5.1. Studying of genesis of party eserov

The literature on history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries always carried on itself a print of political estimations and ideological predilections of authors. This factor has appeared invariable at transition by the new period in development of the domestic historiography, received formation from the beginning of 90th of XX century.
The next stage has appeared rather uneasy. Fresh trends and the certain social order had an effect cargo of former representations about destiny PSR. Therefore in works of last decade original symbiosis of old and new approaches, estimations and conclusions is observed. Changes in a sociopolitical life of the country have objectively concerned a historical science. A choice of the further way in economy, process of reforming of the state institutes, frequently outgrowing in destrukturizatsiju societies, were projected on world outlooks of researchers. In articles, theses and reports (at the beginning works of monographic character actually were absent) the discussions displacement of accents towards liking to opponents of the Bolshevism became which general result were developed. Most brightly these tendencies were showed in publicistic diterature, but to some extent were characteristic for a historiography as a whole. This approach gave the simplified picture of succession of events and no more. The principle of opposition of socialists-revolutionaries and Bolsheviks each other cannot be taken as a principle researches though on occasion it is admissible. Speech can go about collision of positions, and the problem of historians consists in tracking struggle evolution, and in a case with left eserami and extremists - evolution of the block of the left forces from cooperation before the opposition which have come under certain conditions. Crash of the CPSU, the Soviet public system and «the state socialism» have allowed to look at socialists-revolutionaries, as opponents of the Bolshevism and Leninism other eyes. Have left in the past naveshannye before on eserov labels of opportunists, traitors, Counter-revolutionaries, petty-bourgeois politicians etc. To eseram their such lawful definitions as moderate socialists, supporters of democratic socialism have returned. Process of political and moral rehabilitation of figures of the past has reached, at last, and to eserovskih leaders - V.M.Chernova, V.M.Zenzinova, A.A.Argunova, B.D.Kamkova, M.A.Spiridonovoj, etc. Occurrence of the extensive biographic literature on these figures, despite some element of idealisation inevitably inherent in it and even apologetics of the heroes, is while one of the main acquisitions of a Post-Soviet historiography, as well as issue of such documentary publications in publishing house "РОССПЭН", as chetyrehtomnik «Party of socialists-revolutionaries» (M, 1996 - 2001), documentary collections continuing it «Party of the left socialists - of revolutionaries» Т.1 (M, 2000) and «the Union of eserov-extremists» (M, 2002). Introductory articles to separate volumes could make the integral monography about activity of Party of socialists-revolutionaries, about neonarodnicheskoj to the doctrine to which they tried to follow contrary to the Russian validity and their own political culture which is not allowing them to operate by Bolshevist methods that has doomed them finally to defeat.
And this defeat was not only their personal failure, but also wreck of democratic and socialist ideals eserov. In these editions levonarodnicheskih the organisations as a result of which merge has arisen PSR, reports of congresses, decisions of the Central Committee and Main board, the resolution of party committees, memoirs of outstanding figures of party and the report program materials of a number are included in Department of police of the agent ohranki by E.F.Azefa. Concrete explanatories under each published document are given in corresponding notes. Unfortunately, in the edition there were not presented documents of the regional organisations, texts of performances of figures of party at congresses of Councils, plenums and sessions VTSIK, in the Constituent assembly etc. From other documentary publications of 1990-2000th the greatest interest represents the collection «Russia Antibolshevist» 374, made on materials of the State archive of the Russian Federation and devoted to the period of Civil war, and also for the first time the published report of chairman Komucha of V.K.Volskogo of Central Committee PSR in 1919 году375. The small part of leaflets PSR for 1917-1918 was L It is presented in G.I.Zlokazova's review. Deserves special attention and let out by publishing house "РОССПЭН" (M, 2002) the collection of documents from the Central archive of FSB «Litigation over socialists - revolutionaries» (July-August, 1922) under the editorship of S.A.Krasilnikova, K.N.Morozova, I.V.Chubykina devoted to the organisation and carrying out of indicative political process in Moscow over group of members of the Central Committee and active workers of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. Composers managed to pick up the documents opening political, propaganda, retaliatory aspects of suppression by the power of the largest party poslerevoljutsionnoj of Russia, and also the materials reflecting personal heroism in opposition with a law machine. Collections of documents «Left esery and VCHK» under the editorship of A.L.Litvina (Kazan, 1996), reflecting difficult enough relations between this political party and retaliatory structures, and «Business Fanni Kaplan or who shot at Lenin» (M, 2003) are interesting also. The attention of scientific community was involved with the collection of documents and the materials, devoted to country movement in the Tambov province. Published by publishing house "РОССПЭН" in a series «Country revolution in Russia. 