisation and activity of the Country unions, Councils of country deputies, have opened a parity of forces in the Ural village, participation of moderate socialists in Civil war, including on the party of the Soviet power. Historians, following a political policy, built socialists on "formation", paying special attention on merits of Bolsheviks. Concerning other socialists, including eserov, other approach operated: to use only those facts which testify to their utopianism, conciliation and hopelessness. In bolshej degrees this process was reflected in regional making history of party eserov. Feature of research work was deliberate vypjachivanie errors and miscalculations of tactical character, short-sightedness of leaders eserov. Both historical works, and historiographic began with words "crash" and "bankruptcy". In 1970-1980th in Urals Mountains there were special researches of I.S.Kaptsugovicha, G.A.Drobysheva, A.N.Vasileva, V.V.Kapljukova, JI.А.Обухова119. From the defeat fact eserov researchers established predefiniteness of their political  destruction. The real maintenance of historical process, its inconsistent development did not become an analysis subject. The developed scheme, from class positions explaining 119 Kaptsugovich I.S.histor of political  destruction eserov in Urals Mountains. Perm, 1975; Drobyshev G. A. Bolshevizatsija councils in Urals Mountains in June-October, 1917//the Victory of October revolution and Civil war in Urals Mountains. Sverdlovsk, 1983; Vasilev A.N.left the block in Urals Mountains: Diss.... kand. ist. Sciences. Sverdlovsk, 1985; Kapljukov V.V. Borba of Bolsheviks of Urals Mountains with petty-bourgeois parties for influence on weights in preparation and carrying out of the Great October socialist revolution (March 1917th February, 1918): Diss.... kand. ist. Sciences. Sverdlovsk, 1985; L.A.struggle's Butts of parties in Councils of Urals Mountains in preparation and socialist revolution carrying out: Diss.... kand. ist. Sciences. Sverdlovsk, 1986, etc. Origin, the nature and  destruction eserov, was based on the limited quantity of sources and it was well entered in a context of the Soviet historiography of revolution and Civil war. Certain results have been reached in researches D.S.Tochennogo, M.I.Nadeevoj, A. JI. Litvina about eserah 120 The Volga region. Kazan historian A.L.Litvin, Specialising on studying of problems of agrarian history The Volga region, has considered activity of Party of socialists - Revolutionaries in village. He noticed, that «a tightening, and on To being refusal of the agrarian question decision, was one of The main reasons of loss party eserov the best, most Revolutionary members, sharp falling of influence on 121 Peasantry ». The historian believed, that one of the centres« counterrevolutionary »actions right esery have chosen the Volga region not casually:« it was agrarian area with srednerazvitoj The industry, with the big layer kulachestva and the prosperous peasantry which interests were expressed by socialists-revolutionaries. Preparation of revolt by them on Volga has coincided with the fluctuations of average peasantry opened 122 kulatskimi performances against the Soviet power ». He has stated the version about communications Kazan left eserov with the commander-in-chief of East front M.A.Muravevym, has analysed a situation in Kazan after events on July, 6-7th 1918г. In Москве319. According to A. JI.Литвина, «fluctuations of average peasantry have given the chance left eseram to receive the Volga region at elections of delegates on V All-Russia congress of Councils of more mandates, than to Bolsheviks» 320. Estimating agrarian policy Komucha, the researcher has come to conclusion, that it was one of the main reasons «secondary and 125 Definitive defeat right eserov and menshevikov ». The historian asserted, that Komuch spent« the burzhuazno-landowner policy though and veiled by democratic slogans, and the labour peasantry in 1918 has started to be convinced of imperfection of levelling land tenure which not Liquidated neither malozemelja, nor dalnozemelja, 126 Strip farming ».  