1902 1922», the documentary collection contains materials, Reflecting a role of socialists - of revolutionaries of country organisations Tambovshchiny376 closely connected with party. The last have accepted active participation in struggle against landowners in the spring-autumn of 1917 and in struggle against a policy of military communism, for the real order the earth and distribution selhozproduktov. Publications of separate documents on party history eserov in scientific magazines, including региональных377 became advancement forward. However growth of sources entered into a scientific turn on history of socialists-revolutionaries occurs in many respects irregularly. Considerable difficulties are connected with insufficient sequence in «opening of archives» and with financial problems of book publishing. The programs of various political parties republished after the big break help to understand specificity of the Russian multi-party system. Here again the first place belongs again "ROSSPENu", published the fullest collection of program documents of the most various political parties of the country, including eserov (M, 1995). The literature devoted to an initial stage of socialists-revolutionaries has considerably replenished. G.G.Kasarova, N.D.Erofeeva, M.I.Leonova, K.N.Morozova, O.V.Serova, A.I.Eremina, G.A.Saltyk's works testify to the increased interest to formation and formation problems eserovskih организаций378. Researchers the occurrence reasons eserovskogo movements, structure of participants, struggle for political leadership, factors of activization and recession of activity of the organisations, party structure, its theoretical and tactical installations interested. So, according to N.D.Erofeeva, crisis of populism and all revolutionary movement owing to certain successes of capitalism in Russia was an occurrence principal cause eserovskih the organisations. Populism influence in the revolutionary environment catastrophically fell, superiority in it passed to social democracy. Having accepted the new name - «socialists - revolutionaries», the left populists have specified the place in revolutionary movement, declaring themselves their only heirs and продолжателями379. Other reason which has affected association eserovskih of groups in party, the historian considers distribution of Marxism to Russia and occurrence of a social democratic direction to revolutionary Russian movement. Social democrats marksisty, in its opinion, neglected peasantry, and some of them even considered its reactionary. Anything unusual in it, by the way, is not present if to recollect, with K.Marks's what hostility responded about verhnesilezskom "muzhiche". N.D.Erofeev believes, that the mullions-strong Russian peasantry has dropped out of attention marksistov, having appeared in sphere of interests of socialists - of the revolutionaries put before an essential problem of creation of the party. Sights are in many respects similar to N.D.Erofeeva's position S.V.Leonova and V.V.Shelohaeva. In particular, S.V.Leonov believes, that features of formation of parties in Russia are connected with incompleteness of capitalist modernisation and country industrialisation, vestiges of feudalism and klassoobrazovanija. He writes: «Parties were created not so much on the basis of the social interests which were not quite crystallising yet, how many ideas», «it is not so much on the basis of various social obshchnostej, groups and corporations as it was in the West... How many were spread by intelligency» 380. V.V.Shelohaev considers, that «the main feature of the Russian multi-party system consisted that it was formed in conditions of" catching up modernisation ». Parties have arisen with stadialnym lateness, consisted mainly of intelligency, their programs had kabinetno-abstract character that has caused ideological monopolism and intolerance to heterodoxy, high degree between - and an inner-party conflictness, weak communication with interests of concrete social strata and unwillingness to put the activity under public control» 381. Of century before last prevailing in the late nineties in the Russian social democracy "ekonomizm" and reformism socialists-revolutionaries considered as the lines expressing true essence of social democracy with which it is necessary to struggle. Again start to get popularity taken on arms eserami ideas narodovoltsev about a special way of Russia to socialism, passing capitalism, great value of peasantry in social movement, and also extremist methods propagandised by them and struggle means. N.D.Erofeev writes about influence of the western socialist thought on populism revival. Audit of Marxism there has begun and the attention of some visible social democrats to крестьянству382 has amplified. Under the influence of the named circumstances theoretical work becomes more active not only practical activities eserovskih circles, but also. In this connection the theory of the agrarian modernisation as which author has acted has received active development V.M.Chernov. The magazine «Russian riches», the headed N.K.Mihajlovskim became the basic megaphone of neopopulism. According to O.V.Serova, PSR has arisen from bowels of revolutionary Russian movement which represented absolutely versatile картину383. To similar opinion A.I.Eremin believing was inclined, that occurrence of party of socialists-revolutionaries has passed some stages, «refracting through mutual relations of the revolutionary organisations and security bodies» 384. Among the characteristic lines inherent in new socially - political movement, N.D.Erofeev and G.G.Kasarov mark more likely its symbolical character, than a reality. That fact visually testifies to small possibilities so-called «the Union of socialists-revolutionaries», that within 1901 by it has been let out only two numbers of the newspaper «Revolutionary Russia» 385. Foreign eserovskim to the organisations, according to historians, there corresponded a condition letargicheskogo a light slumber. Disagreements in their environment were considerable. In particular, there was no unity on questions on scale and rate of political transformations, a role and value of various classes in these transformations, forms, methods and struggle means, especially about terror. So, authors notice, that eserovskaja «the Workers' party of political clearing of Russia» took away to terror the main place in struggle against autocracy, and Kiev eserovskaja the group was a supporter of collective forms of struggle: demonstrations, meetings, strikes. As a whole G.G.Kasarov, N.D.Erofeev, M.I.Leonov and other historians name one characteristic line inherent in party eserov since the first day of its existence - the organisation was one of the weaknesses of socialists-revolutionaries and one of the reasons of its replacement from a historical scene Bolsheviks. Having considered the questions connected with association eserovskih of the organisations in party, N.D.Erofeev has come to conclusion, «that business has been got densely mixed up on accident, adventure and provocation» 14, the basic role E.F.Azef, instead of G.A.Gershuni as it "was often marked" in eserovskoj to the literature here has played. E.F.Azefu's help was rendered by M.R.Gots financing the edition of the newspaper and activity BO eserov. The great value for theme disclosing has the analysis of program requirements of new party. The party program, according to modern historians, was rather attractive to broad masses the social promises, but some of them consider its utopian in the ultimate goal, for example, N.D.Erofeev; others, in particular, M.Hildermajer - is not present. According to N.D.Erofeeva, «in it of any attention, and private property negation on the earth, its purchase and sale, prohibition of application of wage labour practically was not given to questions of development of industrial production, strictly levelling possession of the earth did not create conditions for progress in agriculture». As N.D.Erofeev's basic conclusion believes, that «in case of realisation eserovskoj programs Russia would be doomed to remain the agricultural country and then it hardly would remain as great world power» 386. In the modern literature there are also other positions. Authors representing them notice, that transition eserovskih leaders from country positions on nation-wide in 1917г. «Was not change to peasantry and the agrarian program, and display of elements of realism» 387. The argument put by historians, in our opinion, is not the adequate proof of vital realities eserovskoj the agrarian program. On the contrary, if eserovsky the variant of agrarian socialism has undergone considerable evolution, means, socialists-revolutionaries were convinced of its utopianism. Moreover, N.D.Erofeev, K.N.Morozov and M.Hildermajer again have brought such attention to the question, as evolution PSR not only in 1917г., but also in 1905-1907 Analyzing this problem A.J.Suslov has come to conclusion, that the actual maintenance of program PSR has changed already then. Kazan istoriograf believes: «influential groups in party under influence stolypinskoj reforms considered necessary to speak about an agrarian reform, instead of about revolution, perceiving village as a society of small and average proprietors. The considerable part of right wing PSR belonged to new generation of party members which has got the qualitative characteristics during the first Russian revolution, but has received «solving impressions» during an era of "constitutionalism" when there was a State Duma, the political legally operated 17 Parties, trade unions ». So, in the literature of last years there were at least two mutually exclusive points of view. One part of researchers (L.N.Litoshenko, V.M.Lavrov, T.V.Osipova, S.F.Platonov, N.D.Erofeev), leaning against opinions of representatives of cadets, menshevikov and more right politicians, scientists and publicists believes, that eserovskaja the program of socialisation of the earth was only a Utopia. Others (M.Hildermajer, M.I.Leonov, K.N.Morozov) hold the opinion, that the unique party which has exposed the program alternative to Bolsheviks of a socialist reorganisation of a society, were esery. In their opinion, esery hoped, that the peasantry will be included into socialism together with proletariat through a radical reorganisation of political, social and agrarian relations. As a whole both positions have the right to existence though the problem of conceptual judgement of a theoretical heritage, as well as the history of party eserov, probably, is future business. In the domestic literature of last decade have found reflexion such concrete themes: eserovsky terror, Activity of party among peasants, working, the soldier and officers, pupils; number PSR, its mutual relations with parties of social democrats, enesov, cadets, oktjabristov, the Union eserov - extremists, and also Councils of working deputies, The All-Russia Country union, Labour group in I and II State Dumas. Most full and deeply these questions are opened by M.I.Leonovym and K.N.Morozovym. Their works differ in width of the approach and thin supervision, the careful analysis of the used material. M.I.Leonova's long-term researches have received the end in capital work «Party of socialists - of revolutionaries in 1905-1907гг.» (M, 1997). In the monography Development of party structures throughout all years of the first Russian revolution is traced. During this period the quantity eserov has increased from 1,5-2 thousand to 65 thousand (actually at 30-40 time). The party eserov already then has surpassed all other All-Russia parties In quantity of the rural organisations, a little bit more the Union of Russian people had them only. In the domestic historical literature long time undividedly dominated opinion about eserah at a stage of formation of their party as to small intellectual group of political terrorists. Foreign experts, in particular, M.Perri with whom, in general, Z.Bejnak made common cause, tended to opinion, that to the beginning of 1907 number of party eserov has reached 55-60 thousand members. According to M.Hildermajera, in party of socialists-revolutionaries was about 42-45 thousand persons. The