destruction« petty-bourgeois »parties in Russia, according to A.L.Litvina - the natural phenomenon as« in the sharpest class struggle attempt of petty-bourgeois parties to find the «the third way» is inevitably doomed on 127 Failure ». Certain results of studying of "bankruptcy" neonarodnicheskih parties on Volga have found reflexion in M.I.Nadeevoj's historiographic researches and 128 A. JLЛитвина. In their opinion, the Soviet historians «have convincingly proved, that Bolsheviks were unique force in which weights of workers trusted and which they followed. All other political parties have suffered ideological wreck 129 Also have quite naturally disappeared from a political arena ». In 1970th complex studying of history eserovskih the organisations in the North Caucasus, especially their participation in wide front antikaledinskih forces begins. V.N.Sergeeva's book «Bankruptcy of petty-bourgeois parties on Don» (Rostov-on-Don, 1979) is typical enough the then. Attracts attention not only strictly dosed out use in V.N.Sergeeva's work of archival documents, but also the avaricious reference to eserovskim to sources in general is underlined. « At use of the petty-bourgeois press the author started with V.I.Lenina's doctrine that at reading of compositions of bourgeois authors it is necessary to cut their reactionary tendency and to take all useful to a Marxist science »321. Was considered impossible to give a tribune to ideological opponents of Bolsheviks and by that as though to popularise their sights. Half devoted not histories eserov and menshevikov, and histories of the Bolsheviks, written basically on the published sources, V.N.Sergeeva's book, abounds with citations from V.I.Lenina's products and documents of the CPSU and represents eserov compromisers. Thus the author sneered concerning that indisputable fact, that esery have been liquidated in Civil war by bodies VCHK.« Bourgeois scientists, - Affirmed as the monography, - unreasonably aspire to charge Bolsheviks responsibility for  destruction of petty-bourgeois parties in our country, hiding that fact, that they have gone bankrupt owing to their counterrevolutionary, antinational policy »322. Representing, probably, extreme degree of surprise by similar falsification, V.N.Sergeev the conclusion has drawn, that «on Don nobody destroyed the petty-bourgeois party organisations force. The materials considered in work show, that Bolsheviks conducted with them exclusively ideological struggle» 323. Top kureznosti the author's reference to L.Martova's who ostensibly has declared opinion, «what not Bolsheviks, and compromisers (so in the text looks. - A.K.) on Don were main antikaledinskoj ~ 133 siloi ». The scrupulous analysis of documents and materials in research was frequently substituted for rhetoric though in V.N.Sergeev's later work noticed, that «some requirements of petty-bourgeois parties had progressive character, being directed on struggle against feudalism vestiges in the Cossack areas» 324. As to the defeat reasons eserov V.N.Sergeev saw them first of all that «the Don Bolsheviks, as well as on the country as a whole, always were on the ball and consistently and successfully struggled with the ideological opponents». As a matter of fact, the purpose of the work the author saw only in that «to analyse struggle of Bolsheviks against"compromisers"in preparation and carrying out of the Great October socialist revolution and civil war». Unique difference of conclusions of this monography from similar, appeared in the centre and regions, that «if on all country right after armed revolt in Petrograd counterrevolution was"democratic"and it was headed 1-5 WITH Compromisers on Don it became at once general » So, regional researches of history eserov basically have been concentrated to Urals Mountains, in Siberia, the Volga region and in the North Caucasus. Historians of other regions, in particular, the Far East, Belarus, Turkmenia, Ukraine, Transcaucasia also addressed to separate aspects of history PSR, but did it in a channel not special, but generalising works. The exception, perhaps, makes P.P.Nikishova's research «Of history of crash left eserov Turkestan» (Frunze, 1965). As a result the first steps in a reconstruction of a picture of occurrence of provincial organisations PSR have been made, the general directions of development of historical knowledge on a problem are set, archival materials are partially involved. Researches in these regions are of value only in respect of the analysis of the separate moments of activity eserov, in a sense supplementing national and regional history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries making the Soviet concept. Separate direction of the Soviet historiography was the criticism of bourgeois falsifiers of history. Works such with reference to a historiography of history PSR of the period to 1917г. Much more, than devoted to the analysis of the domestic literature. Authors of researches bourgeois, and then a "not Marxist" historiography of party eserov steels V.V.Garmiza, L.S.Zhumaeva, G.I.Iljashchuk, K.V.Gusev, M.I.Leonov, D.B.Pavlov325, etc. Analyzing O.Radki, V.V.Garmiza and L.S.Zhumaeva's sights wrote: «the Bourgeois outlook has not allowed O.Radki to define truly class base and roots of ideological barreness eserov. And it gives the chance to do a conclusion concerning all literature about eserovskoj the party leaving in the West» 326. The Soviet historians have concentrated the criticism on a number of conclusions of foreign authors. First of all the negative perception was caused by positions in which esery, unlike Bolsheviks, appeared adherents of "democratic" socialism. In - the second, esery, according to the Soviet historians, ostensibly represented above class force and expressed interests of all working people. Thirdly, esery "supervised" over country weights and had considerable representation among workers. The greatest indignation was caused by the thesis about eserah as the socialists aspiring to association of all democratic forces, unlike the Bolsheviks who were 138 Sectarians. Discussion of the reasons and time of formation of an one-party system in the USSR became the important problem of the Soviet historiography at the given stage. If on a problem of the reasons of formation of an one-party system the opinion of historians has appeared unanimous and was estimated as inability "neproletarskih" to realise historical necessity of dictatorship of proletariat, attempts to resist scientific proletarian социализму327 of time of its formation the various points of view expressed. E.G.Gimpelson, the author of production article on this theme, carried a boundary of folding of an one-party system to 1920-1921 when «petty-bourgeois parties have suffered full political bankruptcy» 328 With E.G.Gimpelsonu's objections has acted JI.М.Спирин. In its opinion, it is necessary to consider as closing date of registration of an one-party system 1923 as till this time esery and mensheviki were a part Советов329. A number of authors have designated 1918 as a boundary of folding of an one-party system. M.I.Stishov wrote: «the One-party system in the USSR has definitively developed, in our opinion, in second half of 1918, that is right after rupture of the block with left eserami, undertaken at the initiative of the last» 330. To the same conclusion have come A.M.Malashko, P.N.Sobolev, F.D.Leonov331. Unlike E.G.Gimpelsona and L.M.Spirina, these historians did not connect registration of an one-party system with "disintegration" of parties eserov and menshevikov, an event later. Their statements were based on that fact, that since summer of 1918 Bolsheviks already with anybody did not divide the power, and representatives of "petty-bourgeois parties» were not neither as a part of Presidium VTSIK, nor in structure Sovnarkoma. Therefore it is possible to consider, that the given parties existed out of structures of dictatorship of proletariat, and as the Soviet Russia has affirmed one-party система332. Interesting discussion of 1970th between M.I.Stishovym and P.A.Podbolotovym of a periodization of activity PSR thereupon is represented. M.I.Stishov asserted, that the period of leaving from a political arena eserov is limited 1930-1931 when there have passed indicative processes over ostensibly belonging to eseram N.Chajanovym and "prompartiej". P.A.Podbolotov, objecting the opponent, proved, that N.Chajanov and separate defendants from "prompartii" have left PSR even in Civil war, and process on business "prompartii" cannot serve as the adequate proof of existence in the USSR to Party of socialists-revoljutsionerov333. The motive based on author's representations about presence in 1929-31 of petty-bourgeois way in period economy nepa was M.I.Stishova's other argument. If there is a petty-bourgeois way in economy, means, there is a petty-bourgeois ideology corresponding to it, Concentrated in the political organisation, it is concrete in Party of socialists-revolutionaries. P.A.Podbolotov considered, that «the Allied bureau» menshevikov and «Country labour party» cannot be carried to political parties. He besides, wrote, it is necessary to consider the fact of self-dissolution of parties eserov and menshevikov in 1923-1924 and their organizational состояние334. K.V.Gusev who believed has joined P.S.Podbolotova's point of view, that socialist parties have disappeared in the USSR in first half 1920 годов335. To the same opinion other Soviet historians have come also, this position is close to modern historiography PSR. Discussions about time of disintegration of Party of socialists-revolutionaries and formation in the USSR of an one-party system were, perhaps, one of few examples of any struggle of opinions in Soviet historiography PSR of the middle 1950 - the end of 1980th, not mentioning, however, basic