calculations spent by M.I.Leonovym who have been carried out on the basis of reports of provincial organisations PSR, allow to agree with M.Perri's conclusions, more precisely having defined a place eserov in a party spectrum of imperial Russia. The historian has come to conclusion, that esery in 1905-1907 were the large and unique organisation which has made a real competition to social democrats of all directions, and the basic type eserovskogo the party worker there was an intellectual - the propagandist. As a matter of fact, for the first time in a domestic historiography the historian had been mentioned a question on the party finance. The problem «money for revolution» in a modern historiography basically is considered in connection with Bolshevik party, but after all it is clear, as other parties required receipt of money resources. Release of newspapers and leaflets, carrying out of congresses and conferences, the organisation of acts of terrorism, the salary to party functionaries, payment of business trips, including abroad - all it demanded rather large sums of money for PSR. M.I.Leonovu managed to show, who financed eserov, in what volume and how. The historian has allocated four articles of "incomes" of party: membership dues (from 5 to 25 copeck), Donations of the Russian businessmen (parohodovladelets N.E.Meshkov, millionaire N.E.Paramonov, publisher N.A.Rubakin, merchants Gots, Vysotskys, Fundaminsky, Gavronsky, Zenzinovy). The donations collected abroad were third article of receipts. E.K.Breshkovskaja, for example, has brought from the USA of 50 thousand dollars, G.A.Gershuni - 157 thousand франков388. Fourth article of a steel "eksy". The Kokandsky branch of the State bank has been plundered on 131 thousand roubles, Kerchensky - on 60 thousand. All money arrived in the order of Central Committee PSR and there was distributed on local организациям389. Having selected a problemno-chronological method of a statement, M.I.Leonov has given the basic attention to such prominent aspects, as party genesis, its ideological concept, the analysis of the agrarian program, quantity of the organisations, a social composition and tactics, mutual relations with other parties and mass organisations. The scrupulous analysis of archival sources and periodicals materials concerns advantages of work. M.I.Leonovu was possible to show mnogoslojnost narodnicheskogo directions in revolutionary movement, it is traditional assotsiiruemogo with socialists-revolutionaries, when from Parties have separated groups of extremists, there was a party enesov, the group of delegates of I congress PSR which has occupied more «has declared itself the left positions, hardly not having split party» 390. The researcher believes, that elections in II Duma have shown also considerable influence of party in weights, and its organizational amorphy. «Any party could not be compared with eserami by quantity of the deputies who have entered into others "71 Fractions ». But socialists-revolutionaries, the historian marks, have appeared are incapable even to create Duma fraction, Having limited «group freely practicing eserov», Which activity was condemned almost by all party. The estimation by the historian of tactics eserov at various stages of development of revolution is interesting. In details investigating this problem, M.I.Leonov has shown raznopoljarnost opinions of leaders of socialists-revolutionaries concerning participation in elections in the State Duma, expansion of powers BO, razvjazyvanija "guerrilla" war etc. It has come to conclusion about failure of parliamentary activity of party. The hope eserov on overthrow of an existing system was not justified. The autocracy was still strong, and esery only became the influential organisation with characteristic signs of mass party. Important M.I.Leonova's attempt to put in research such questions, as criteria of distribution on a "revolutionism" vector eserov in party and public relations of the beginning of the XX-th century is represented. «Parties of socialist orientation, - M.I.Leonov writes, - earlier were placed by the Soviet historians on such formation: enesy, esery, sotsial - democrats (mensheviki) and Bolsheviks. Now so: enesy, right esery, mensheviki, Bolsheviks, esery-extremists, left esery (on last two organisations, by the way, it is possible to argue. - A.K.). As party eserov« left "and" right »(the term conditional, parties with such name were not) - Formations late, not clearly, where a place of simply party eserov, 22 Which existed from the very beginning of the XX-th century and for 1917? ». Thereupon there is a question, the term use"right"esery, maybe, more exact is how much lawful in the scientific literature and akademichnym definition"orthodox"socialists-revolutionaries is? N.D.Erofeev has paid attention to the same circumstance. He believes unreasonable division eserov on "right" and "left" since time as there was a party left eserov. First, in its opinion, broken away at IV congress PSR "left" esery made an insignificant part of party eserov, secondly, such division bore direct political loading. The word "right" was zhupelom, a symbol of counterrevolutionism, animosities to the Soviet power and should is negative to adjust weights in relation to eseram. This definition was actively used in political ends by Bolsheviks, and then has passed and in historical литературу391: «we Will notice also, that esery did not name myself« right »after leaving from party left eserov». The questions lifted by M.I.Leonovym, have drawn attention It was possible to show V.J.Karnishina who has tried on an example the Volga region to consider activity of structures of political parties in the conditions of revolutionary shocks to 1905-1907 392 It, how Volga region esery prepared for revolution, created fighting teams, supplied with their weapon and an ammunition. The Penza historian has specified, that Volga region union PSR has approved political terror, but, being guided by decisions of all-party congress, has condemned agrarian, «as such actions in peasantry develop only predatoriness» 393. In other regions, for example, Siberia, historians also have come to opinion, that esery recognised as inexpedient use agrarian террора394. Special value was got in 1905-1907 by two approaches to use of violent measures of struggle - general Armed revolt and on what B.V.Savinkov insisted, individual terror. The majority eserov the Volga region has supported revolt, but, according to V.J.Karnishina, all work has been shown to carrying out of acts of terrorism. At the same time, having refused tactics of boycott of elections in the State Duma of II convocation, esery, instead of cadets, have proved to be the main opponents of provincial administration. Having taken of a position of rigid confrontation with all not socialist forces, esery, the elite in the Volga region, in many respects promoted dissolution of II Duma. Carrying out the comparative analysis of activity of Party of socialists-revolutionaries in days of the first revolution and in days of the second, modern historians focus attention on their basic distinctions. It is natural, that launch of activity of parties in 1917 was much masshtabnee similar in 1905 1907 Quantity of members of various parties has increased with 0,5 to 1, 5 % from an aggregate number of the population of Russia. At the same time the network of the party organisations has considerably decreased. The palette of party building in 1917 has essentially become simpler, and increase in quantity of members of parties some researchers charge to explosion of national-liberation movement in регионах395. Besides esery in 1917 became mainly city party fruitfully working among the soldiers of garrisons. Considering the facts of occurrence new eserovskih the organisations in districts where earlier there were mainly guarding party structures - the Union of Russian people, on October, 17th, it is necessary to believe Michael Arhangela's Union, and also the Union, that genesis of party building till 1917 of willows of 1917 had basic differences. K.N.Morozova's monography shines history eserov in Interrevolutionary stage of existence of party. Really, PSR during the period with 1907 for 1917 had other qualitative Condition in comparison in due course revolutions 1905-1907 and Especially after February, 1917. Its role in a life of the Russian Societies in the conditions of revolutionary movement recession, as The author has fairly noted, considerably decreases. Have affected Police reprisals, outflow of party intelligency, Disappointment of many participants of revolution,  destruction of a number 28 Regional and provincial committees, financial crisis, that as a whole has led to a separation of party from weights. The important role in it such reasons, as «poslerevoljutsionnyj a syndrome», provocations and "samoobuchaemost" investigation have played. During the declared period the disappointment of the people in revolution, revolutionaries, a political and public life becomes the mass, prepotent phenomenon, time sign. Opposition parties have appeared "suddenly" in isolation, without shrouding them and become already habitual aura of fighters for «national business» and justice, and the intelligency which has started back from them has begun to comprehend an event, and even is simple «to leave in private life» 396. porevoljutsionnoe time esery in 1913 in one of the newspapers characterised as «an epoch of general disorder and punishment when so have magnificently blossomed disappointment and everyones have acted« revisions "and" revaluations »when so different knights on an hour who in religion who in« a sexual question »and who and is simple in a cell under amicably ran up 30 Fur-tree ». During the considered period tactics of the party, compelled to be arranged under new political conditions has changed: instead of appeals to the All-Russia revolt - the local armed performances, boycott of elections in III and IV State Dumas, activization of participation in trade-union and co-operative movement. From former tactics eserov there was only firm belief in firmness of individual terror against the most odious representatives of autocracy. Especially it is necessary to note the qualitative changes learnt by K.N.Morozovym in part structure. It and flow of new people, and acquisition of character of mass party with its basic attributes: centralisation, strengthening of party discipline, at falling of personal authority of some members of the Central Committee, bjurokratizatsija the party device, drunkenness of fathers-founders PSR, leaving of some of them in personal жизнь397. It is necessary to carry to advantages of research and the analysis of positions and structure of inner-party groupings in PSR. K.N.Morozova's work allows to explain, as well as why in 1917 from party solid enough group left eserov, powerful on number and influence was allocated. In 1907-1910гг. In PSR there were vague outlines of the future disorder of party, the future extremists, left esery, centrists - conformists were outlined. In particular, full enough K.N.Morozov has shown activity «the Union left eserov» under a management J.L.Judelevskogo - the group which have arisen during this period in Paris. The author has analysed also structure of group of A.B.Shimanovskogo (so-called "extremely right") and N.D.Avksenteva's groups "Initiatives", developed in 1910-1911 that has allowed to draw a conclusion: «Processes of easing of centripetal forces and the force fields, allowing PSR to exist as uniform party, have begun long before splits in party after February 1917г.» 398. In 1907-1917 there were such qualities of heads of socialists-revolutionaries, as vlastebojazn (except left), desire to operate not according to the logic of revolution, and at will of the All-Russia Constituent assembly and a sluggishness, on what researchers of party eserov time and again paid attention. In particular, N.D.Erofeev has come to conclusion, that «with revolution fading more and more illusive there were