positions. As a whole the Soviet historical science was uniform in an estimation of the major stages of history PSR. So, about second half 1950th in a domestic historical science turn to studying actually Parties of socialists-revolutionaries, its internal history was outlined. By then the certain actual material, the truth, in overwhelming majority only in a foreshortening of struggle of Bolsheviks with PSR has been saved up, the group of researchers of a theme was generated. First, feature of research work was deliberate vypjachivanie errors and miscalculations of tactical character, short-sightedness of leaders eserov. Both historical works, and historiographic began with words "crash" and "bankruptcy" that conducted to superficial studying of an internal life of party eserov. Secondly, ideologizatsija a historical science it was especially shown at the motivation of an urgency of the researches which have become by obligatory attribute of any book and the dissertation. In essence, behind it the aspiration to direct a historical science and a historiography on idea maintenance about an inevitability of disintegration of all parties, except communistic, and law of existence in the USSR of an one-party system disappeared. Thirdly, it is necessary to recognise, that domestic historians as a matter of fact and could not create an authentic picture of history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. Despite considerable successes in studying of some the aspects of history PSR which has crowned with creation of monographic researches, occurrence of generalising works, introduction in scientific a turn of new sources, a domestic historical science continued to remain in rigid frameworks of the Lenin concept of history PSR. Fourthly, there were obscure reasons of "hour of triumph" eserov in 1917. For what account of internal and external tendencies and reserves it was possible to appear to "not proletarian" parties in the first months of revolution at the head of Councils and to push aside Bolshevik party. The complex of the researches published in 1960 1980 th did not answer these questions. For example, under G.D.Alekseevoj's statement, «actually crash of the theory and a policy has begun with 14R February ». However« crash of the theory and a policy »eserov after February revolution will badly be co-ordinated with that fact, that very quickly after revolution PSR becomes the party largest in the country, and on general election wins the majority of places in the All-Russia Constituent assembly. Fifthly, it is obvious, that the Soviet historians by the end of 1980th have already settled possibilities of "extensive" development of a theme at the expense of attraction of accessible new sources. Studying of history PSR restrained domination become outdated and extremely ideologizirovannyh schemes, closeness of many documents, absence of necessary interaction with a foreign science. The exit from crisis was possible only owing to serious changes in the society, changes of a political situation in the country.
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A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic 4.1. Party of socialists-revolutionaries as object of scientific researches:

  1. the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  2. 6.1. The Russian emigrants about Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  3. CHAPTER 6. Studying of history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries the Russian emigrants and foreign researchers
  4. Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich Istoriografija. of creation and activity of party of socialists-revolutionaries in 1901-1922 / the Dissertation / Tyumen, 2005
  5. 3.2. Studying of history of socialists-revolutionaries in the early thirties - the middle of 1950th
  6. Researchers about socialists - revolutionaries after autocracy overthrow
  8. an information field of a network the Internet as object complex kriminologicheskogo researches
  10. the Third party beneficiary contract as the form of granting of property benefit to the third party
  11. § 1. Language features of documents of party (on a material of instructions and party decisions about the literature and art)
  12. Participation of the party of charge and the protection party at appointment and expert testimony in court manufacture in criminal trial
  13. Chapter 2. Participation of the third party in the obligation on the party of the debtor
  14. Chapter 3. Participation of the third party in the obligation on the party of the creditor
  15. § 2.1. Concept of object SSTE and object of expert knowledge