hopes of its lifting» and "tactics" boevizma »lost the former appeal in eserovskoj to environment» 399. The historian has found out, that at I all-party conference (London, August, 1908) Prevalence of a position of V.M.Chernova over more right N.D.Avksenteva's sights has appeared minimum. The data cited by K.N.Morozovym under Central Committee PSR periodicals (since June 1907 on 1911гг.) - 4 from them were published it is underground in Russia and 4 in Paris, illustrate idejnotakticheskie searches eserov and also in a certain measure supplement the characteristic of inner-party groupings. War has put before eserami the whole complex of new difficult questions, has complicated the decision of the former. In party there were two large currents - internationalist and defence. Degree of influence of each of them to judge difficultly, but K.N.Morozov and N.D.Yerofeev believe, that oboronchestvo, more likely, преобладало400. War has perniciously affected party of socialists-revolutionaries. Having organizational sprayed, but having kept adherence to socialist ideals, ten thousand people on penal servitude, in the reference, on legal work in a zemstvo, cooperations, trade unions potentially prepared new revolution. At the same time, in our opinion, one lack is inherent K.N.Morozova's in monography. It is excessive idealisation of activity eserov as a whole. Other objection causes author's unanimity with a conclusion of the German historian of M.Hildermajera believing, that «eserovskaja the party more than others suited for a role of force which could deduce in 1917 the country from crisis at democracy preservation» 401. In our opinion, M.Hildermajera and K.N.Morozova's judgements on this question sporny. esery, cadets, mensheviki could not "rescue" Russia from accident at democracy preservation. It could be on forces or generals led by L.G.Kornilovym, or to Bolsheviks led by V.I.Leninym. But also those, and others had the, rather specific representation about democracy. We will remind thereupon, that, according to A.S.Ahiezera, moderate socialists «did not consider existence huge inversionnogo a flywheel which threw Russia from one extreme measure in another. They were lost, trying to detain the revolutionary wave which has swept away all on the way. These parties could not, owing to the principles, to follow to that pole where this wave slid. The Bolshevism was an exception ». The questions connected with history of party eserov in 1907-1917, lifted in K.N.Morozova's monography, have found reflexion also in works of historians of regions. In particular, the history eserov Siberia and the Far East during the period between two revolutions became 36 S.V.Makarchuka's object of research. In its opinion, «sharp delimitation on groupings and fractions was characteristic only for foreign eserov and of some the organisations of the European Russia. In Siberia and in the Far East owing to small number of groups and remoteness from the large centres of revolutionary struggle the differentiation for ideological reasons has been poorly expressed» 402. Changes in tactical plans eserov east regions of Russia and updating of their sights has occurred in the First World War. For this period tactics of blocks, including with social democrats is characteristic. Sometimes, specifies S.V.Makarchuk thereof there were new organisations - some kind of interparty symbioses. It were the time associations which have appeared because of unity of sights, first of all in relation to war. Despite existing inner-party contradictions first of all between "patriots" and "internationalists", organizational delimitation in eserovskih the region organisations, according to the historian, has not occurred, and they have kept the unity. The illegal press Siberian eserov during the specified period 38 Became object of research of N.P.Kuruskanovoj. The theme selected the historian, certainly, is important, especially against the tendency when activity eserov in 1900-1917 communicates exclusively with terrorist activity. From the moment of occurrence eserovskih the organisations their members of one of the basic problems put publishing statement. By estimates of the researcher, within 14 years, with 1903 on 1917, Siberian esery have let out not less than 444 names of leaflets. In struggle against autocracy the greatest quantity of leaflets is have published Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk esery (accordingly 100 and 96). Having subjected to statistical processing both the published sources, and the neopublished archival materials, the historian has counted up, that 82,9 % of leaflets have been published by typographical way, the others are multiplied on a typewriter, a hectograph and hand-written way. Local socialists-revolutionaries were authors of leaflets, as a rule. Only 17,3 % of leaflets represented reprints from the central editions. To a functional sign of a leaflet eserov were subdivided on information and propaganda. The first contained authorised requirements PSR, the various documents connected with party building, the financial reports, the second (their majority) - references and appeals to various social groups. N.P.Kuruskanova has counted up, that references to all levels of population was-41,4 %, to workers-17,6 of %, to peasants-3,6 of %, to soldiers and Cossacks-15,8 of %, to intelligency and studying youth - of 6,8 %. Except leaflets, Siberian esery let out brochures, magazines and newspapers. The historian had been revealed 16 newspapers, everyone by circulation from 1 to 3 thousand copies. The spent work has allowed to draw a conclusion on successful in a revolutionary way-propaganda activity eserov Siberia which peak has fallen to the period of the first Russian revolution. After revolution defeat, in connection with reprisals of the imperial authorities, failures of illegal printing houses, publishing possibilities eserov have considerably worsened. In 1908-1916 there was an appreciable reduction of all kinds eserovskih underground editions. As a whole the studied N.P.Kuruskanovoj dynamics of release of the illegal literature has allowed to draw a conclusion, that Siberian esery gave a close attention to statement of illegal publishing, polygraphic base in region, a sociopolitical orientation of printing propagation and propaganda. The circle of publications on history eserov, enesov, extremists has considerably extended. In second half 1980 - 1990th of the Siberian organisations of not Marxist socialist parties of history, by estimates of A.P.Tolochko, it is devoted more than 60 works, that 10 times exceeds the general number of publications on the given theme, appeared on previous stages историографии403. It is necessary to name M.V.Shilovsky's historians, JI.М.Горюшкина, A.E.Plotnikova, S.V.Makarchuka, whose works on a variety of an actual material and depth of author's generalisations considerably выделяются404. Even by quantity of publications it is visible, that the party history eserov becomes one of the most studied themes. It is especially important, that along with practical activities research eserov Siberia the factors promoting occurrence of regional organisations PSR come to light. Researchers more and more tend to a conclusion, that, despite known strengthening of a terrorist direction in activity Siberian eserov in 1905-1907, the given method of struggle all the same were the second for the importance, conceding to a method of propaganda work in weights. In the newest editions at the same time activity of socialists-revolutionaries is not idealised. Their authors specify in errors and the errors inherent in this party. A.P.Tolochko marks: « Considering, that eserovsky terror in the first Russian revolution objectively was in a channel of guerrilla war which was the answer of the revolutionary people to retaliatory actions of the imperial authorities, researchers at the same time pay attention to following circumstance: in process of revolutionary movement recession terrorist activity, the further, the conflicted to moods of weights more, led to strengthening of police reprisals and turned around finally against organisations PSR. However, as they believe, there is no occasion to speak with reference to the interrevolutionary period 1907-1917 about political bankruptcy of supporters of this socialist party »405. It is necessary to agree with M.V.Shilovsky's conclusion that these years there was a concentration of forces, accumulation of critical weight, active introduction of socialists-revolutionaries in cooperation, the legal cultural-educational organisations which have allowed literally in few days to reanimate organisation PSR in region after February 1917 года.406. Marking positive results in studying of history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries by the Siberian historians, at the same time I will underline presence not enough the studied and worked themes and plots. For example, in the collection of materials of the International conference «Social democracy: revolution and evolution» (Omsk, 2003) in G.A.Nozdrina's publications and A.A.Tsindika different interpretations in an estimation of the concrete fact demanding specification contain. «On January, 16th 1908г. In village Isetsky Jalutorovsky district gendarmes have overtaken and have killed two eserov, participating in attempt at Kurgan policemen» 407. According to A.A.Tsindika, Kurgan social democrats, (it is allocated by us. - A.K.) having killed three employees of police, have disappeared. « On January, 15th 1908г. The insurgents who have disappeared from a city have been detained in village Isetsky. During arrests social democrat JI.Волгин has committed suicide. Other participant of group who were called as M.M.Lebedev, has died of the received wounds. M.L.Samojlo, to one of heads of insurgents, has been organised runaway from Kurgan prison, but soon it has been again arrested and executed. Activity of fighting group Kurgan esdekov »408 has come to the end with the tragical ending. Thus, from texts it is difficult to understand, who participants of fighting group - esery or social democrats all the same were? It is possible to guess only, that these insurgents till summer of 1907 consisted in RSDRP, but after revolution defeat have passed in more"revolutionary"PSR, that time and again it was marked in police reports of that времени409. Besides separate particulars, it is necessary to specify in a number of more serious lacks of research of problems of history narodnicheskih parties. Among them: number and structure The regional organisations eserov, extremists, enesov, mutual relations between them, character of these organisations, activity among peasants, workers and students. Ideological searches eserov, connected with judgement of events occurring in a public life are not found out up to the end. The whole layer has practically dropped out of a field of vision of regional researchers in history PSR — years of the First World War. As a whole in the literature of last decade problems "central" eserovskogo terror are thoroughly enough covered. Following the settled tradition, domestic authors, analyzing party activity eserov in 1900-1917, considerable attention have given to questions of genesis of terrorist activity. So, in K.V.Guseva's who was issued in 1992 next monography, statements for historical hopelessness and adventurism of terrorist activity ПСР410 again have sounded. The known historian has drawn a conclusion on low efficiency of individual terror, believing what exactly this party of political strike PSR promoted party fading. Though separate certificates of political terror made effect of the broken off bomb in a society, socially - political system has appeared firm. Moreover, any fighting activity, according to K.V.Guseva, promoted occurrence provokatorstva. To characteristics of separate members PSR including to the well-known insurgents-terrorists, a number of articles of N.D.Erofeeva published in the encyclopaedia «Political parties of Russia is devoted. The end XIX - first third of XX-th century» (M, 1996). At last, activity BO after exposure provokatorskoj E.F.Azefa's roles became a subject of special research of K.N.Morozova. In 18 release of the almanac "Past" the historian has published article «B.V.Savinkov and Fighting organisation PSR in 1909-1911» in which has analysed the events connected with so-called «Petrov's business», having offered their alternative variants оценки411. In monographic works about Party of socialists - of revolutionaries in 1901-1917 the block is widely presented 48 p Research on history of revolutionary terror. In particular, in O.V.Budnitskogo's monography questions on a moral admissibility of terror, presence of a psychopathological element in heroism of terrorism, a role of women in the fighting organisations are put. L.G.Prajsmana the questions connected with national features of persons of terrorists more interested. He believes, that the sharpness of the Jewish problem in pre-revolutionary Russia was, for example, for E.F.Azefa the stimulus which has accelerated its determination in business of elimination of officials with a strongly pronounced Antisemitic orientation. Feature of the monography of L.G.Prajsmana is use as the sources of documents of a memoirs origin written in a Hebrew. Except the Jewish origin, sudboopredeljajushchimi in E.F.Azefa's life were, according to the historian, such factors, as its greed and aversion of radicalism. Not casually colleagues on party named E.F.Azefa «the cadet with a bomb» 412. Narrow, but, to undoubtedly, interesting question - histories It is national-socialist party (enesov) were N.D.Erofeeva, G.P.Anoprievoj and L.G.Protasova413's workings out are devoted. Authors have stated judgements, that enesy could become democratic party of the Russian peasantry, but could not solve this problem owing to socialist installations of the program which was alien to country mentality. The peasantry demanded the landowner earth and at all was not interested in foggy, utopian images of socialism. Despite it, enesovskie projects of nationalisation of the earth gave open space to intensive development of country landed property on the basis of a family-labour economy, development of farming and cooperation at the state support, and enesy rejected illegibility of means in achievement of the purposes, adhering to the certain moral code. This party, the most moderate and unstable, occupying boundary position with liberals, devote A.V.Sypchenko414's monography. Created in 1907, the party professed democratic ideals and aspired to be the most open among socialist movements and groups. In Lenin treatment of the characteristic enesov they were called «eserovskimi menshevikami» 415. Such estimation was perceived by the Soviet researchers as a definitive sentence of history. As a matter of fact, enesam it has been given up in any independent role, at least and in the spirit of liberal socialism, at the same time and in the right to special scientific attention. A.V.Sypchenko's research in a new fashion considers the social doctrine and party tactics, analyzes activity enesov in days of the First World War, shows the reasons of organizational crisis Is national-socialist party (enesov) in 1917. Though enesy concerned "small" political parties of Russia, they, according to the historian, far not always were supernumeraries on a political arena. He believes, that enesy rejected a soslovno-bureaucratic autocratic system and at the same time did not insist on democratic republic, being afraid to tread on monarchic corns of peasants. The appeal to consciousness of the people and fear pugachevshchiny, etatizm and belief in necessity of change of a political system — in A.V.Sypchenko's this "binarity" has seen weakness and the reason of failures of party энесов416. Summarising the relation to Party of socialists-revolutionaries in the modern historical literature, we will notice, that, first, it reflects occurrence of the new approach, namely - a context «systems of political parties» and updating of a concrete problematics. Secondly, as the basic system principles of the new approach it is necessary to allocate integrity, strukturnost, hierarchy, conditionality of development of system with its relations with environment. Thirdly, domestic historians managed to make thorough enough representations about genesis and formation PSR, its organisations and number, structure of party numbers and a party management, the social doctrine. Fourthly, it is impossible to tell, that historians are uniform in the estimations of the theory and practice of socialists-revolutionaries, extremists, enesov. They are united by desire to refuse the simplified, schematical sight at history neonarodnicheskih the organisations. In this plan the domestic historical science comes nearer to the best achievements of a foreign historiography. 5.2.
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A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic 5.1. Studying of genesis of party eserov:

  1. 1.1. Theoretical approaches to studying of history of party eserov
  2. § 1. Studying especial in processes of genesis of capitalism
  3. the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  4. CHAPTER 6. Studying of history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries the Russian emigrants and foreign researchers
  5. the Third party beneficiary contract as the form of granting of property benefit to the third party
  6. § 1. Language features of documents of party (on a material of instructions and party decisions about the literature and art)
  7. Participation of the party of charge and the protection party at appointment and expert testimony in court manufacture in criminal trial
  8. Chapter 2. Participation of the third party in the obligation on the party of the debtor
  9. Chapter 3. Participation of the third party in the obligation on the party of the creditor
  10. § 2. The basic problems of the theory of genesis of capitalism
  11. § I. An urgency of the theory of genesis of capitalism